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© 2018 Nokia1
Deploying MariaDB databases with
containers at Nokia
Deploying MariaDB solutions in containerized environments in Nokia Networks
Rick Lane
27-02-2019
© 2018 Nokia2
Deploying MariaDB databases with
containers at Nokia
Deploying MariaDB solutions in containerized environments in Nokia Networks
Rick Lane
27-02-2019
© 2018 Nokia3 © 2018 Nokia3
CMDB - MariaDB
Common Software Foundation (CSF)
Component MariaDB (CMDB)
© 2018 Nokia4
Helm/Kubernetes/Container tradeoffs
Pros
• Fully separates services from kernel/other services
• Extremely light-weight and portable
• Containers disposable
 Kill and recreate pod as new
 Readiness/Liveless probes automate recovery
• Deploy application with multiple services in one
command/click (helm umbrella charts)
• Deployment time significantly faster than VM/ansible (4
minutes compared to 40 minutes)
Cons
• Containers disposable
 Recreated with new IP (looks like new server)
 Failure root cause difficult - logs disappear with
container. (pod stdout or persistent storage)
• Umbrella charts introduce other difficult problems
 Can deploy new service instance with helm
upgrade of parent chart
© 2018 Nokia5
Nokia Container Management Service
Helm/Kubernetes Deployment Model
controller
worker
worker
worker
worker
worker
controller
edge
edge
deploy
chart
cmdb
helm chart
deploy pods
External
Connections
© 2018 Nokia6
Security / Affinity
Helm/Kubernetes Deployment Model
Security
• RBAC fully supported
• All containers must run as non-root user
• Kubernetes RBAC ServiceAccount and Role/RoleBindings limit container privileges
• Password security
• All user-supplied passwords loaded to kubernetes secret during pre-install-job
• Secret used to propagate passwords to maxscale/mariadb pods
• Password secret deleted on post-terminate
• User must provide secret with old/new password to update passwords
Affinity
• podAntiAffinity
• hard (default) – all pods must be scheduled on separate nodes or deployment will fail
• soft – try to schedule pods on separate nodes, but if will deploy anyway
• nodeAffinity
• mariadb pods forced to deploy on worker nodes
• maxscale pods by default deploy on edge nodes (can configure to deploy on worker)
© 2018 Nokia7
Containers
CMDB - MariaDB
cmdb/mariadb (FROM centos-7.6 os base image)
MariaDB database container supporting deployment all configurations (simplex, Galera, Master/Master, Master/Slave)
• MariaDB-10.3.11 (client, server, backup, etc)
• Galera
• SDC/etcd client RPMs
• CSF CMDB deployment, configuration and management RPMs
cmdb/maxscale (FROM centos-7.6 os base image)
MaxScale proxy container supporting deployment of data center configuration
• Maxscale-2.2.19
• SDC/etcd client RPMs
• CSF CMDB deployment, configuration and management RPMs
cmdb/admin (FROM kubectl base image)
Kubernetes/Helm Job Administration container supporting all life cycle events (install, upgrade, delete, etc)
• MariaDB-10.3.11-client
• SDC/etcd client RPMs
• Python job orchestrator and python classes to implement configuration specific job tasks
© 2018 Nokia8
Helm chart (services and admin)
CMDB - MariaDB
## Image Registry
global:
registry: "csf-docker-delivered.repo.internal.nokia.com"
registry1: "registry1-docker-io.repo.internal.nokia.com"
rbac_enabled: true
nodeAntiAffinity: hard
cluster_name: "my-cluster“
## Topology master-slave, master-master, galera, simplex
cluster_type: “master-slave“
## Values on how to expose services
## ClusterIP will expose only within cluister, NodePort to expose externally
services:
## MySQL service exposes the mysql database service (mariadb or maxscale)
mysql:
type: ClusterIP
## MariaDB Master exposes the pod that is master
mariadb_master:
type: NodePort
## Maxscale exposes the administrative interface of Maxscale
maxscale:
type: NodePort
