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The future of work in
technology
How technology leaders can reimagine technology work,
the workforce, and the workplace
CIOs lead unique and complex lives—operating at the intersection of business and IT to deliver value
to their organizations. To help CIOs manage these challenges and issues, Deloitte has created the CIO
Program. The program provides distinctive offerings to support the CIO career life cycle through
leadership-development programs, immersive lab experiences, insight on provocative topics, and
career transition support to complement the technology services and solutions we provide to
our clients.
About Deloitte’s CIO Program
1
Introduction | 2
Reimagining the role of technology | 3
Three interrelated dimensions: Work, workforce, workplace | 8
Imagine, compose, and activate the future of work | 23
Endnotes | 25
Contents
How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
2
E
VOLVING STRATEGIC BUSINESS imperatives,
trends, and disrupters are driving a seismic
shift in the way IT organizations operate. This
report—part of a series exploring the merger of
business and technology strategies and the reimag-
ination of technology’s role in the business—aims
to address fundamental questions about the future
of work in technology:
• How can organizations leverage technology to
redesign current work outcomes to focus on
exponential increases in productivity and cost
efficiencies and redefine new work outcomes
that extend beyond productivity and cost to
value, meaning, and impact?
• How will tomorrow’s technology workforce be
different than today’s? How will jobs and roles
change? What skills and capabilities will
be needed?
• Does the current workplace support the evolv-
ing work of technology and the workforce
required to complete it? How will it need to be
redesigned to sustain the evolution of
technology work?
Based on formal surveys and interviews with doz-
ens of business and technology leaders, this report
discusses the future of work in technology—the
work itself, who does the work (workforce), and
where the work is done (workplace).1
It sheds light
on changes in these three dimensions—work, work-
force, and workplace—that have already begun, will
continue to unfold during the next three years, and
likely will continue to progress over time. Finally, it
will provide pragmatic advice and recommenda-
tions on how technology and business leaders can
strategize, design, and collaborate on this bold
journey.
Introduction
The future of work in technology
3
Reimagining the role of
technology
S
AVVY BUSINESS AND technology executives
are working together to reimagine how tech-
nology delivers business value and
competitive advantage. “Because of technological
advances, technology’s role within the organization
is itself shifting,” says Satish Alapati, CIO of Media
& Entertainment Customer Experience at AT&T.
“The role of technology has evolved from automat-
ing the business to actually being the business.”2
Business innovation and disruption are rapidly
changing the scope, pace, and scale of technology
work. “Disruptions come in different forms—from
competitors using technology at scale to the indus-
trial Internet of Things,” says another technology
leader. “As a result, it’s becoming more important
than ever to enable everything we do with cutting-
edge technology.”3
Yet despite the convergence of technology and
business strategies, data from Deloitte’s
2018 Global CIO Survey suggests that CIOs and
other technology leaders still struggle with a linger-
ing perception of IT as order-taker rather than
business-driver. Only 29 percent of business lead-
ers participating in the survey agree that the
technology organization and its leaders should be
deeply involved in developing enterprise business
strategy.4
Four major shifts in the role of
technology
Deloitte’s ongoing research on reimagining the role
of technology has identified four significant shifts
that are changing the role of technology in
organizations.
From trusted operator to business cocre-
ator. Technology teams should continue to
maintain operational excellence—in the past, their
primary function—but because business and tech-
nology strategies are now entwined, technology
work should evolve to focus on hand-in-hand col-
laboration with business functions to cocreate
value.
In addition, because of the growing demand for
rapid and efficient delivery of low-friction experi-
ences and capabilities—on par with best-in-class
consumer-grade online experiences—many tech-
nology teams are shifting from traditional
project- and process-focused operating models to
those that are more product- and outcome-centric,
which prioritize cross-functional collaboration,
acceleration of time-to-customer value and other
user/customer needs, and business outcomes.
From service delivery to value delivery.
Automation, cloud, and as-a-service technology
models are taking root, streamlining and speeding
IT delivery, and changing the way technology
teams and business functions work, collaborate,
and create value. And they’re helping eliminate
some tactical and operational work and move the
rest to machines and service providers.
As technology teams shift from trusted operators to
business cocreators, their worth likely will lie in the
value they deliver to the business rather than in the
services they deliver.
How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
4
From cost center to revenue engine. In the
service delivery world, IT is typically viewed as a
cost center, with CIOs charged to deliver services at
the lowest possible cost. The average IT depart-
ment invests more than half (56 percent) of its
technology budget on maintaining business opera-
tions and spends only 18 percent on building new
business capabilities.5
Data suggests that if technology teams are to drive
innovation and be change agents, reducing costs
should take a back seat to strategically investing to
increase revenue, growth, stock price, or other
measurements of business and shareholder value.
CIOs in “digital vanguard” organizations—those
with well-defined digital strategies and highly
regarded IT departments—already allocate less
than half of their budgets (47 percent) to business
operations and 26 percent to innovation. In the
next three to five years, they plan to further reduce
the operations allocation to a third of their annual
budget while increasing innovation funding to 38
percent.6
For CIOs, being savvy about financial
returns and articulating the value of technology
investments can help drive forward their new
agenda.
When technology and business strategies merge,
the technology function is a codriver of innovation
and cocreator of revenue driven by technology
investments. “IT needs to demonstrate an innova-
tion agenda,” says Jo-ann Olsovsky, Salesforce CIO.
“A company has to feel that IT is a change agent
that’s positioning the business for the future.”7
From cybersecurity to risk and resilience.
When it comes to risk, technology leaders’ primary
focus has been cybersecurity. While cybersecurity
will always be critical, leaders also should focus on
business resilience and risks and disruptions inher-
ent to having a combined business-technology
strategy—risks whose reach extends beyond
traditional IT environments into factories and
other workspaces, products, and even customer
locations. Because digitally connected customers
will now have access to data through a voluminous
set of channels that all need to be secure and resil-
ient, this should include integrating security into
product design and development.
Forces shaping the future of
work in technology
Technology’s transition to a new role in the organi-
zation requires the work of technology to change.
Three forces are converging to reshape the future
of work in technology:
1. The proliferation of disruptive technologies is
continually reshaping businesses, industries,
and markets.
2. Technology’s role is shifting to that of a catalyst
for business strategy and transformation,
changing the expectations and delivery of tech-
nology and blurring the lines between business
and technology functions.
3. Global demographic and workforce trends such
as gig and contingent workers, a multigenera-
tional workforce, more diverse talent, and
global talent markets are transforming the
labor market in general—and the technology
workforce in particular.
In the face of these drastic shifts, many savvy CIOs
and other technology leaders are aiming to shape
the future of work in technology. To do so, they can
harness these forces and balance their competing
demands while continuing to maintain operational
excellence, meet business and customer expecta-
tions, and drive innovation, disruption, and digital
transformation.
The future of work in technology
5
Source: Deloitte analysis.
Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights
FIGURE 1
The evolution of technology disciplines
Technology vision and agenda setting
Business cocreation
Business partnerships
Innovation and exploration
Traditional IT disciplines New technology disciplines
IT governance & performance
management Value realization and measurement
Project management
Product management
Application management
Experience and design
Architecture
Technology architecture
Platform & infrastructure management
Data and insights
Service management
Product delivery
Solution delivery
Talent continuum
Talent and leadership development
Third-party ecosystem management
Partner and ecosystem management
Security, risk, and resilience
IT risk, security, and compliance
Agile approach and mindset
Adaptive, multidisciplinary execution
Ongoing, resilient ecosystem engagement
How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
6
Traditional IT disciplines evolve
to new technology disciplines
Many technology leaders recognize these shifts are
happening but may fail to understand their funda-
mental implications on technology work and the
workforce and workplaces required to deliver it. As
a result, some leaders have approached the evolu-
tion to the future of work with disjointed, ad hoc
efforts.
These changes have rendered the traditional scope
of IT work unsustainable. Business leaders should
redefine technology work beyond IT and refresh
traditional IT disciplines to create technology disci-
plines focusing on value creation (figure 1). In this
report, we deliberately replaced the acronym “IT”
with “technology” because the scope of responsibil-
ity is very different for each. IT refers to the
historic technology organization and its inward-
focused IT disciplines. In the future, technology
work will spread throughout the enterprise and
may not be directly controlled by the CIO. Business
and technology leaders alike can benefit from
becoming comfortable with the idea of looking at
technology holistically across the organization.
This evolution goes beyond semantics. New tech-
nology disciplines represent more than simply a
different way of operating. Collectively, they define
a fundamentally new type of work that extends
beyond the boundaries of the technology organiza-
tion to business and functional areas (see sidebar,
“New IT disciplines”). Ultimately, these new disci-
plines can help transform the technology work,
workforce, and workplace.
NEW IT DISCIPLINES
• Business cocreation. Business cocreation is a shift in the role of the technology function from
supporting character to costar. Hand-in-hand with business functions, technology teams can drive
innovation and cocreate products, services, and experiences that drive growth, revenue, and
competitive advantage. This likely will require unprecedented levels of collaboration among business
and technology functions during the design, development, and deployment of products and services.
• Value realization and measurement. The future of work in technology likely requires traditional
IT governance and performance metrics to evolve to focus on realizing and measuring value. Clearly
articulated business goals can provide clarity on objectives and metrics. KPIs such as revenue, market
growth, and customer satisfaction can help monitor overall progress, maintain business-technology
alignment, and keep teams jointly accountable.
• Product management. When a product mindset is applied to the traditional IT disciplines of
application and program management, technology work can be viewed as a product that solves
business problems, rather than a project that implements an application and delivers functionality.
This can ensure development of a coherent product strategy, a coordinated plan for spreading
technology work across business and functional areas and external partners, and engagement with
external stakeholders—including customers, prospects, and ecosystem partners—throughout the
product development process.*
• Experience and design. This new technology discipline focuses on tasks such as embedding
technology into the end-to-end customer life cycle to provide products and solutions throughout the
customer journey and help ensure that critical bottlenecks are quickly identified and resolved. Analytics
and AI can help predict user behavior and provide a differentiated experience, thereby enabling
revenue growth: Revenues for companies whose customer experience is highly ranked outgrew other
companies by more than five to one, suggesting that technology leaders should actively engage in
customer experience and design to provide this edge.
The future of work in technology
7
• Technology architecture. Architectural discipline is often a casualty of rapid growth. Mergers and
acquisitions, aging legacy systems and processes, and the proliferation of data and applications also
can complicate and strain architecture, platform, and infrastructure management. Decisions about
cloud adoption or off-the-shelf software purchases can be evaluated not only on cost, features, and
functionality but also on their ability to offer future options, flexibility, agility, scalability, and speed
to market.
• Data and insights. Customer data can increase engagement and helps teams to create products and
experiences to support individual customer journeys. Business data can improve decision-making,
while product data can be monetized or used to help improve reliability and experience. Yet data on
its own does not drive value—it first should be normalized, aggregated from across the organization
and external sources, and analyzed to deliver insights that can be monetized. Few organizations have
cracked the code for monetizing data, an even more challenging task because of the velocity at which
data is being generated.
• Product delivery and operations. Continuous delivery can enable faster, more iterative delivery of
technology work, with continuous attention on improving quality. This likely includes migrating to
approaches such as Agile development and DevOps to deliver greater, faster business value. Because
legacy environments often use a mix of delivery methods, many organizations that shift to these
methods may employ a hybrid approach.
• Talent continuum. Talent of the future likely will be valued not only for technical skills but also for
agility, flexibility, ability to collaborate, and other soft skills. To access needed skills, leaders may
need to leverage talent from across the open talent continuum, which includes full-time and contract
workers, crowdsourcing, and the external partner ecosystem. In addition, the talent continuum will
include human–machine collaborations and partnerships. Businesses will rely on machines to carry out
and augment work across a wide spectrum, where machines could serve as tools, assistants, peers, or
even managers.8
• Partner and ecosystem orchestration. Via engagement with the broader business ecosystem,
leaders can tap new revenue sources such as business and industry platforms and digital
marketplaces. Ecosystem partners can help organizations identify and understand emerging
technologies that may be relevant to business strategy and objectives. Finally, engaging the ecosystem
accelerates opportunities for learning, a largely social activity, and innovation, which is often the result
of collaboration across fields of expertise and domains of knowledge.