## Maxctrl (optional) exposes the maxctrl administrative interface of Maxscale
maxctrl:
enabled: false
type: ClusterIP
port: 8989
admin:
image:
name: "cmdb/admin"
tag: "4.5-1"
pullPolicy: IfNotPresent
## A recovery flag. If changed, will trigger a heal of the database to occur
#recovery: none
quickInstall: ""
## If set, administrative jobs will be more verbose to stdout (kubectl logs)
debug: false
## Exposes the hook-delete-policy. By default, this is set to delete the
## hooks only upon success. In helm v2.9+, this should be set to
## before-hook-creation. This can also be unset to avoid hook deletion
## for troubleshooting and debugging purposes
hook_delete_policy: "hook-succeeded"
© 2018 Nokia9
Helm chart (mariadb and maxscale)
CMDB - MariaDB
mariadb:
image:
name: "cmdb/mariadb"
tag: "4.5-1"
pullPolicy: IfNotPresent
## The number of MariaDB pods to create
count: 3
heuristic_recover: rollback
use_tls: true
## Enable persistence using Persistent Volume Claims
persistence:
enabled: true
accessMode: ReadWriteOnce
size: 20Gi
storageClass: ""
resourcePolicy: delete
preserve_pvc: false
## MariaDB server customized configuration
mysqld_site_conf: |-
[mysqld]
userstat = on
## metrics
metrics:
enabled: false
## Grafana dashboard
dashboard:
enabled: false
maxscale:
image:
name: "cmdb/maxscale"
tag: "4.5-1”
pullPolicy: IfNotPresent
## The number of MaxScale pods
count: 2
## MaxScale customized configuration
maxscale_site_conf: |-
[maxscale]
threads = 2
query_retries = 2
query_retry_timeout = 10
[MariaDB-Monitor]
monitor_interval = 1000
failcount = 4
## MaxScale promotion/demotion SQL
sql:
## Mariadb Node promoted to master
promotion: []
## Mariadb Node demoted to slave
demotion: []
## leader-elector
elector:
image:
name: "googlecontainer/leader-elector"
tag: 0.5
pullPolicy: IfNotPresent
© 2018 Nokia10
Events
Life Cycle Management
• Kubernetes native events
 install = deploy chart and create resources
 delete = terminate chart and delete all resources created by install
 upgrade = make any changes to mariadb/maxscale resources (configuration, etc)
special code to handle heal and scale-in/out events
• Nokia plugin events
 heal = implemented also with kubernetes upgrade admin.recovery value
 scale-in/scale-out = implemented also with kubernetes upgrade mariadb.count or maxscale.count
 backup/restore = implemented with Backup/Restore policy
© 2018 Nokia11
Kubernetes Resources
Galera Cluster
• Deploy mariadb-statefulset with 3+ (odd number). MariaDB pod contains:
• Mariadb container
 Configures mariadb in Galera configuration automatically at deploy based on IP advertisements
 If pod restarts, configured to always come back to Join existing cluster
 Persistent Volume Claim mounted for database storage
• Backup/Restore container for scheduling routine mariadb container backups
• Optional mysqld_exporter container for metrics collection (if metrics enabled)
• Mysql Service created to provide access to all DB nodes (all DB nodes added to service as endpoints)
• Metrics Service created to provide access to DB nodes from Grafana dashboard (if metrics enabled)
© 2018 Nokia12
Galera Cluster
mysql
load-balance
pods
service
mariadb
metrics
mariadb-0
BR
volume
mariadb
metrics
mariadb-1
BR
volume
mariadb
metrics
mariadb-2
BR
volume
© 2018 Nokia13
Kubernetes Resources
Master/Slave with HA MaxScale
• Deploy maxscale-statefulset with 1 to 3 pods. Maxscale pods contains:
• Maxscale container
 Configures maxscale using helm values and mariadb container advertised IPs (via etcd)
 Monitors http://localhost:4040 for leader-elector changes (setting maxscale passive mode)
• Leader-elector container for managing HA
 Configured to manage kubernetes endpoint with lease for election of leader in cluster
 Starts small web server to publish elected leader to port 4040
• Deploy mariadb-statefulset with 2+ (3+ odd number preferred). MariaDB pod contains:
• Mariadb container
 Configures mariadb in Master/Slave/Slave configuration automatically at deploy based on IP advertisements
 If pod restarts, configured to always come back as a Slave
 Persistent Volume Claim mounted for database storage
• Backup/Restore container for scheduling routine mariadb container backups
• Optional mysqld_exporter container for metrics collection (if metrics enabled)
• Mysql Service created to provide access to all maxscale nodes (all maxscale nodes added to service as endpoints)
• Maxctrl Service created to provide REST API access to “active” maxscale node (labeled with ‘maxscale-leader’)
© 2018 Nokia14
mariadb
metrics
mariadb-0
BR
volume
Master/Slave Cluster with HA MaxScale
maxscale
elector
maxscale-0
maxscale
elector
maxscale-1
mysql
service
maxctrl
maxscale-1
endpoint
watching
managing
Master
Slave
Slave
passive
active
load-balance
mariadb
metrics
mariadb-2
BR
volume
mariadb
metrics
mariadb-1
BR
volume
© 2018 Nokia15
Pod IP Advertisements / Single Pod Failure
Pod failures result in the re-created pod being re-deployed with a new IP address (looks like a new cluster server)
mariadb-0
etcd server
cmdb/my-cluster/services/attributes/mariadb-0 = {“role”: “RM”, “ip”: “172.16.0.35”}
cmdb/my-cluster/services/attributes/mariadb-1 = {“role”: “RS”, “ip”: “172.16.0.104”}
cmdb/my-cluster/services/attributes/mariadb-2 = {“role”: “RS”, “ip”: “172.16.0.97”}
cmdb/my-cluster/services/attributes/maxscale-0 = {“role”: “MXS”, “ip”: “172.16.0.39”}
cmdb/my-cluster/services/attributes/maxscale-1 = {“role”: “MXS”, “ip”: “172.16.0.52”}
cmdb/my-cluster/services/attributes/mariadb-2 = {“role”: “RS”, “ip”: “172.16.0.201”}
mariadb-1
mariadb-2
maxscale-0 maxscale-1
172.16.0.35
172.16.0.104
172.16.0.97
172.16.0.39 172.16.0.52
172.16.0.201
mariadb-2
maxadmin alter server mariadb-2 address=172.16.0.201
Advertise IP
Audit advertisements
© 2018 Nokia16
Galera Cluster Heal
mariadb-0 mariadb-1 mariadb-2
etcd server
cmdb/my-cluster/mariadb-0/config/role = “--cluster=join:SST”
cmdb/my-cluster/mariadb-1/config/role = “--cluster=new”
cmdb/my-cluster/mariadb-2/config/role = “--cluster=join:SST”
admin
post-upgrade-job
Admin container heal operation (helm upgrade of admin.recovery value)
etcd server
cmdb/my-cluster/actions/wait_role = {“advertise”: “recovery_pos”}
cmdb/my-cluster/services/recovery_pos/mariadb-0 = {“seqno”: “527”}
cmdb/my-cluster/services/recovery_pos/mariadb-1 = {“seqno”: “528”}
cmdb/my-cluster/services/recovery_pos/mariadb-2 = {“seqno”: “527”}
(1) Write wait_role action
(2) Kill all mariadb pods
(3) Pods advertise recovery_pos seqno values
(4) Find pod with largest seqno
(5) Largest pod starts cluster, rest join
(6) Pods detect role and re-deploy
© 2018 Nokia17
Galera Cluster Scale-Out
mariadb-0 mariadb-1 mariadb-2
etcd server
cmdb/my-cluster/mariadb-3/config/role = “--cluster=join:SST”
cmdb/my-cluster/mariadb-4/config/role = “--cluster=join:SST”admin
pre-upgrade-job
Admin container scale-out operation (helm upgrade of mariadb.count)
mariadb-3 mariadb-4
admin
post-upgrade-job
(1) Set new pods roles
(2) New pods created
(3) Notify existing pods of new cluster size
© 2018 Nokia18
Galera Cluster Scale-In
mariadb-0 mariadb-1 mariadb-2
admin
pre-upgrade-job
Admin container scale-in operation (helm upgrade of mariadb.count)
mariadb-3 mariadb-4
admin
post-upgrade-job
(1) Verify new cluster size
(2) pods deleted
(3) Notify remaining pods of new cluster size
© 2018 Nokia19
MaxScale Cluster Heal
mariadb-0
Maxscale will auto-heal MariaDB cluster
when all database pods fail
mariadb-0 mariadb-0 mariadb-0
mariadb-0 mariadb-0
Remote
Data
Center
Master
SlaveSlave
Topology Audit (no audit if event < 15 seconds)
• After all pods restart:
o Original master will be replicating from remote DC
(Slave, Running)
o Original slaves will still be replicating from old master