• Security, risk, and resilience. The historic IT risk, security, and compliance discipline typically is
not designed to help companies evaluate, manage, and harness risks related to growth. Many savvy
organizations are already managing such risks by using AI to protect against a rapidly changing threat
landscape, managing risks to customer and company data and intellectual property used for value
creation, bolstering organizational resilience to meet the requirements of a hyper-connected era, and
owning digital responsibility and ethics.
*Product marketing is an important component of this discipline: It includes market positioning, creation of customer
personas, product launches, sales strategy development (for internal products, development of consumption strategy,
among others).
How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
8
Three interrelated dimensions:
Work, workforce, workplace
T
HESE EXTERNAL FORCES and internal pres-
sures fundamentally redefine the three
dimensions of the future of work in technol-
ogy: the what (work), who (workforce), and where
(workplace) of technology work, as shown in
figure 2.
Every company’s journey to the future of work will
have a different starting point depending on busi-
ness strategy, industry drivers, and market
dynamics. However, regardless of entry point,
businesses should first define new work and work
outcomes before considering workforce or work-
place transformations.
• Work (what): It’s likely that technology work
increasingly will be performed by humans,
machines, or human–machine collaboration;
leaders should determine how to deploy people,
bots, and algorithms separately and in partner-
ship. Technology teams’ focus should turn from
IT capabilities to work outcomes as they move
Source: Deloitte analysis.
Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights
FIGURE 2
The future of work requires rethinking work, workforce, and workplace
Current work options Future work options
Work transformation Workplace readiness
Work
Workforce
Workplace
1 3
2
What work can be automated?
With technologies such as robotics,
artificial intelligence, and cloud, how is
traditional technology work automat-
ed, enhanced, and transformed?
Who can do the work?
With new talent platforms and required skills,
who can do the work? How do we leverage the
continuum of talent from full-time workers, to
managed services, to freelancers, gig workers,
crowds, and machines?
With workspaces for cocreation,
collaboration tools, and cultures of high
performance, how are workplaces and
work practices reshaping where and
when work is done?
Where is the work done?
Workforce options
1 3
2
The future of work in technology
9
from project- and process-centric operating
models to those that prioritize products and
outcomes. Cocreating value with business func-
tions and focusing on customer outcomes
rather than processes are part of a more funda-
mentally human and meaningful work
experience. As teams shift their emphasis to
combined business-technology strategies and
objectives and are enabled by automation to
trade manual and repetitive tasks for those
requiring higher-order skills, it’s likely that
they’ll find more meaning in their work.
• Workforce (who): Jobs and roles, talent and
skills, and organizational structure will evolve.
Employment models are already changing;
businesses can access talent via a range of on-
and off-balance sheet solutions. And finally,
instead of being specialized technologists, tech-
nology workers can become collaborative
cocreators of business value.
• Workplace (where): Technology workplaces
are evolving from location-centric to relation-
ship-oriented. The geographic location of the
work will vary, and workspaces should be rede-
signed to maximize collaboration, productivity,
and cocreation. When extended to a network of
geographic locations, including virtual offices,
coworking spaces, and traditional office spaces,
seamlessly integrated technologies such as col-
laboration and digital reality tools can help
facilitate and support connections among
humans and machines.
Let’s take a more detailed look at the shifts in the
work, workforce, and workplace.
Work: From IT capabilities to
technology work outcomes
Historically, technology teams took pride in devel-
oping and delivering IT capabilities to serve
business needs. Technology leaders assessed and
developed people, processes, and technologies to
address organizational demands through the use of
complex capability models and frameworks—all
within a centralized IT organization.
As organizations develop joint business-technology
strategies and collaborate to cocreate business
value, processes and roles may change, causing
skills and tasks to overlap across traditional busi-
ness and technology borders. Integrating business
and technology skills and teams likely will require
CIOs and other functional leaders to rethink how
they and their teams work. The focus is no longer
on the delivery of a project but on the value deliv-
ered from the outcome. “Redefining work means
identifying and addressing unseen problems and
opportunities in the work, for everyone at all levels
and at all times,” says John Hagel, cochairman for
Deloitte LLP’s Center for the Edge.9
The transition from IT capabilities to technology
work outcomes requires a fundamental shift in
thinking: Technology is not solely the purview of
the IT function. Business leaders are equally
accountable for the successful design and delivery
of technology work.
The two-step process of reimagining what technol-
ogy work will look like in the future includes first
deconstructing the work and identifying work out-
comes, and then defining the roles that support
new disciplines.
STEP 1. DECONSTRUCT THE WORK
AND IDENTIFY WORK OUTCOMES
To gain clarity on the new work and provide guid-
ance to those in new roles, technology leaders can
deconstruct the work into work outcomes for each
discipline. These outcomes will define not only the
new work, but also the expected outcomes and
accountabilities (figure 3).
Further analysis of work outcomes can help deter-
mine which activities an organization should
continue, discontinue, or deliver in a different way
How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
10
Source: Deloitte analysis.
Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights
Business cocreation
New technology disciplines
Value realization and
measurement
Product management
Experience and design
Technology architecture
Data and insights
Product delivery and
operations
Talent continuum
Ecosystem and
platform orchestration
Security, risk, and
resilience
Agile approach and mindset
Adaptive, multidisciplinary execution
Ongoing, resilient ecosystem engagement
Customer relationship management
SLA management
Investment portfolio management
IT financial management
IT process governance and KPI management
IT cost management
Product strategy
Product definition and hierarchy
Product planning
Customer journey management
Technology strategy management Platform management
Architecture management
Innovation and knowledge management
Data analytics and insights
Data management
Intelligent reporting
Agile delivery
Product build
Product design
Workforce strategy
Total rewards
Organization change management
Talent acquisition Talent development
Talent performance management
Third-party ecosystem management
Risk identification Risk detection Risk protection
Audit and compliance management
Security incident management
Work outcome domains
FIGURE 3
Define work outcomes for technology disciplines
The future of work in technology
11
based on the changing role of technology. It can
also help executives identify the work that will be
performed by humans, machines, or a combination
of the two—and help ensure that work is meaning-
ful to all stakeholders.
This level of detail can help provide a deeper
understanding of how work is changing and show
how the roles and the organization could evolve to
deliver the work. For example, a more in-depth
examination reveals how the work outcomes for
the technology disciplines of product management
(figure 4) and product delivery and operations
(figure 5) could be defined.
Source: Deloitte analysis.
Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights
FIGURE 4
Product management work outcomes
Changing outcomes and who can do the work
Product strategy Product marketing and communications
management
Product planning
Product definition/hierarchy
Product strategy Product marketing and communications
management
Product definition and hierarchy
Product planning
Product management
AI-assisted
research
(internal/
external)
insights
Proactive
product
requirements
and capability
definition
Well-defined,
customer-cen-
tric business
outcomes
Fixed product
definition and
work
breakdown
AI-fueled
product
maturity
assessment
Well-defined
and engaged
stakeholders
and users
Plan to
manage
capability and
grow
competency
Feedback-en-
abled product
KPI manage-
ment
Optimal
product
pricing for
maximum
value
realization
Rapid,
customer-val-
ue-driven
capability
prioritization
Adaptable
internal-
facing product
road map
Customer-fac-
ing product
road map
Agile and
predictive
product
portfolio
management
Collaborative,-
customer-centric
product offering
management
Collaborative
Agile product
launch
management
Collaborative,
scalable, and
searchable
product
collateral
management
Start
Primarily machine Human-machine mix Primarily human
Change
How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
12
Source: Deloitte analysis.
Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights
FIGURE 5
Product delivery and operations work outcomes
Changing outcomes and who can do the work
Agile delivery Product design
Product build
Product
backlog
Iteration
execution
Retrospective
Iteration
review
Incremental
product
testing
Iterative
product build
Iteration
planning
User experience
design
Solution
design
Requirements
management
Customer
journey
management
Service
design
Iteration
backlog
Automated
version
control
Incremental
product
delivery and
prototyping
Automated
static source
code
validation
Infrastructure
as a code
Automated
deployment
pipeline
Big room
planning
Automated
provisioning
and
deployment
Iterative UI
development
Tool-enabled
test data
management
Product delivery and operations Agile delivery Product build Product design
Start
Primarily machine Human-machine mix Primarily human
Change Stop
The future of work in technology
13
STEP 2. IDENTIFY ROLES THAT
SUPPORT NEW DISCIPLINES
Once work outcomes have been designed, leaders
can establish the organization and roles needed to
support the new disciplines and outcomes. New
roles will emerge but others, such as project man-
ager and business analyst, may evolve, decline in
demand, or even disappear (figure 6). Some roles,
such as product owner, may be filled by workers in
business functions rather than those in the tech-
nology function.
Leaders can identify roles that do not transfer to
the new model and determine how resources can
be reskilled, trained, and supported to make the
shift. The vast majority (89 percent) of surveyed
technology executives plan to somewhat or very
extensively retrain current staff,10
but not all
employees will want or be able to transition roles—
for example, some project managers may not be
able to become scrum masters. Defining clear work
outcomes and accountabilities can allow leaders to
have candid conversations with technology and
business staff about future expectations.
Clarity of roles and organization structure to sup-
port the new disciplines can help leaders make a
smooth transition. For example, the average tech-
nology organization might have hundreds of
project managers and application developers.
Executives can understand, assess, and communi-
cate the new skills and tools these roles will need,
and identify individual road maps based on current
competencies, future potential, and passion.
Workforce: From specialized
technologist to collaborative
cocreator
The workforce required to deliver these new work
outcomes could be a gating factor in this transition.
As technology work evolves, talent with the
required skills and capabilities are increasingly in
high demand. The size, scope, and competencies of
the workforce required to deliver the new technol-
ogy work likely will be very different than in the
past.
Some leaders begin considering workforce trans-
formation without first determining the work and
work outcomes that should be delivered. However,
the lack of clearly identified and articulated work
outcomes can lead to piecemeal, inefficient, and
unproductive efforts. It bears repeating that busi-
ness and technology leaders should first define new
work outcomes—only then can they make determi-
nations about transforming the workforce. The
following considerations may help.
TECHNOLOGY ATHLETES REPLACE
SPECIALIZED TECHNOLOGISTS
As technology work changes, so do the skills and
proficiencies required to complete the work. Fifty-
one percent of CIOs surveyed in Deloitte’s 2019
report on Industry 4.0 readiness cite a significant
mismatch between current skill sets and future
needs.11
In the past, many IT workers have been task-
focused, often with highly specific skill sets. A
worker with sought-after application development
skills could spend his or her entire career within a
single specialization. Technical expertise remains
critical and in short supply—65 percent of global
CIO survey participants say analytics and data sci-
ence will be the hardest-to-find technical skills in
How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
14
Source: Deloitte analysis.
Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights
Business cocreation
New technology disciplines
Value realization and
measurement
Product management
Experience and design
Technology architecture
Data and insights
Product delivery and
operations
Talent continuum
Partner ecosystem
orchestration
Security, risk, and
resilience
Agile approach and mindset
Adaptive, multidisciplinary execution
Ongoing, resilient ecosystem engagement
Tech and business
leadership
Business
relationship
manager
Digital strategist
IT finance manager PMO coordinator
Agile portfolio
manager
Product manager
Project manager
Business analyst
Product owner
User experience
designer
User requirements
manager
Customer
experience
designer
Enterprise
architects
System and network
administrator
Systems engineer
Cloud architect
Data analyst and
database
administrator
Backup
administrator Data scientist
Product engineer
UI designer
IT operations mana-
ger
Service manager
Release engineer
tester
DevOps engineer
Site reliability
engineer
HR technology
manager
IT HR manager
Learning manager
System
administrator
Open talent
coordinator
Sourcing and
procurement
manager
Vendor manager Ecosystem
partner manager
Security manager
Chief risk officer
System security
administrator
Product security
manager
FIGURE 6
New technology disciplines redefine technology roles
Evolving roles Declining roles Net new roles
The future of work in technology
15
the next five years while 54 percent named cyber
and 49 percent named emerging technologies.12
However, some specialized skill sets are falling by
the wayside as IT becomes more automated.