(Running)
• Expected_master = first server replicating to remote DC
• If all other servers replicating to same server (old master)
For all servers (except expected_master)
CHANGE MASTER TO expected_master
Run promotion.sql
© 2018 Nokia20
MaxScale Cluster Scale-Out
etcd server
cmdb/my-cluster/mariadb-3/config/role = “--replicate=slave”
cmdb/my-cluster/mariadb-4/config/role = “--replicate=slave”
admin
pre-upgrade-job
Admin container scale-out operation (helm upgrade of mariadb.count)
etcd server
cmdb/my-cluster/actions/wait_role = {“advertise”: “ready”}
cmdb/my-cluster/services/ready/mariadb-3 = ‘true’
cmdb/my-cluster/services/ready/mariadb-4 = ‘true’
(1) Make sure master exists (2) Write wait_role action
(3) New pods created
(5) As ready pods detected, restore
from master backup and advertise
pod role
mariadb-0 mariadb-1 mariadb-2 mariadb-3 mariadb-4
admin
post-upgrade-job
(4) Backup Master (0)
M
(6) Notify existing pods of new cluster size Maxscale: maxadmin create server <server> …
maxadmin add server <server>
© 2018 Nokia21
MaxScale Cluster Scale-In
mariadb-0 mariadb-1 mariadb-2
admin
pre-upgrade-job
Admin container scale-in operation (helm upgrade of mariadb.count)
mariadb-3 mariadb-4
admin
post-upgrade-job
(1) Verify new cluster size
(3) pods deleted
(4) Notify remaining pods of new cluster size
MM
(2) Switchover Master via MaxScale if necessary
Maxscale: maxadmin remove server <server>
maxadmin destroy server <server>
© 2018 Nokia22
Future Work
• Additional enhancements to prevent data loss
 Supporting semi-sync replication in Master/Slave/Slave cluster with MaxScale
 Implement preStop hook to trigger switchover if Master is being deleted (eg, for migration)
• Kubernetes Horizontal Pod Autoscaling (HPA)
Deploying MariaDB databases with containers at Nokia Networks
Deploying MariaDB databases with containers at Nokia Networks

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Deploying MariaDB databases with containers at Nokia Networks

  • 1. © 2018 Nokia1 Deploying MariaDB databases with containers at Nokia Deploying MariaDB solutions in containerized environments in Nokia Networks Rick Lane 27-02-2019
  • 2. © 2018 Nokia2 Deploying MariaDB databases with containers at Nokia Deploying MariaDB solutions in containerized environments in Nokia Networks Rick Lane 27-02-2019
  • 3. © 2018 Nokia3 © 2018 Nokia3 CMDB - MariaDB Common Software Foundation (CSF) Component MariaDB (CMDB)
  • 4. © 2018 Nokia4 Helm/Kubernetes/Container tradeoffs Pros • Fully separates services from kernel/other services • Extremely light-weight and portable • Containers disposable  Kill and recreate pod as new  Readiness/Liveless probes automate recovery • Deploy application with multiple services in one command/click (helm umbrella charts) • Deployment time significantly faster than VM/ansible (4 minutes compared to 40 minutes) Cons • Containers disposable  Recreated with new IP (looks like new server)  Failure root cause difficult - logs disappear with container. (pod stdout or persistent storage) • Umbrella charts introduce other difficult problems  Can deploy new service instance with helm upgrade of parent chart
  • 5. © 2018 Nokia5 Nokia Container Management Service Helm/Kubernetes Deployment Model controller worker worker worker worker worker controller edge edge deploy chart cmdb helm chart deploy pods External Connections
  • 6. © 2018 Nokia6 Security / Affinity Helm/Kubernetes Deployment Model Security • RBAC fully supported • All containers must run as non-root user • Kubernetes RBAC ServiceAccount and Role/RoleBindings limit container privileges • Password security • All user-supplied passwords loaded to kubernetes secret during pre-install-job • Secret used to propagate passwords to maxscale/mariadb pods • Password secret deleted on post-terminate • User must provide secret with old/new password to update passwords Affinity • podAntiAffinity • hard (default) – all pods must be scheduled on separate nodes or deployment will fail • soft – try to schedule pods on separate nodes, but if will deploy anyway • nodeAffinity • mariadb pods forced to deploy on worker nodes • maxscale pods by default deploy on edge nodes (can configure to deploy on worker)
  • 7. © 2018 Nokia7 Containers CMDB - MariaDB cmdb/mariadb (FROM centos-7.6 os base image) MariaDB database container supporting deployment all configurations (simplex, Galera, Master/Master, Master/Slave) • MariaDB-10.3.11 (client, server, backup, etc) • Galera • SDC/etcd client RPMs • CSF CMDB deployment, configuration and management RPMs cmdb/maxscale (FROM centos-7.6 os base image) MaxScale proxy container supporting deployment of data center configuration • Maxscale-2.2.19 • SDC/etcd client RPMs • CSF CMDB deployment, configuration and management RPMs cmdb/admin (FROM kubectl base image) Kubernetes/Helm Job Administration container supporting all life cycle events (install, upgrade, delete, etc) • MariaDB-10.3.11-client • SDC/etcd client RPMs • Python job orchestrator and python classes to implement configuration specific job tasks
  • 8. © 2018 Nokia8 Helm chart (services and admin) CMDB - MariaDB ## Image Registry global: registry: "csf-docker-delivered.repo.internal.nokia.com" registry1: "registry1-docker-io.repo.internal.nokia.com" rbac_enabled: true nodeAntiAffinity: hard cluster_name: "my-cluster“ ## Topology master-slave, master-master, galera, simplex cluster_type: “master-slave“ ## Values on how to expose services ## ClusterIP will expose only within cluister, NodePort to expose externally services: ## MySQL service exposes the mysql database service (mariadb or maxscale) mysql: type: ClusterIP ## MariaDB Master exposes the pod that is master mariadb_master: type: NodePort ## Maxscale exposes the administrative interface of Maxscale maxscale: type: NodePort ## Maxctrl (optional) exposes the maxctrl administrative interface of Maxscale maxctrl: enabled: false type: ClusterIP port: 8989 admin: image: name: "cmdb/admin" tag: "4.5-1" pullPolicy: IfNotPresent ## A recovery flag. If changed, will trigger a heal of the database to occur #recovery: none quickInstall: "" ## If set, administrative jobs will be more verbose to stdout (kubectl logs) debug: false ## Exposes the hook-delete-policy. By default, this is set to delete the ## hooks only upon success. In helm v2.9+, this should be set to ## before-hook-creation. This can also be unset to avoid hook deletion ## for troubleshooting and debugging purposes hook_delete_policy: "hook-succeeded"
  • 9. © 2018 Nokia9 Helm chart (mariadb and maxscale) CMDB - MariaDB mariadb: image: name: "cmdb/mariadb" tag: "4.5-1" pullPolicy: IfNotPresent ## The number of MariaDB pods to create count: 3 heuristic_recover: rollback use_tls: true ## Enable persistence using Persistent Volume Claims persistence: enabled: true accessMode: ReadWriteOnce size: 20Gi storageClass: "" resourcePolicy: delete preserve_pvc: false ## MariaDB server customized configuration mysqld_site_conf: |- [mysqld] userstat = on ## metrics metrics: enabled: false ## Grafana dashboard dashboard: enabled: false maxscale: image: name: "cmdb/maxscale" tag: "4.5-1” pullPolicy: IfNotPresent ## The number of MaxScale pods count: 2 ## MaxScale customized configuration maxscale_site_conf: |- [maxscale] threads = 2 query_retries = 2 query_retry_timeout = 10 [MariaDB-Monitor] monitor_interval = 1000 failcount = 4 ## MaxScale promotion/demotion SQL sql: ## Mariadb Node promoted to master promotion: [] ## Mariadb Node demoted to slave demotion: [] ## leader-elector elector: image: name: "googlecontainer/leader-elector" tag: 0.5 pullPolicy: IfNotPresent