“Twenty years ago, people branded themselves as
SAP experts and even focused on a specific module,
and that was going to be the focus of their entire IT
career,” says Wayne Shurts, former EVP and CTO,
Sysco Corporation. “Those days are gone. Today
it’s about technology athletes—people who are curi-
ous and are always looking to solve business
problems through technology.”13
Ditto, says Rachel Parent, MassMutual CIO. “It’s
no longer imperative that the IT leader be deeply
skilled in a specific technology discipline.
Technology is changing too rapidly for that depth
of expertise to remain relevant,” she says. “There’s
incredible value in having skills that allow you to
keep current with technology trends. Understand
which of those can help drive your organization’s
strategy relative to serving customers, enabling col-
laboration, and increasing operational and
financial efficiencies.”14
MACHINES AUGMENT TECH WORKERS
With clearly articulated work outcomes, technology
leaders should be able to align roles and work.
They can ascertain the outcomes that can best be
achieved by machines, humans (permanent
employees, contractors, or otherwise sourced), or a
combination of both.
“It’s important to think about how people and
machines should work together,” says Dell CHRO
Steve Price. “This will have implications for how
and where work gets done, the kind of skills people
need to possess, and the broader expectations of
the future workforce.”15
While cognitive technologies are indeed transfor-
mational, evidence suggests they will augment
rather than replace workers.16
Most tactical, algo-
rithmic, and structured work will be automated by
machines over time, leaving much creative and
strategic work for human talent. “We have spent
way too much time thinking about people versus
computers, and not nearly enough time thinking
about people and computers,” says Thomas
Malone, director of the MIT Center for Collective
Intelligence. “We’ve spent too much time thinking
about what jobs computers are going to take away
from people, and not nearly enough time thinking
about what people and computers can do together
that could never be done before.”17
ENDURING HUMAN SKILLS
COMPLEMENT TECHNICAL EXPERTISE
In the past, soft skills that support collaboration
and communication typically took a back seat to
specialized technical skills. Today, soft skills are
having a breakout moment. These enduring, essen-
tially human skills are increasing in value in part
because they cannot be replicated by machines.
Even though future technology jobs may be more
machine-powered and data-driven, talent likely
will need to have more breadth across both busi-
ness and technology areas. This could include
critical traits for driving innovation and disruption,
such as:
• Business and financial acumen to understand
complex business challenges and decisions
• Ability to understand the engagement, interac-
tion, and collaboration of humans
and machines
• Enduring and essential human skills such as
empathy, creativity, and enthusiasm
for learning
• Ability to embrace change and uncertainty
And as we’ve suggested, rather than working in
centralized silos of IT expertise, technology talent
likely will need to collaborate with business func-
tions to cocreate value. The CIOs who participated
How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
16
in the global CIO survey point to a growing need to
augment technical expertise with collaboration
skills (figure 7).
This is not a subtle shift—it likely requires new job
families, roles, and talent capabilities. Talent short-
ages are hardly new to IT—60 percent of
participants in the global CIO survey report diffi-
culty finding employees with the appropriate
balance of skills.18
Yet there likely will continue to
be a dearth of talent with the right mix of special-
ized skills, adjacent proficiencies, and enduring
human skills to support business mandates for
innovation, growth, and business transformation.
OPEN TALENT CONTINUUM PROVIDES
MORE WORKFORCE OPTIONS
CIOs have more options than ever before to access
the technology talent they need. The pool of poten-
tial tech workers—an open talent continuum—is
expanding to include both on- and
off-balance-sheet talent, from traditional full-time
employees and managed services to alternative
workers, including independent contractors, gig
workers, and crowdsourcing (figure 8 ).19
According to the global CIO survey, CIOs are
already leaning heavily on the open talent contin-
uum. Fifty-eight percent of survey respondents say
they are retraining and retooling current talent.20
The same percentage report leveraging talent from
external partners and service providers,21
and in
another survey, 73 percent of technology executives
said they plan to access needed talent by somewhat
or very extensively using gig economy workers.22
Yet, a third of leaders surveyed for this report feel
unprepared to leverage gig workers, freelancers,
and crowdsourcing—a barrier that likely will need
to be overcome.23
While technology organizations are adept at man-
aging technology vendors, the 2019 Deloitte
N=980.
Source: 2018 Deloitte global CIO survey.
Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights
FIGURE 7
CIOs are on the hunt for talent with essential and enduring human skills
What are the most important IT talent soft skills that you plan to hire for your team (currently
and in three years)?
Current skills Skills in three years: Increase Skills in three years: Decrease
0% 75%
Creativity 39%
Cognitive flexibility 29%
Emotional intelligence 34%
Complex problem-solving
Leadership/management 56%
Critical thinking 46%
Negotiation 26%
Systems thinking
Service orientation
RISING
TECH
SKILLS
Traditional
tech skills
61%
52%
48%
60%
51%
29%
64%
51%
65%
61%
47%
52%
The future of work in technology
17
Source: Deloitte analysis.
Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights
FIGURE 8
The open talent continuum
Organization’s
employees
Open talent continuum
Joint venture
employees
Managed service
providers
Contractors
Gig workers
Crowd
Traditional
Best for function-specific work
Open
Best for task-specific work
Global Human Capital Trends Survey found
nearly half (49 percent) of IT organizations are not
consistent or integrated in their methods for sourc-
ing and managing talent across the open talent
continuum, which can prevent organizations from
accessing the needed talent from the best source in
a timely manner. Nearly every survey respondent
indicated HR is responsible for hiring and develop-
ing full-time employees while procurement handles
contracts with the external ecosystem, and users
across the organization access open talent sources
such as contractors, gig workers, and
crowdsourcing.
JOB DESCRIPTIONS BECOME JOB
CANVASES
Job descriptions rarely match actual jobs, espe-
cially in technology—and the future of work in
technology could be the nail in the coffin of the tra-
ditional job description. Future technology jobs
will be ever-evolving and dynamic. The half-life of
a skill is currently five years24
and likely will con-
tinue to decrease, which means the tools, skills,
competencies, and requirements needed to per-
form a role will constantly change. People are likely
to have multiple roles within an organization dur-
ing their careers.
As a result, we propose evolving job descriptions
into “job canvases” that outline expanded responsi-
bilities, new skills, redesigned work, and redefined
work outcomes that are the result of automation
and machine augmentation. A job canvas could
include:
• Skills increasing and decreasing in importance
for that particular family of jobs
• Broad sets of responsibilities across a family
of jobs
• Persona of an individual worker in the job
• Description of “a day in the life” of a person in
the role
Building on the work outcomes examples, we iden-
tified potential changes to product management
and product delivery and operations, examined
how this could affect the roles of product manager
and Agile portfolio manager, and developed sample
job canvases for these roles.
For product managers, skills that likely will dimin-
ish in importance include project management,
technical writing and editing, and user interface
design. On the other hand, scrum, DevOps, design
How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
18
thinking, Agile product life cycle management, and
continuous integration and delivery will become
more important skills (figure 9). Similarly, as prod-
uct delivery and operations evolve, Agile portfolio
managers will need to hone their capabilities in
product testing, scrum and DevOps, data analysis,
product management, customer contact, product
improvement, and prototyping. They will likely
have less need for skills such as project manage-
ment, process engineering, systems integration,
and component design (figure 10).
Workplace: From location-
centric to relationship-
oriented
The evolution of the work and workforce should be
supported by targeted location strategies, as well as
flexible physical and virtual workplaces. Fixed,
uncompromising workplaces may need to evolve to
virtual workplaces that leverage advanced mobility
and connectivity, collaboration tools, and emerging
technologies such as virtual and augmented reality
that help improve collaboration and integrate
workers from all segments of the open talent
continuum.
“When it comes to the workplace of the future,
physical proximity is going to matter less and less,”
says Stella Ward, chief digital officer of Canterbury
and West Coast District Health Boards, New
Zealand. “There are so many collaboration tools
out there to help teams get work done remotely.
The challenge is identifying the right tools and
making sure our employees know how to use them
to maximize efficiency.”25
However, that doesn’t always mean face-to-face
connections or the offices that host them are
unneeded, although they may be designed differ-
ently. In fact, technology and business teams may
require closer physical proximity than in the past.
“Working in the office is about building
relationships and trust between team members.
When team members feel connected and trust each
other, productivity increases,” says MassMutual’s
Parent. “Good collaboration tools will help sustain
this productive collaboration for longer periods of
time when people cannot be regularly colocated
but teams will still need to physically come
together periodically.”26
Such workplaces likely will need to be flexibly
designed to encourage collaboration and innova-
tion to drive joint creation of business value. When
considering a workplace strategy, leaders can ask
questions about workspaces, collaboration, and
culture (figure 11). Each is discussed below in
greater detail.
CREATING WORKSPACES FOR
COCREATION
The mandate to cocreate technology solutions
likely would require collaboration among business
and technology functions. Collaboration could be
virtual or in-person depending on the role, scope of
work, and activity. Leaders can strive to create
physical and virtual workspaces that encourage
teamwork and connections but acknowledge the
need for deep individual work.
While a healthy portion of the workforce already
has flexible work arrangements, leaders may need
to carefully balance the strategies for leveraging
flexible, remote, and virtual workers and providing
physical proximity and colocation to spark innova-
tion, diversity of thought, and unplanned
connections.
Mechanisms that can enable customer participa-
tion in the cocreation process are important. This
can help technology and business teams gather
customer feedback, incorporate it into each release
of product design, and engage the customer to
communicate new features and availability of
updates as a result of their feedback and
consumption.
The future of work in technology
19
Source: Deloitte analysis.
Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights
FIGURE 9
Job canvas for product manager
Diminishing skills
Project management
Technical writing/editing
User interface design
Growing skills
Scrum
DevOps
Design thinking
Agile product life cycle management
Continuous integration and delivery
Changing skills
Résumé
My top skills Responsibilities
IT product managers will have altered profiles comprising different focal points and priorities
Creating a job canvas
Technical product manager
Product managers are strategic and analytical gurus that own the life cycle of specific
products from strategy to operational excellence. They work across the organization
and with customers to understand needs from both a business and technical
perspective.
5+ years of product management experience
1 year computer science experience
Experience leading cross-functional teams
including UX/CX designers, project engineers,
quality assurance professionals
Leadership
Understanding of market and
business strategy
Design thinking
Tech fluency
Ability to manage ambiguity
Collaborate with design, CX, marketing, sales
and business stakeholders to build business
cases and define product vision
Guide and influence cross-functional teams of
designers, software developers, data analysts
Partner with Marketing, Sales, Branding to drive
awareness of new products
Prioritize feature development and manage
product life cycle from concept to design,
sample production, testing, forecast, cost, mass
production, promotion, and support
Utilize wealth of internal, external data and
machine learning tools to drive product
decisions. Translate complex technical
challenges for nontechnical stakeholders
Engage with customers and stakeholders
continuously to gather insight on product
development, refine and drive growth
Act as consultant to help with the sales process
Master of business administration
Bachelor’s degree in computer science
Also completed ad hoc courses
Design thinking crash course
Agile scrum project management
Experience Education and certifications
How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
20
Source: Deloitte analysis.
Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights
FIGURE 10
Job canvas for Agile portfolio manager
Diminishing skills
Project management
Process engineering
Systems integration
Component design
Growing skills
Product testing
Scrum
DevOps
Data analysis
Product management
Customer contact
Product improvement
Prototyping
Changing skills
Résumé
My top skills Responsibilities
Agile portfolio managers will have altered profiles comprising different focal points and priorities
Agile portfolio manager
The Agile portfolio manager will provide oversight to portfolio level value-driven
governance for Agile product deliveries across the organization. They ensure that
all technology portfolio investments are aligned to the business strategy. They drive
operational excellence by communicating vision and objectives throughout the
portfolio. They assign resources and manage dependencies across the portfolio
while continuously prioritizing projects in alignment with the business strategy.