  • 10. © 2018 Nokia10 Events Life Cycle Management • Kubernetes native events  install = deploy chart and create resources  delete = terminate chart and delete all resources created by install  upgrade = make any changes to mariadb/maxscale resources (configuration, etc) special code to handle heal and scale-in/out events • Nokia plugin events  heal = implemented also with kubernetes upgrade admin.recovery value  scale-in/scale-out = implemented also with kubernetes upgrade mariadb.count or maxscale.count  backup/restore = implemented with Backup/Restore policy
  • 11. © 2018 Nokia11 Kubernetes Resources Galera Cluster • Deploy mariadb-statefulset with 3+ (odd number). MariaDB pod contains: • Mariadb container  Configures mariadb in Galera configuration automatically at deploy based on IP advertisements  If pod restarts, configured to always come back to Join existing cluster  Persistent Volume Claim mounted for database storage • Backup/Restore container for scheduling routine mariadb container backups • Optional mysqld_exporter container for metrics collection (if metrics enabled) • Mysql Service created to provide access to all DB nodes (all DB nodes added to service as endpoints) • Metrics Service created to provide access to DB nodes from Grafana dashboard (if metrics enabled)
  • 12. © 2018 Nokia12 Galera Cluster mysql load-balance pods service mariadb metrics mariadb-0 BR volume mariadb metrics mariadb-1 BR volume mariadb metrics mariadb-2 BR volume
  • 13. © 2018 Nokia13 Kubernetes Resources Master/Slave with HA MaxScale • Deploy maxscale-statefulset with 1 to 3 pods. Maxscale pods contains: • Maxscale container  Configures maxscale using helm values and mariadb container advertised IPs (via etcd)  Monitors http://localhost:4040 for leader-elector changes (setting maxscale passive mode) • Leader-elector container for managing HA  Configured to manage kubernetes endpoint with lease for election of leader in cluster  Starts small web server to publish elected leader to port 4040 • Deploy mariadb-statefulset with 2+ (3+ odd number preferred). MariaDB pod contains: • Mariadb container  Configures mariadb in Master/Slave/Slave configuration automatically at deploy based on IP advertisements  If pod restarts, configured to always come back as a Slave  Persistent Volume Claim mounted for database storage • Backup/Restore container for scheduling routine mariadb container backups • Optional mysqld_exporter container for metrics collection (if metrics enabled) • Mysql Service created to provide access to all maxscale nodes (all maxscale nodes added to service as endpoints) • Maxctrl Service created to provide REST API access to “active” maxscale node (labeled with ‘maxscale-leader’)
  • 14. © 2018 Nokia14 mariadb metrics mariadb-0 BR volume Master/Slave Cluster with HA MaxScale maxscale elector maxscale-0 maxscale elector maxscale-1 mysql service maxctrl maxscale-1 endpoint watching managing Master Slave Slave passive active load-balance mariadb metrics mariadb-2 BR volume mariadb metrics mariadb-1 BR volume
  • 15. © 2018 Nokia15 Pod IP Advertisements / Single Pod Failure Pod failures result in the re-created pod being re-deployed with a new IP address (looks like a new cluster server) mariadb-0 etcd server cmdb/my-cluster/services/attributes/mariadb-0 = {“role”: “RM”, “ip”: “172.16.0.35”} cmdb/my-cluster/services/attributes/mariadb-1 = {“role”: “RS”, “ip”: “172.16.0.104”} cmdb/my-cluster/services/attributes/mariadb-2 = {“role”: “RS”, “ip”: “172.16.0.97”} cmdb/my-cluster/services/attributes/maxscale-0 = {“role”: “MXS”, “ip”: “172.16.0.39”} cmdb/my-cluster/services/attributes/maxscale-1 = {“role”: “MXS”, “ip”: “172.16.0.52”} cmdb/my-cluster/services/attributes/mariadb-2 = {“role”: “RS”, “ip”: “172.16.0.201”} mariadb-1 mariadb-2 maxscale-0 maxscale-1 172.16.0.35 172.16.0.104 172.16.0.97 172.16.0.39 172.16.0.52 172.16.0.201 mariadb-2 maxadmin alter server mariadb-2 address=172.16.0.201 Advertise IP Audit advertisements