Experience managing multiple technology
projects or product portfolios in Agile
environments
Experience managing a cross-functional
process or technical delivery team
Proficient knowledge of Agile and DevOps
Collaborative
Understanding of customer and
business strategy
Storytelling with data
Tech fluency and business fluency
Ability to manage ambiguity
Communicate the broader business objectives
and portfolio vision throughout the portfolio
Govern portfolio efforts in a scaled, Agile
environment
Provide extensive analysis of the portfolio's
value streams to enable lean budgeting
Stay current with all current and future
projects, customer demands, and budget and
monitor portfolio in real time to ensure it is
achieving strategic objectives
Coordinate value streams to create portfolio
level capabilities and benefits
Partner with delivery teams to develop lean
business cases that link business benefits to
technology investments for funding and
allocation requests
Predict and identify risks and opportunities
created by interdependencies between product
deliveries
Support the identification and removal of
barriers to product delivery
Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science
(or equivalent years of professional experience)
Agile project management
Experience Education and certifications
Creating a job canvas
The future of work in technology
21
Source: Deloitte analysis.
Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights
FIGURE 11
Workplace considerations for the future of work in technology
Workspaces
How does your space allow
for cocreation, innovation,
and productivity?
How does the workspace
support business value
creation and operating
model agility?
How do you balance the
value of physical proximity
with the flexibility many
employees desire?
What tools and mechanisms
are in place to enable
collaboration across
functions, business units,
locations, and cultures?
How do collaboration tools
and practices enhance
productivity, agility, and
efficiency?
How can emerging
technologies such as virtual
and artificial reality
transform learning and
enable curiosity and
creativity?
How does your organization
contribute to meaningful
causes beyond financial
gain?
How do you create
incentives and rewards to
align to desired behaviors
and business outcomes?
How do you ensure a
resiliency mindset and scale
your culture at a time of
rapid changes in business
and technology?
Collaboration Culture
COLLABORATION TOOLS AND
PRACTICES ENHANCE PRODUCTIVITY,
CREATIVITY, VALUE, AND MEANING
Video conferencing, online collaboration platforms,
and other tools have revolutionized organizations’
ability to seamlessly collaborate on a global basis.
As the work of technology evolves, collaboration
tools likely will become critical; entire organiza-
tions may rely on them. Leaders should stay ahead
of workers’ communication and collaboration
needs and constantly evaluate tools that could
enhance productivity, increase transparency and
collaboration, inspire more creative results, and
enable more meaningful connections—ultimately
enabling teams to drive new sources of value.
Plan and execute cautiously so that these tools
don’t become a productivity drain. One survey of
2,000 workers found that most use an average of
four collaboration apps; 20 percent use six or more.
Sixty-eight percent of employees say they toggle
between apps up to 10 times per hour; about the
same percentage (69 percent) say they waste up to
an hour every day switching among apps.27
The
American Psychological Association has found that
employees experience a 40 percent drop in produc-
tivity each time they switch tasks.28
Adoption of collaboration-enhancing processes and
practices can also be valuable. Agile methods such
as daily stand-ups/scrum meetings, ongoing feed-
back loops, transparency, and joint accountability
can help foster effective collaboration. And activity-
based training, pairing, and rotation programs, and
training for conflict resolution and growth mindset
are other practices leaders can consider as they aim
to integrate collaboration into the workplace and
work activities.
CREATING A CULTURE OF
PERFORMANCE, PURPOSE, AND
MEANING
Steve Jobs famously said that A players attract
other A players.29
Occasionally, B players may con-
vince a high performer to join the organization, but
to consistently acquire and retain top talent, busi-
nesses need a supportive, engaging culture. The
global CIO survey demonstrated that culture—the
organization’s deeply rooted beliefs and behaviors—
is a key distinguishing factor for digital vanguard
How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
22
organizations,30
yet many participants in the
2019 Deloitte Human Capital Trends Survey rated
their organizations only somewhat or not effective
on attributes related to culture and experience,
including providing meaningful work (37 percent)
and maintaining positive work environment
(41 percent).31
Leaders can nurture and curate a culture to align
with desired behaviors and outcomes. For the tech-
nology work of the future, cultural attributes such
as collaboration, empathy, creativity, and agility
likely will be significantly more important than
they are today. Increasingly, social purpose and
meaning are playing a significant role in organiza-
tional culture, due in part to pressure from workers,
especially millennials and Generation Z: Forty-two
percent of CIOs who participated in one survey say
pressure from employees is a major motivator.32
As they seek to develop organizational cultures that
support their business strategies, leaders should
consider whether the current culture, incentives,
behaviors, and leadership align with the new
model. They can also determine whether certain
policies, mandates, or corporate constraints hinder
productivity, agility, and growth. For technology,
iterative work processes often require integrated
and ongoing performance and development con-
versations to be embedded into the flow of work.
Rewards are based on teamwork, the attainment of
shared goals, and customer intimacy rather than
operational excellence.
KEY IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE OF WORK TRANSFORMATION
• Financial planning. Changes in technology—and corresponding changes in the work, workforce, and
workplace—may have significant financial implications that should be understood early in the process.
Engage necessary stakeholders to gain consensus on issues such as capitalization versus the expense
model, as well as internal versus external spending.
• Ecosystem orchestration. The current procurement mindset often benefits the lowest cost provider,
leads to transactional relationships, and binds the organization to multiyear commitments. And as
the shelf life of skills moves from a lifetime to a few years, organizations cannot always rely on captive
talent to do their work. Leaders are quickly realizing they should reimagine their ecosystems as sources
of value cocreation, revenue, and augmentation of internal talent and skills. Businesses are evolving
from members of a linear value chain that adds incremental value to participants in a much broader
ecosystem of technology disrupters, incubators, startups, business partners, suppliers, and customers
that cocreates business solutions, uncovers new opportunities, and delivers competitive advantage.
One large distribution company built a platform that allowed real-time information to its suppliers and
an integrated portal for its global distribution network that created efficiencies, reduced inventories,
and increased profits across the entire ecosystem.
• Technology work in the business. Pervasiveness of technology is impacting work outside of
traditional boundaries of IT. What might once have been viewed as a traditional business role is now
becoming very tech-centric. The impact of the changes in technology work, workforce, and workplace
on business roles should also be considered.
The future of work in technology
23
Imagine, compose, and
activate the future of work
G
IVEN THE COMPLEXITY of the converging
disciplines, new talent models, spectrum
of human–machine collaboration, and
other variables in this shift, developing and execut-
ing the organization’s future of work strategy may
seem paralyzing. To help leaders get started,
we suggest using a method we’ve called
“Imagine-Compose-Activate.”
Instead of getting bogged down in solving an
immediate problem, start by imagining the organi-
zation’s future in the three- to five-year time frame.
Imagine the future of work without constraints;
restrictions typically evolve over time.33
If there
were no budget, staffing, or other constraints, what
would the business look like? How will it drive
value and provide meaningful work?
Composing the work and work outcomes can help
businesses lay the foundation for work, workforce,
and workplace components. Analyze and redesign
work, workforce, and workplace options that take
advantage of automation, alternative talent sources,
and collaborative workplaces.
Finally, activate the future of work by initiating
changes to the workforce and workplace and deter-
mining how to measure and report outcomes. This
includes realigning operating model, culture, talent
development, and leadership.
Lessons from leaders
The executives we interviewed provided
three overarching lessons to help enable the
Imagine-Compose-Activate process.
Zoom out first. Technology leaders are problem-
solvers who tend to “zoom in” on problems with
the intent of quickly solving them. Instead of nar-
rowing in on and trying to resolve specific pain
points related to the future of work, consider first
looking at the big picture, holistically taking into
account changes in work, workforce, and work-
place. “Zooming out” three to five years and
envisioning a future without bounds can help lead-
ers imagine and define the art of the possible
without the current constraints.34
This could help
leaders get “unstuck” from the present and drive a
transformative mindset that could clarify the unre-
alized potential of work, workforce, and workplace.
Access, curate, and engage talent. The tradi-
tional talent management mindset focused on
attracting, developing, and retaining needed talent.
The evolution of work, workforce, and workplace
suggests the Attract-Develop-Retain model may
have run its course. Consider instead the Access-
Curate-Engage approach, in which organizations
access talent on the open continuum, curate con-
sumer-grade learning experiences that can enable
technology athletes to build skills in real time, and
engage talent by realigning rewards, incentives,
and leadership to support and enable idea genera-
tion, cocreation, collaboration, accountability, and
transparency.
Iterate, deliver, and repeat. We can’t empha-
size this enough: The future of work transformation
is a journey, not a destination. Continually iterate
the work, workforce, and workplace models to
account for changing business and technology
landscapes. As new technologies and business
models emerge, the work of technology will
How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
24
continually change and leaders in technology orga-
nizations likely will need to adapt quickly.
Additional key
recommendations
Shifts matter: Move from IT capabilities to
work outcomes. Technology work has often been
traditionally performed by a centralized
IT function and “thrown over the wall” to the busi-
ness to confirm whether promised results were
achieved. To kick-start a business mindset change,
we purposefully have moved away from the tradi-
tional notion of IT capabilities in this report and
embraced the term “work outcomes.” The concept
of work outcomes holds both technology and busi-
ness resources accountable for product outcomes
as well as adjustments and iterations that allow for
continuous business value.
Bias toward speed and progress, not perfec-
tion. Recognize that speed and time to market are
often key to competitiveness and cocreation.
Releasing and iterating a minimally viable product
based on customer feedback is fast becoming the
norm. Technology work of the future is more akin
to building speed boats than large naval vessels.
Reliability, security, and resilience are still
required, but flexibility, agility, and speed typically
are more important.
Embrace cocreation at the team, enterprise,
and ecosystem levels. The future of work is not
a solo journey. Partner with other executive leaders
and business and functional executives and equip
them with the knowledge and ability to make
informed technology decisions. The global CIO sur-
vey found that technology leaders who elevate the
tech fluency of business counterparts are likely to
have deeper and more influential relationships
with their peers.35
The three most important allies
for technology leaders on this journey likely will be
the finance, HR, and procurement leaders—help
them become equally invested and accountable for
the outcomes.
Iterate with end—the outcomes—in mind.
This journey may be triggered by business reorga-
nization, skills shortage, business realignment,
office space redesign, or many other potential
causes. Irrespective of its entry point, a business
should define work outcomes before trying to
transform the workforce or workplace. Jumping
ahead to reskilling the workforce or redesigning
the workplace without understanding the shift in
technology work could create chaos and confusion.
After establishing work outcomes, leaders can
determine the tools, automation, workforce needs,
and how to augment humans with machines. Work
outcomes and workforce decisions together can
help determine the type of physical workspace, col-
laboration tools, and culture needed to support the
change.
Enable real-time learning. Gone are the days
when professionals crafted and perfected their
skills over decades, even lifetimes. An average
employee may have multiple careers in an organi-
zation. To engage and retain high performers,
leaders should develop continuous learning pro-
grams that provide real-time skills acquisition,
on-the-job training, and experience-based rapid
knowledge transfer.
Stay informed through tech sensing. The
increasing speed of technology change can make it
difficult to stay abreast of advances. Technology
leaders can keep informed of emerging technology
trends and their business implications. Many lever-
age partner ecosystems to tap into new
technologies, while others collaborate with univer-
sities and incubation hubs or invest in startups.
Knowledge acquired as the result of such “tech
sensing” approaches should be disseminated
throughout the organization to help increase tech-
nology fluency.
Align with purpose. External corporate brand,
internal culture, and the technology organization’s
The future of work in technology
25
mission should align to a higher purpose. Top tal-
ent often wants to work for companies whose
ambition, passion, and purpose rise above eco-
nomic considerations. They’re seeking
organizations that believe in and significantly con-
tribute to meaningful causes. Authentically
aligning the organization to environmental issues,
human development, public health, or other rele-
vant cause that can help bring meaning to work can
directly impact talent recruitment.
Tolerate calculated risk. Typically, technology
leaders avoid or minimize risk while business lead-
ers seek to maximize value while taking calculated
risks—two perspectives that are often at odds.
Leaders shaping the future of work in technology
can devise ways to consistently understand and
agree on risk appetite with key stakeholders and
make decisions and course corrections accordingly.
Embrace ambiguity, uncertainty, and experimenta-
tion and avoid making risk decisions on behalf of
the business. Instead, collaborate to make more
informed, data-driven decisions.
Think big to create an audacious future.
Focusing on the big picture, rather than a single
tool or solution, can help leaders take the first steps
toward creating the future of work. Foundational
change takes time and persistent work across mul-
tiple dimensions. Simply reskilling staff, bringing
on a new leadership team, or automating existing
work likely will not alleviate current challenges.
Instead, a holistic plan that employs multiple work,
workforce, and workplace strategies has a higher
likelihood of success.
Endnotes
1. Jeff Schwartz et al., What is the future of work?, Deloitte Insights, April 1, 2019.
2. Interview with Satish Alapati, conducted January 28, 2019.
3. Interview with anonymous CIO, conducted January 22, 2019.
4. Bill Briggs et al., Manifesting legacy: Looking beyond the digital era, Deloitte Insights, April 8, 2018.
5. Ibid.
6. Ibid.
7. Interview with Jo-ann Olsovsky, conducted December 4, 2018.
8. Jim Guszcza and Jeff Schwartz, Superminds: How humans and machines can work together, Deloitte Insights, Janu-
ary 28, 2019.
9. Interview with John Hagel, conducted November 27, 2018.
10. Unpublished data from Punit Renjen, How leaders are navigating the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Deloitte Insights,
January 20, 2019.
11. CIO Journal, “Closing technology, talent gaps for Industry 4.0,” Wall Street Journal, January 22, 2019.
12. Briggs et al., Manifesting legacy.
13. Ibid.
14. Interview with Rachel Parent, conducted December 14, 2018.
15. Interview with Steve Price conducted March 25, 2019.
How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
26
16. Schwartz et al., What is the future of work?
17. Guszcza and Schwartz, Superminds.
18. Briggs et al., Manifesting legacy.
19. Schwartz et al., What is the future of work?
20. Briggs et al., Manifesting legacy.
21. Ibid.
22. Unpublished data from Renjen, How leaders are navigating the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
23. Unpublished Future of Work in Technology survey data, collected February 2019.
24. Bill Pelster, Careers and learning: Real time, all the time, Deloitte Insights, February 28, 2017.
25. Interview with Stella Ward, conducted April 1, 2019.
26. Interview with Rachel Parent, conducted December 14, 2018.
27. Larry Dignan, “Survey confirms collaboration and the apps that come with it still suck,” ZDNet, March 5, 2018.
28. Wrike, “The high cost of multitasking: 40% of productivity lost by task switching,” September 24, 2015.
29. Goodreads, “Guy Kawasaki quotes,” accessed May 22, 2019.
30. Khalid Kark, Digital vanguard organizations, Deloitte Insights, February 1, 2019.
31. Erica Volini et al., From employee experience to human experience: Putting meaning back into work, Deloitte Insights,
April 11, 2019.
32. CIO Journal, “Societal impact: Purpose begins to pay off,” Wall Street Journal, January 28, 2019.
33. John Hagel and John Seely Brown, “Take a zoom out, zoom in approach to business strategy,” Wall Street Journal,
August 2, 2018.
34. Ibid.
35. Briggs et al., Manifesting legacy.
The authors would like to thank Jeff Schwartz, Steve Hatfield, Kristi Lamar, John Tweardy,
Cece Kadiyala, Neil Walker-Neveras, Reuben Daniel, and Lisa Dubay-Albert for their thoughtful
ideas, reviews, and advice.
Caroline Brown was the lead writer and the chief wordsmith.
Jeremy Arnold, Tanha Ashraf, and Mike McLaughlin were instrumental in helping us with content
development, interviews, reviews, and launch planning, and Tiffany Stronsky provided her expertise
in marketing, public relations, and social media. As always, Eliz Moore, Allen Qiu, and Liz Sarno pro-
vided support with data analysis and survey development. Junko Kaji, Rithu Thomas, Preetha Devan,
Mike Boone, Sonya Vasilieff, Anoop K R, and the entire Deloitte Insights team continue to provide
outstanding editorial and production skills and immeasurable support, patience, and flexibility.
Acknowledgments
The future of work in technology
27
Khalid Kark | kkark@deloitte.com
Khalid Kark is a director with Deloitte LLP where he leads the development of research and insights for
the CIO Program. Kark has decades of experience serving as a trusted advisor to large, multinational
clients, and helping technology leaders anticipate and plan for the impacts of new technology.
Previously, Kark led the CIO Research practice at Forrester Research. His research has appeared in
media outlets such as MSNBC, The Boston Globe, and CIO magazine. Kark is based in Dallas. Connect
with him on LinkedIn at https://www.linkedin.com/in/khalidkark and on Twitter at
https://twitter.com/khalidkark?lang=en.
Bill Briggs | wbriggs@deloitte.com
Bill Briggs is Deloitte Consulting LLP’s global chief technology officer and helps clients anticipate the
impact emerging technologies may have on their business in the future, and how to get there from the
realities of today. He also helps define the vision and strategy for Deloitte Consulting LLP’s evolving
technology services and offerings. Briggs also serves as executive sponsor of Deloitte’s CIO Program,
offering CIOs and other IT executives insights on navigating the complex challenges they face in busi-
ness and technology. He is based in Kansas City. Connect with him on LinkedIn at
https://www.linkedin.com/in/billbriggsdeloitte/ and on Twitter at https://twitter.com/wdbthree?lang=en.
Atilla Terzioglu | aterzioglu@deloitte.com
Atilla Terzioglu is a principal in the Technology Strategy and Architecture practice within Deloitte
Consulting LLP. He helps clients plan and execute new business strategies with technology, drive effi-
cient IT operations, evolve key IT capabilities to meet changing market dynamics, and deliver
IT-enabled business transformation. He has led major IT transformation initiatives enabling clients to
deliver IT as a service, as well as initiatives to reduce, cost, complexity, and business risk. He is based in
Boston. Connect with him on LinkedIn at https://www.linkedin.com/in/atilla-terzioglu.
Minu Puranik | mpuranik@deloitte.com
Minu Puranik is a senior manager at Deloitte LLP. Puranik is the Deloitte University Client Experience
strategy leader with Deloitte’s Client Accelerator program and the former leader of Deloitte’s US CIO
Program’s Content and Connections team where she was responsible for program alumni sustainment,
events and alliances, and thought leadership and research, including the CIO Insider research series
and in-depth research reports. She has over 15 years of experience in developing and delivering tech-
nology-led programs across many industries and sectors. Puranik is based in Dallas. Connect with her
on LinkedIn at https://www.linkedin.com/in/minu-puranik-83b6352/.
About the authors
How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
28
Contact us
Our insights can help you take advantage of change. If you’re looking for fresh ideas to address your
challenges, we should talk.
Industry leadership
Khalid Kark
Managing director, US CIO Program | Deloitte Consulting LLP
+1 214 840 7754 | kkark@deloitte.com
Bill Briggs
Global CTO | Deloitte Consulting LLP
+1 816 802 7350 | wbriggs@deloitte.com
Atilla Terzioglu
Principal, Technology Strategy and Architecture | Deloitte Consulting LLP
+1 617 449 5070 | aterzioglu@deloitte.com
Minu Puranik
Senior manager, Client Accelerators | Deloitte LLP
+1 214 840 7334 | mpuranik@deloitte.com
The future of work in technology
About Deloitte Insights
Deloitte Insights publishes original articles, reports and periodicals that provide insights for businesses, the public sector and
NGOs. Our goal is to draw upon research and experience from throughout our professional services organization, and that of
coauthors in academia and business, to advance the conversation on a broad spectrum of topics of interest to executives and
government leaders.
Deloitte Insights is an imprint of Deloitte Development LLC.
About this publication
This publication contains general information only, and none of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, its member firms, or its and
their affiliates are, by means of this publication, rendering accounting, business, financial, investment, legal, tax, or other profes-
sional advice or services. This publication is not a substitute for such professional advice or services, nor should it be used as a
basis for any decision or action that may affect your finances or your business. Before making any decision or taking any action
that may affect your finances or your business, you should consult a qualified professional adviser.
None of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, its member firms, or its and their respective affiliates shall be responsible for any
loss whatsoever sustained by any person who relies on this publication.
About Deloitte
Deloitte refers to one or more of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, a UK private company limited by guarantee (“DTTL”), its
network of member firms, and their related entities. DTTL and each of its member firms are legally separate and independent
entities. DTTL (also referred to as “Deloitte Global”) does not provide services to clients. In the United States, Deloitte refers to
one or more of the US member firms of DTTL, their related entities that operate using the “Deloitte” name in the United States
and their respective affiliates. Certain services may not be available to attest clients under the rules and regulations of public
accounting. Please see www.deloitte.com/about to learn more about our global network of member firms.
Copyright © 2019 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved.
Member of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited
Sign up for Deloitte Insights updates at www.deloitte.com/insights.
Follow @DeloitteInsight
Deloitte Insights contributors
Editorial: Rithu Thomas, Preetha Devan, Rupesh Bhat, and Abrar Khan
Creative: Anoop K R
Promotion: Alexandra Kawecki
Cover artwork: Sonya Vasilieff

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DeIoitte_The-future-of-work-in-technology.