  • 16. © 2018 Nokia16 Galera Cluster Heal mariadb-0 mariadb-1 mariadb-2 etcd server cmdb/my-cluster/mariadb-0/config/role = “--cluster=join:SST” cmdb/my-cluster/mariadb-1/config/role = “--cluster=new” cmdb/my-cluster/mariadb-2/config/role = “--cluster=join:SST” admin post-upgrade-job Admin container heal operation (helm upgrade of admin.recovery value) etcd server cmdb/my-cluster/actions/wait_role = {“advertise”: “recovery_pos”} cmdb/my-cluster/services/recovery_pos/mariadb-0 = {“seqno”: “527”} cmdb/my-cluster/services/recovery_pos/mariadb-1 = {“seqno”: “528”} cmdb/my-cluster/services/recovery_pos/mariadb-2 = {“seqno”: “527”} (1) Write wait_role action (2) Kill all mariadb pods (3) Pods advertise recovery_pos seqno values (4) Find pod with largest seqno (5) Largest pod starts cluster, rest join (6) Pods detect role and re-deploy
  • 17. © 2018 Nokia17 Galera Cluster Scale-Out mariadb-0 mariadb-1 mariadb-2 etcd server cmdb/my-cluster/mariadb-3/config/role = “--cluster=join:SST” cmdb/my-cluster/mariadb-4/config/role = “--cluster=join:SST”admin pre-upgrade-job Admin container scale-out operation (helm upgrade of mariadb.count) mariadb-3 mariadb-4 admin post-upgrade-job (1) Set new pods roles (2) New pods created (3) Notify existing pods of new cluster size
  • 18. © 2018 Nokia18 Galera Cluster Scale-In mariadb-0 mariadb-1 mariadb-2 admin pre-upgrade-job Admin container scale-in operation (helm upgrade of mariadb.count) mariadb-3 mariadb-4 admin post-upgrade-job (1) Verify new cluster size (2) pods deleted (3) Notify remaining pods of new cluster size
  • 19. © 2018 Nokia19 MaxScale Cluster Heal mariadb-0 Maxscale will auto-heal MariaDB cluster when all database pods fail mariadb-0 mariadb-0 mariadb-0 mariadb-0 mariadb-0 Remote Data Center Master SlaveSlave Topology Audit (no audit if event < 15 seconds) • After all pods restart: o Original master will be replicating from remote DC (Slave, Running) o Original slaves will still be replicating from old master (Running) • Expected_master = first server replicating to remote DC • If all other servers replicating to same server (old master) For all servers (except expected_master) CHANGE MASTER TO expected_master Run promotion.sql
  • 20. © 2018 Nokia20 MaxScale Cluster Scale-Out etcd server cmdb/my-cluster/mariadb-3/config/role = “--replicate=slave” cmdb/my-cluster/mariadb-4/config/role = “--replicate=slave” admin pre-upgrade-job Admin container scale-out operation (helm upgrade of mariadb.count) etcd server cmdb/my-cluster/actions/wait_role = {“advertise”: “ready”} cmdb/my-cluster/services/ready/mariadb-3 = ‘true’ cmdb/my-cluster/services/ready/mariadb-4 = ‘true’ (1) Make sure master exists (2) Write wait_role action (3) New pods created (5) As ready pods detected, restore from master backup and advertise pod role mariadb-0 mariadb-1 mariadb-2 mariadb-3 mariadb-4 admin post-upgrade-job (4) Backup Master (0) M (6) Notify existing pods of new cluster size Maxscale: maxadmin create server <server> … maxadmin add server <server>
  • 21. © 2018 Nokia21 MaxScale Cluster Scale-In mariadb-0 mariadb-1 mariadb-2 admin pre-upgrade-job Admin container scale-in operation (helm upgrade of mariadb.count) mariadb-3 mariadb-4 admin post-upgrade-job (1) Verify new cluster size (3) pods deleted (4) Notify remaining pods of new cluster size MM (2) Switchover Master via MaxScale if necessary Maxscale: maxadmin remove server <server> maxadmin destroy server <server>
  • 22. © 2018 Nokia22 Future Work • Additional enhancements to prevent data loss  Supporting semi-sync replication in Master/Slave/Slave cluster with MaxScale  Implement preStop hook to trigger switchover if Master is being deleted (eg, for migration) • Kubernetes Horizontal Pod Autoscaling (HPA)