  • 1. The future of work in technology How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
  • 2. CIOs lead unique and complex lives—operating at the intersection of business and IT to deliver value to their organizations. To help CIOs manage these challenges and issues, Deloitte has created the CIO Program. The program provides distinctive offerings to support the CIO career life cycle through leadership-development programs, immersive lab experiences, insight on provocative topics, and career transition support to complement the technology services and solutions we provide to our clients. About Deloitte’s CIO Program
  • 3. 1 Introduction | 2 Reimagining the role of technology | 3 Three interrelated dimensions: Work, workforce, workplace | 8 Imagine, compose, and activate the future of work | 23 Endnotes | 25 Contents How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
  • 4. 2 E VOLVING STRATEGIC BUSINESS imperatives, trends, and disrupters are driving a seismic shift in the way IT organizations operate. This report—part of a series exploring the merger of business and technology strategies and the reimag- ination of technology’s role in the business—aims to address fundamental questions about the future of work in technology: • How can organizations leverage technology to redesign current work outcomes to focus on exponential increases in productivity and cost efficiencies and redefine new work outcomes that extend beyond productivity and cost to value, meaning, and impact? • How will tomorrow’s technology workforce be different than today’s? How will jobs and roles change? What skills and capabilities will be needed? • Does the current workplace support the evolv- ing work of technology and the workforce required to complete it? How will it need to be redesigned to sustain the evolution of technology work? Based on formal surveys and interviews with doz- ens of business and technology leaders, this report discusses the future of work in technology—the work itself, who does the work (workforce), and where the work is done (workplace).1 It sheds light on changes in these three dimensions—work, work- force, and workplace—that have already begun, will continue to unfold during the next three years, and likely will continue to progress over time. Finally, it will provide pragmatic advice and recommenda- tions on how technology and business leaders can strategize, design, and collaborate on this bold journey. Introduction The future of work in technology
  • 5. 3 Reimagining the role of technology S AVVY BUSINESS AND technology executives are working together to reimagine how tech- nology delivers business value and competitive advantage. “Because of technological advances, technology’s role within the organization is itself shifting,” says Satish Alapati, CIO of Media & Entertainment Customer Experience at AT&T. “The role of technology has evolved from automat- ing the business to actually being the business.”2 Business innovation and disruption are rapidly changing the scope, pace, and scale of technology work. “Disruptions come in different forms—from competitors using technology at scale to the indus- trial Internet of Things,” says another technology leader. “As a result, it’s becoming more important than ever to enable everything we do with cutting- edge technology.”3 Yet despite the convergence of technology and business strategies, data from Deloitte’s 2018 Global CIO Survey suggests that CIOs and other technology leaders still struggle with a linger- ing perception of IT as order-taker rather than business-driver. Only 29 percent of business lead- ers participating in the survey agree that the technology organization and its leaders should be deeply involved in developing enterprise business strategy.4 Four major shifts in the role of technology Deloitte’s ongoing research on reimagining the role of technology has identified four significant shifts that are changing the role of technology in organizations. From trusted operator to business cocre- ator. Technology teams should continue to maintain operational excellence—in the past, their primary function—but because business and tech- nology strategies are now entwined, technology work should evolve to focus on hand-in-hand col- laboration with business functions to cocreate value. In addition, because of the growing demand for rapid and efficient delivery of low-friction experi- ences and capabilities—on par with best-in-class consumer-grade online experiences—many tech- nology teams are shifting from traditional project- and process-focused operating models to those that are more product- and outcome-centric, which prioritize cross-functional collaboration, acceleration of time-to-customer value and other user/customer needs, and business outcomes. From service delivery to value delivery. Automation, cloud, and as-a-service technology models are taking root, streamlining and speeding IT delivery, and changing the way technology teams and business functions work, collaborate, and create value. And they’re helping eliminate some tactical and operational work and move the rest to machines and service providers. As technology teams shift from trusted operators to business cocreators, their worth likely will lie in the value they deliver to the business rather than in the services they deliver. How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
  • 6. 4 From cost center to revenue engine. In the service delivery world, IT is typically viewed as a cost center, with CIOs charged to deliver services at the lowest possible cost. The average IT depart- ment invests more than half (56 percent) of its technology budget on maintaining business opera- tions and spends only 18 percent on building new business capabilities.5 Data suggests that if technology teams are to drive innovation and be change agents, reducing costs should take a back seat to strategically investing to increase revenue, growth, stock price, or other measurements of business and shareholder value. CIOs in “digital vanguard” organizations—those with well-defined digital strategies and highly regarded IT departments—already allocate less than half of their budgets (47 percent) to business operations and 26 percent to innovation. In the next three to five years, they plan to further reduce the operations allocation to a third of their annual budget while increasing innovation funding to 38 percent.6 For CIOs, being savvy about financial returns and articulating the value of technology investments can help drive forward their new agenda. When technology and business strategies merge, the technology function is a codriver of innovation and cocreator of revenue driven by technology investments. “IT needs to demonstrate an innova- tion agenda,” says Jo-ann Olsovsky, Salesforce CIO. “A company has to feel that IT is a change agent that’s positioning the business for the future.”7 From cybersecurity to risk and resilience. When it comes to risk, technology leaders’ primary focus has been cybersecurity. While cybersecurity will always be critical, leaders also should focus on business resilience and risks and disruptions inher- ent to having a combined business-technology strategy—risks whose reach extends beyond traditional IT environments into factories and other workspaces, products, and even customer locations. Because digitally connected customers will now have access to data through a voluminous set of channels that all need to be secure and resil- ient, this should include integrating security into product design and development. Forces shaping the future of work in technology Technology’s transition to a new role in the organi- zation requires the work of technology to change. Three forces are converging to reshape the future of work in technology: 1. The proliferation of disruptive technologies is continually reshaping businesses, industries, and markets. 2. Technology’s role is shifting to that of a catalyst for business strategy and transformation, changing the expectations and delivery of tech- nology and blurring the lines between business and technology functions. 3. Global demographic and workforce trends such as gig and contingent workers, a multigenera- tional workforce, more diverse talent, and global talent markets are transforming the labor market in general—and the technology workforce in particular. In the face of these drastic shifts, many savvy CIOs and other technology leaders are aiming to shape the future of work in technology. To do so, they can harness these forces and balance their competing demands while continuing to maintain operational excellence, meet business and customer expecta- tions, and drive innovation, disruption, and digital transformation. The future of work in technology
  • 7. 5 Source: Deloitte analysis. Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights FIGURE 1 The evolution of technology disciplines Technology vision and agenda setting Business cocreation Business partnerships Innovation and exploration Traditional IT disciplines New technology disciplines IT governance & performance management Value realization and measurement Project management Product management Application management Experience and design Architecture Technology architecture Platform & infrastructure management Data and insights Service management Product delivery Solution delivery Talent continuum Talent and leadership development Third-party ecosystem management Partner and ecosystem management Security, risk, and resilience IT risk, security, and compliance Agile approach and mindset Adaptive, multidisciplinary execution Ongoing, resilient ecosystem engagement How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
  • 8. 6 Traditional IT disciplines evolve to new technology disciplines Many technology leaders recognize these shifts are happening but may fail to understand their funda- mental implications on technology work and the workforce and workplaces required to deliver it. As a result, some leaders have approached the evolu- tion to the future of work with disjointed, ad hoc efforts. These changes have rendered the traditional scope of IT work unsustainable. Business leaders should redefine technology work beyond IT and refresh traditional IT disciplines to create technology disci- plines focusing on value creation (figure 1). In this report, we deliberately replaced the acronym “IT” with “technology” because the scope of responsibil- ity is very different for each. IT refers to the historic technology organization and its inward- focused IT disciplines. In the future, technology work will spread throughout the enterprise and may not be directly controlled by the CIO. Business and technology leaders alike can benefit from becoming comfortable with the idea of looking at technology holistically across the organization. This evolution goes beyond semantics. New tech- nology disciplines represent more than simply a different way of operating. Collectively, they define a fundamentally new type of work that extends beyond the boundaries of the technology organiza- tion to business and functional areas (see sidebar, “New IT disciplines”). Ultimately, these new disci- plines can help transform the technology work, workforce, and workplace. NEW IT DISCIPLINES • Business cocreation. Business cocreation is a shift in the role of the technology function from supporting character to costar. Hand-in-hand with business functions, technology teams can drive innovation and cocreate products, services, and experiences that drive growth, revenue, and competitive advantage. This likely will require unprecedented levels of collaboration among business and technology functions during the design, development, and deployment of products and services. • Value realization and measurement. The future of work in technology likely requires traditional IT governance and performance metrics to evolve to focus on realizing and measuring value. Clearly articulated business goals can provide clarity on objectives and metrics. KPIs such as revenue, market growth, and customer satisfaction can help monitor overall progress, maintain business-technology alignment, and keep teams jointly accountable. • Product management. When a product mindset is applied to the traditional IT disciplines of application and program management, technology work can be viewed as a product that solves business problems, rather than a project that implements an application and delivers functionality. This can ensure development of a coherent product strategy, a coordinated plan for spreading technology work across business and functional areas and external partners, and engagement with external stakeholders—including customers, prospects, and ecosystem partners—throughout the product development process.* • Experience and design. This new technology discipline focuses on tasks such as embedding technology into the end-to-end customer life cycle to provide products and solutions throughout the customer journey and help ensure that critical bottlenecks are quickly identified and resolved. Analytics and AI can help predict user behavior and provide a differentiated experience, thereby enabling revenue growth: Revenues for companies whose customer experience is highly ranked outgrew other companies by more than five to one, suggesting that technology leaders should actively engage in customer experience and design to provide this edge. The future of work in technology
  • 9. 7 • Technology architecture. Architectural discipline is often a casualty of rapid growth. Mergers and acquisitions, aging legacy systems and processes, and the proliferation of data and applications also can complicate and strain architecture, platform, and infrastructure management. Decisions about cloud adoption or off-the-shelf software purchases can be evaluated not only on cost, features, and functionality but also on their ability to offer future options, flexibility, agility, scalability, and speed to market. • Data and insights. Customer data can increase engagement and helps teams to create products and experiences to support individual customer journeys. Business data can improve decision-making, while product data can be monetized or used to help improve reliability and experience. Yet data on its own does not drive value—it first should be normalized, aggregated from across the organization and external sources, and analyzed to deliver insights that can be monetized. Few organizations have cracked the code for monetizing data, an even more challenging task because of the velocity at which data is being generated. • Product delivery and operations. Continuous delivery can enable faster, more iterative delivery of technology work, with continuous attention on improving quality. This likely includes migrating to approaches such as Agile development and DevOps to deliver greater, faster business value. Because legacy environments often use a mix of delivery methods, many organizations that shift to these methods may employ a hybrid approach. • Talent continuum. Talent of the future likely will be valued not only for technical skills but also for agility, flexibility, ability to collaborate, and other soft skills. To access needed skills, leaders may need to leverage talent from across the open talent continuum, which includes full-time and contract workers, crowdsourcing, and the external partner ecosystem. In addition, the talent continuum will include human–machine collaborations and partnerships. Businesses will rely on machines to carry out and augment work across a wide spectrum, where machines could serve as tools, assistants, peers, or even managers.8 • Partner and ecosystem orchestration. Via engagement with the broader business ecosystem, leaders can tap new revenue sources such as business and industry platforms and digital marketplaces. Ecosystem partners can help organizations identify and understand emerging technologies that may be relevant to business strategy and objectives. Finally, engaging the ecosystem accelerates opportunities for learning, a largely social activity, and innovation, which is often the result of collaboration across fields of expertise and domains of knowledge. • Security, risk, and resilience. The historic IT risk, security, and compliance discipline typically is not designed to help companies evaluate, manage, and harness risks related to growth. Many savvy organizations are already managing such risks by using AI to protect against a rapidly changing threat landscape, managing risks to customer and company data and intellectual property used for value creation, bolstering organizational resilience to meet the requirements of a hyper-connected era, and owning digital responsibility and ethics. *Product marketing is an important component of this discipline: It includes market positioning, creation of customer personas, product launches, sales strategy development (for internal products, development of consumption strategy, among others). How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
  • 10. 8 Three interrelated dimensions: Work, workforce, workplace T HESE EXTERNAL FORCES and internal pres- sures fundamentally redefine the three dimensions of the future of work in technol- ogy: the what (work), who (workforce), and where (workplace) of technology work, as shown in figure 2. Every company’s journey to the future of work will have a different starting point depending on busi- ness strategy, industry drivers, and market dynamics. However, regardless of entry point, businesses should first define new work and work outcomes before considering workforce or work- place transformations. • Work (what): It’s likely that technology work increasingly will be performed by humans, machines, or human–machine collaboration; leaders should determine how to deploy people, bots, and algorithms separately and in partner- ship. Technology teams’ focus should turn from IT capabilities to work outcomes as they move Source: Deloitte analysis. Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights FIGURE 2 The future of work requires rethinking work, workforce, and workplace Current work options Future work options Work transformation Workplace readiness Work Workforce Workplace 1 3 2 What work can be automated? With technologies such as robotics, artificial intelligence, and cloud, how is traditional technology work automat- ed, enhanced, and transformed? Who can do the work? With new talent platforms and required skills, who can do the work? How do we leverage the continuum of talent from full-time workers, to managed services, to freelancers, gig workers, crowds, and machines? With workspaces for cocreation, collaboration tools, and cultures of high performance, how are workplaces and work practices reshaping where and when work is done? Where is the work done? Workforce options 1 3 2 The future of work in technology
  • 11. 9 from project- and process-centric operating models to those that prioritize products and outcomes. Cocreating value with business func- tions and focusing on customer outcomes rather than processes are part of a more funda- mentally human and meaningful work experience. As teams shift their emphasis to combined business-technology strategies and objectives and are enabled by automation to trade manual and repetitive tasks for those requiring higher-order skills, it’s likely that they’ll find more meaning in their work. • Workforce (who): Jobs and roles, talent and skills, and organizational structure will evolve. Employment models are already changing; businesses can access talent via a range of on- and off-balance sheet solutions. And finally, instead of being specialized technologists, tech- nology workers can become collaborative cocreators of business value. • Workplace (where): Technology workplaces are evolving from location-centric to relation- ship-oriented. The geographic location of the work will vary, and workspaces should be rede- signed to maximize collaboration, productivity, and cocreation. When extended to a network of geographic locations, including virtual offices, coworking spaces, and traditional office spaces, seamlessly integrated technologies such as col- laboration and digital reality tools can help facilitate and support connections among humans and machines. Let’s take a more detailed look at the shifts in the work, workforce, and workplace. Work: From IT capabilities to technology work outcomes Historically, technology teams took pride in devel- oping and delivering IT capabilities to serve business needs. Technology leaders assessed and developed people, processes, and technologies to address organizational demands through the use of complex capability models and frameworks—all within a centralized IT organization. As organizations develop joint business-technology strategies and collaborate to cocreate business value, processes and roles may change, causing skills and tasks to overlap across traditional busi- ness and technology borders. Integrating business and technology skills and teams likely will require CIOs and other functional leaders to rethink how they and their teams work. The focus is no longer on the delivery of a project but on the value deliv- ered from the outcome. “Redefining work means identifying and addressing unseen problems and opportunities in the work, for everyone at all levels and at all times,” says John Hagel, cochairman for Deloitte LLP’s Center for the Edge.9 The transition from IT capabilities to technology work outcomes requires a fundamental shift in thinking: Technology is not solely the purview of the IT function. Business leaders are equally accountable for the successful design and delivery of technology work. The two-step process of reimagining what technol- ogy work will look like in the future includes first deconstructing the work and identifying work out- comes, and then defining the roles that support new disciplines. STEP 1. DECONSTRUCT THE WORK AND IDENTIFY WORK OUTCOMES To gain clarity on the new work and provide guid- ance to those in new roles, technology leaders can deconstruct the work into work outcomes for each discipline. These outcomes will define not only the new work, but also the expected outcomes and accountabilities (figure 3). Further analysis of work outcomes can help deter- mine which activities an organization should continue, discontinue, or deliver in a different way How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
  • 12. 10 Source: Deloitte analysis. Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights Business cocreation New technology disciplines Value realization and measurement Product management Experience and design Technology architecture Data and insights Product delivery and operations Talent continuum Ecosystem and platform orchestration Security, risk, and resilience Agile approach and mindset Adaptive, multidisciplinary execution Ongoing, resilient ecosystem engagement Customer relationship management SLA management Investment portfolio management IT financial management IT process governance and KPI management IT cost management Product strategy Product definition and hierarchy Product planning Customer journey management Technology strategy management Platform management Architecture management Innovation and knowledge management Data analytics and insights Data management Intelligent reporting Agile delivery Product build Product design Workforce strategy Total rewards Organization change management Talent acquisition Talent development Talent performance management Third-party ecosystem management Risk identification Risk detection Risk protection Audit and compliance management Security incident management Work outcome domains FIGURE 3 Define work outcomes for technology disciplines The future of work in technology
  • 13. 11 based on the changing role of technology. It can also help executives identify the work that will be performed by humans, machines, or a combination of the two—and help ensure that work is meaning- ful to all stakeholders. This level of detail can help provide a deeper understanding of how work is changing and show how the roles and the organization could evolve to deliver the work. For example, a more in-depth examination reveals how the work outcomes for the technology disciplines of product management (figure 4) and product delivery and operations (figure 5) could be defined. Source: Deloitte analysis. Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights FIGURE 4 Product management work outcomes Changing outcomes and who can do the work Product strategy Product marketing and communications management Product planning Product definition/hierarchy Product strategy Product marketing and communications management Product definition and hierarchy Product planning Product management AI-assisted research (internal/ external) insights Proactive product requirements and capability definition Well-defined, customer-cen- tric business outcomes Fixed product definition and work breakdown AI-fueled product maturity assessment Well-defined and engaged stakeholders and users Plan to manage capability and grow competency Feedback-en- abled product KPI manage- ment Optimal product pricing for maximum value realization Rapid, customer-val- ue-driven capability prioritization Adaptable internal- facing product road map Customer-fac- ing product road map Agile and predictive product portfolio management Collaborative,- customer-centric product offering management Collaborative Agile product launch management Collaborative, scalable, and searchable product collateral management Start Primarily machine Human-machine mix Primarily human Change How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
  • 14. 12 Source: Deloitte analysis. Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights FIGURE 5 Product delivery and operations work outcomes Changing outcomes and who can do the work Agile delivery Product design Product build Product backlog Iteration execution Retrospective Iteration review Incremental product testing Iterative product build Iteration planning User experience design Solution design Requirements management Customer journey management Service design Iteration backlog Automated version control Incremental product delivery and prototyping Automated static source code validation Infrastructure as a code Automated deployment pipeline Big room planning Automated provisioning and deployment Iterative UI development Tool-enabled test data management Product delivery and operations Agile delivery Product build Product design Start Primarily machine Human-machine mix Primarily human Change Stop The future of work in technology
  • 15. 13 STEP 2. IDENTIFY ROLES THAT SUPPORT NEW DISCIPLINES Once work outcomes have been designed, leaders can establish the organization and roles needed to support the new disciplines and outcomes. New roles will emerge but others, such as project man- ager and business analyst, may evolve, decline in demand, or even disappear (figure 6). Some roles, such as product owner, may be filled by workers in business functions rather than those in the tech- nology function. Leaders can identify roles that do not transfer to the new model and determine how resources can be reskilled, trained, and supported to make the shift. The vast majority (89 percent) of surveyed technology executives plan to somewhat or very extensively retrain current staff,10 but not all employees will want or be able to transition roles— for example, some project managers may not be able to become scrum masters. Defining clear work outcomes and accountabilities can allow leaders to have candid conversations with technology and business staff about future expectations. Clarity of roles and organization structure to sup- port the new disciplines can help leaders make a smooth transition. For example, the average tech- nology organization might have hundreds of project managers and application developers. Executives can understand, assess, and communi- cate the new skills and tools these roles will need, and identify individual road maps based on current competencies, future potential, and passion. Workforce: From specialized technologist to collaborative cocreator The workforce required to deliver these new work outcomes could be a gating factor in this transition. As technology work evolves, talent with the required skills and capabilities are increasingly in high demand. The size, scope, and competencies of the workforce required to deliver the new technol- ogy work likely will be very different than in the past. Some leaders begin considering workforce trans- formation without first determining the work and work outcomes that should be delivered. However, the lack of clearly identified and articulated work outcomes can lead to piecemeal, inefficient, and unproductive efforts. It bears repeating that busi- ness and technology leaders should first define new work outcomes—only then can they make determi- nations about transforming the workforce. The following considerations may help. TECHNOLOGY ATHLETES REPLACE SPECIALIZED TECHNOLOGISTS As technology work changes, so do the skills and proficiencies required to complete the work. Fifty- one percent of CIOs surveyed in Deloitte’s 2019 report on Industry 4.0 readiness cite a significant mismatch between current skill sets and future needs.11 In the past, many IT workers have been task- focused, often with highly specific skill sets. A worker with sought-after application development skills could spend his or her entire career within a single specialization. Technical expertise remains critical and in short supply—65 percent of global CIO survey participants say analytics and data sci- ence will be the hardest-to-find technical skills in How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
  • 16. 14 Source: Deloitte analysis. Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights Business cocreation New technology disciplines Value realization and measurement Product management Experience and design Technology architecture Data and insights Product delivery and operations Talent continuum Partner ecosystem orchestration Security, risk, and resilience Agile approach and mindset Adaptive, multidisciplinary execution Ongoing, resilient ecosystem engagement Tech and business leadership Business relationship manager Digital strategist IT finance manager PMO coordinator Agile portfolio manager Product manager Project manager Business analyst Product owner User experience designer User requirements manager Customer experience designer Enterprise architects System and network administrator Systems engineer Cloud architect Data analyst and database administrator Backup administrator Data scientist Product engineer UI designer IT operations mana- ger Service manager Release engineer tester DevOps engineer Site reliability engineer HR technology manager IT HR manager Learning manager System administrator Open talent coordinator Sourcing and procurement manager Vendor manager Ecosystem partner manager Security manager Chief risk officer System security administrator Product security manager FIGURE 6 New technology disciplines redefine technology roles Evolving roles Declining roles Net new roles The future of work in technology
  • 17. 15 the next five years while 54 percent named cyber and 49 percent named emerging technologies.12 However, some specialized skill sets are falling by the wayside as IT becomes more automated. “Twenty years ago, people branded themselves as SAP experts and even focused on a specific module, and that was going to be the focus of their entire IT career,” says Wayne Shurts, former EVP and CTO, Sysco Corporation. “Those days are gone. Today it’s about technology athletes—people who are curi- ous and are always looking to solve business problems through technology.”13 Ditto, says Rachel Parent, MassMutual CIO. “It’s no longer imperative that the IT leader be deeply skilled in a specific technology discipline. Technology is changing too rapidly for that depth of expertise to remain relevant,” she says. “There’s incredible value in having skills that allow you to keep current with technology trends. Understand which of those can help drive your organization’s strategy relative to serving customers, enabling col- laboration, and increasing operational and financial efficiencies.”14 MACHINES AUGMENT TECH WORKERS With clearly articulated work outcomes, technology leaders should be able to align roles and work. They can ascertain the outcomes that can best be achieved by machines, humans (permanent employees, contractors, or otherwise sourced), or a combination of both. “It’s important to think about how people and machines should work together,” says Dell CHRO Steve Price. “This will have implications for how and where work gets done, the kind of skills people need to possess, and the broader expectations of the future workforce.”15 While cognitive technologies are indeed transfor- mational, evidence suggests they will augment rather than replace workers.16 Most tactical, algo- rithmic, and structured work will be automated by machines over time, leaving much creative and strategic work for human talent. “We have spent way too much time thinking about people versus computers, and not nearly enough time thinking about people and computers,” says Thomas Malone, director of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence. “We’ve spent too much time thinking about what jobs computers are going to take away from people, and not nearly enough time thinking about what people and computers can do together that could never be done before.”17 ENDURING HUMAN SKILLS COMPLEMENT TECHNICAL EXPERTISE In the past, soft skills that support collaboration and communication typically took a back seat to specialized technical skills. Today, soft skills are having a breakout moment. These enduring, essen- tially human skills are increasing in value in part because they cannot be replicated by machines. Even though future technology jobs may be more machine-powered and data-driven, talent likely will need to have more breadth across both busi- ness and technology areas. This could include critical traits for driving innovation and disruption, such as: • Business and financial acumen to understand complex business challenges and decisions • Ability to understand the engagement, interac- tion, and collaboration of humans and machines • Enduring and essential human skills such as empathy, creativity, and enthusiasm for learning • Ability to embrace change and uncertainty And as we’ve suggested, rather than working in centralized silos of IT expertise, technology talent likely will need to collaborate with business func- tions to cocreate value. The CIOs who participated How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
  • 18. 16 in the global CIO survey point to a growing need to augment technical expertise with collaboration skills (figure 7). This is not a subtle shift—it likely requires new job families, roles, and talent capabilities. Talent short- ages are hardly new to IT—60 percent of participants in the global CIO survey report diffi- culty finding employees with the appropriate balance of skills.18 Yet there likely will continue to be a dearth of talent with the right mix of special- ized skills, adjacent proficiencies, and enduring human skills to support business mandates for innovation, growth, and business transformation. OPEN TALENT CONTINUUM PROVIDES MORE WORKFORCE OPTIONS CIOs have more options than ever before to access the technology talent they need. The pool of poten- tial tech workers—an open talent continuum—is expanding to include both on- and off-balance-sheet talent, from traditional full-time employees and managed services to alternative workers, including independent contractors, gig workers, and crowdsourcing (figure 8 ).19 According to the global CIO survey, CIOs are already leaning heavily on the open talent contin- uum. Fifty-eight percent of survey respondents say they are retraining and retooling current talent.20 The same percentage report leveraging talent from external partners and service providers,21 and in another survey, 73 percent of technology executives said they plan to access needed talent by somewhat or very extensively using gig economy workers.22 Yet, a third of leaders surveyed for this report feel unprepared to leverage gig workers, freelancers, and crowdsourcing—a barrier that likely will need to be overcome.23 While technology organizations are adept at man- aging technology vendors, the 2019 Deloitte N=980. Source: 2018 Deloitte global CIO survey. Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights FIGURE 7 CIOs are on the hunt for talent with essential and enduring human skills What are the most important IT talent soft skills that you plan to hire for your team (currently and in three years)? Current skills Skills in three years: Increase Skills in three years: Decrease 0% 75% Creativity 39% Cognitive flexibility 29% Emotional intelligence 34% Complex problem-solving Leadership/management 56% Critical thinking 46% Negotiation 26% Systems thinking Service orientation RISING TECH SKILLS Traditional tech skills 61% 52% 48% 60% 51% 29% 64% 51% 65% 61% 47% 52% The future of work in technology
  • 19. 17 Source: Deloitte analysis. Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights FIGURE 8 The open talent continuum Organization’s employees Open talent continuum Joint venture employees Managed service providers Contractors Gig workers Crowd Traditional Best for function-specific work Open Best for task-specific work Global Human Capital Trends Survey found nearly half (49 percent) of IT organizations are not consistent or integrated in their methods for sourc- ing and managing talent across the open talent continuum, which can prevent organizations from accessing the needed talent from the best source in a timely manner. Nearly every survey respondent indicated HR is responsible for hiring and develop- ing full-time employees while procurement handles contracts with the external ecosystem, and users across the organization access open talent sources such as contractors, gig workers, and crowdsourcing. JOB DESCRIPTIONS BECOME JOB CANVASES Job descriptions rarely match actual jobs, espe- cially in technology—and the future of work in technology could be the nail in the coffin of the tra- ditional job description. Future technology jobs will be ever-evolving and dynamic. The half-life of a skill is currently five years24 and likely will con- tinue to decrease, which means the tools, skills, competencies, and requirements needed to per- form a role will constantly change. People are likely to have multiple roles within an organization dur- ing their careers. As a result, we propose evolving job descriptions into “job canvases” that outline expanded responsi- bilities, new skills, redesigned work, and redefined work outcomes that are the result of automation and machine augmentation. A job canvas could include: • Skills increasing and decreasing in importance for that particular family of jobs • Broad sets of responsibilities across a family of jobs • Persona of an individual worker in the job • Description of “a day in the life” of a person in the role Building on the work outcomes examples, we iden- tified potential changes to product management and product delivery and operations, examined how this could affect the roles of product manager and Agile portfolio manager, and developed sample job canvases for these roles. For product managers, skills that likely will dimin- ish in importance include project management, technical writing and editing, and user interface design. On the other hand, scrum, DevOps, design How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
  • 20. 18 thinking, Agile product life cycle management, and continuous integration and delivery will become more important skills (figure 9). Similarly, as prod- uct delivery and operations evolve, Agile portfolio managers will need to hone their capabilities in product testing, scrum and DevOps, data analysis, product management, customer contact, product improvement, and prototyping. They will likely have less need for skills such as project manage- ment, process engineering, systems integration, and component design (figure 10). Workplace: From location- centric to relationship- oriented The evolution of the work and workforce should be supported by targeted location strategies, as well as flexible physical and virtual workplaces. Fixed, uncompromising workplaces may need to evolve to virtual workplaces that leverage advanced mobility and connectivity, collaboration tools, and emerging technologies such as virtual and augmented reality that help improve collaboration and integrate workers from all segments of the open talent continuum. “When it comes to the workplace of the future, physical proximity is going to matter less and less,” says Stella Ward, chief digital officer of Canterbury and West Coast District Health Boards, New Zealand. “There are so many collaboration tools out there to help teams get work done remotely. The challenge is identifying the right tools and making sure our employees know how to use them to maximize efficiency.”25 However, that doesn’t always mean face-to-face connections or the offices that host them are unneeded, although they may be designed differ- ently. In fact, technology and business teams may require closer physical proximity than in the past. “Working in the office is about building relationships and trust between team members. When team members feel connected and trust each other, productivity increases,” says MassMutual’s Parent. “Good collaboration tools will help sustain this productive collaboration for longer periods of time when people cannot be regularly colocated but teams will still need to physically come together periodically.”26 Such workplaces likely will need to be flexibly designed to encourage collaboration and innova- tion to drive joint creation of business value. When considering a workplace strategy, leaders can ask questions about workspaces, collaboration, and culture (figure 11). Each is discussed below in greater detail. CREATING WORKSPACES FOR COCREATION The mandate to cocreate technology solutions likely would require collaboration among business and technology functions. Collaboration could be virtual or in-person depending on the role, scope of work, and activity. Leaders can strive to create physical and virtual workspaces that encourage teamwork and connections but acknowledge the need for deep individual work. While a healthy portion of the workforce already has flexible work arrangements, leaders may need to carefully balance the strategies for leveraging flexible, remote, and virtual workers and providing physical proximity and colocation to spark innova- tion, diversity of thought, and unplanned connections. Mechanisms that can enable customer participa- tion in the cocreation process are important. This can help technology and business teams gather customer feedback, incorporate it into each release of product design, and engage the customer to communicate new features and availability of updates as a result of their feedback and consumption. The future of work in technology
  • 21. 19 Source: Deloitte analysis. Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights FIGURE 9 Job canvas for product manager Diminishing skills Project management Technical writing/editing User interface design Growing skills Scrum DevOps Design thinking Agile product life cycle management Continuous integration and delivery Changing skills Résumé My top skills Responsibilities IT product managers will have altered profiles comprising different focal points and priorities Creating a job canvas Technical product manager Product managers are strategic and analytical gurus that own the life cycle of specific products from strategy to operational excellence. They work across the organization and with customers to understand needs from both a business and technical perspective. 5+ years of product management experience 1 year computer science experience Experience leading cross-functional teams including UX/CX designers, project engineers, quality assurance professionals Leadership Understanding of market and business strategy Design thinking Tech fluency Ability to manage ambiguity Collaborate with design, CX, marketing, sales and business stakeholders to build business cases and define product vision Guide and influence cross-functional teams of designers, software developers, data analysts Partner with Marketing, Sales, Branding to drive awareness of new products Prioritize feature development and manage product life cycle from concept to design, sample production, testing, forecast, cost, mass production, promotion, and support Utilize wealth of internal, external data and machine learning tools to drive product decisions. Translate complex technical challenges for nontechnical stakeholders Engage with customers and stakeholders continuously to gather insight on product development, refine and drive growth Act as consultant to help with the sales process Master of business administration Bachelor’s degree in computer science Also completed ad hoc courses Design thinking crash course Agile scrum project management Experience Education and certifications How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
  • 22. 20 Source: Deloitte analysis. Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights FIGURE 10 Job canvas for Agile portfolio manager Diminishing skills Project management Process engineering Systems integration Component design Growing skills Product testing Scrum DevOps Data analysis Product management Customer contact Product improvement Prototyping Changing skills Résumé My top skills Responsibilities Agile portfolio managers will have altered profiles comprising different focal points and priorities Agile portfolio manager The Agile portfolio manager will provide oversight to portfolio level value-driven governance for Agile product deliveries across the organization. They ensure that all technology portfolio investments are aligned to the business strategy. They drive operational excellence by communicating vision and objectives throughout the portfolio. They assign resources and manage dependencies across the portfolio while continuously prioritizing projects in alignment with the business strategy. Experience managing multiple technology projects or product portfolios in Agile environments Experience managing a cross-functional process or technical delivery team Proficient knowledge of Agile and DevOps Collaborative Understanding of customer and business strategy Storytelling with data Tech fluency and business fluency Ability to manage ambiguity Communicate the broader business objectives and portfolio vision throughout the portfolio Govern portfolio efforts in a scaled, Agile environment Provide extensive analysis of the portfolio's value streams to enable lean budgeting Stay current with all current and future projects, customer demands, and budget and monitor portfolio in real time to ensure it is achieving strategic objectives Coordinate value streams to create portfolio level capabilities and benefits Partner with delivery teams to develop lean business cases that link business benefits to technology investments for funding and allocation requests Predict and identify risks and opportunities created by interdependencies between product deliveries Support the identification and removal of barriers to product delivery Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science (or equivalent years of professional experience) Agile project management Experience Education and certifications Creating a job canvas The future of work in technology
  • 23. 21 Source: Deloitte analysis. Deloitte Insights | deloitte.com/insights FIGURE 11 Workplace considerations for the future of work in technology Workspaces How does your space allow for cocreation, innovation, and productivity? How does the workspace support business value creation and operating model agility? How do you balance the value of physical proximity with the flexibility many employees desire? What tools and mechanisms are in place to enable collaboration across functions, business units, locations, and cultures? How do collaboration tools and practices enhance productivity, agility, and efficiency? How can emerging technologies such as virtual and artificial reality transform learning and enable curiosity and creativity? How does your organization contribute to meaningful causes beyond financial gain? How do you create incentives and rewards to align to desired behaviors and business outcomes? How do you ensure a resiliency mindset and scale your culture at a time of rapid changes in business and technology? Collaboration Culture COLLABORATION TOOLS AND PRACTICES ENHANCE PRODUCTIVITY, CREATIVITY, VALUE, AND MEANING Video conferencing, online collaboration platforms, and other tools have revolutionized organizations’ ability to seamlessly collaborate on a global basis. As the work of technology evolves, collaboration tools likely will become critical; entire organiza- tions may rely on them. Leaders should stay ahead of workers’ communication and collaboration needs and constantly evaluate tools that could enhance productivity, increase transparency and collaboration, inspire more creative results, and enable more meaningful connections—ultimately enabling teams to drive new sources of value. Plan and execute cautiously so that these tools don’t become a productivity drain. One survey of 2,000 workers found that most use an average of four collaboration apps; 20 percent use six or more. Sixty-eight percent of employees say they toggle between apps up to 10 times per hour; about the same percentage (69 percent) say they waste up to an hour every day switching among apps.27 The American Psychological Association has found that employees experience a 40 percent drop in produc- tivity each time they switch tasks.28 Adoption of collaboration-enhancing processes and practices can also be valuable. Agile methods such as daily stand-ups/scrum meetings, ongoing feed- back loops, transparency, and joint accountability can help foster effective collaboration. And activity- based training, pairing, and rotation programs, and training for conflict resolution and growth mindset are other practices leaders can consider as they aim to integrate collaboration into the workplace and work activities. CREATING A CULTURE OF PERFORMANCE, PURPOSE, AND MEANING Steve Jobs famously said that A players attract other A players.29 Occasionally, B players may con- vince a high performer to join the organization, but to consistently acquire and retain top talent, busi- nesses need a supportive, engaging culture. The global CIO survey demonstrated that culture—the organization’s deeply rooted beliefs and behaviors— is a key distinguishing factor for digital vanguard How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
  • 24. 22 organizations,30 yet many participants in the 2019 Deloitte Human Capital Trends Survey rated their organizations only somewhat or not effective on attributes related to culture and experience, including providing meaningful work (37 percent) and maintaining positive work environment (41 percent).31 Leaders can nurture and curate a culture to align with desired behaviors and outcomes. For the tech- nology work of the future, cultural attributes such as collaboration, empathy, creativity, and agility likely will be significantly more important than they are today. Increasingly, social purpose and meaning are playing a significant role in organiza- tional culture, due in part to pressure from workers, especially millennials and Generation Z: Forty-two percent of CIOs who participated in one survey say pressure from employees is a major motivator.32 As they seek to develop organizational cultures that support their business strategies, leaders should consider whether the current culture, incentives, behaviors, and leadership align with the new model. They can also determine whether certain policies, mandates, or corporate constraints hinder productivity, agility, and growth. For technology, iterative work processes often require integrated and ongoing performance and development con- versations to be embedded into the flow of work. Rewards are based on teamwork, the attainment of shared goals, and customer intimacy rather than operational excellence. KEY IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE OF WORK TRANSFORMATION • Financial planning. Changes in technology—and corresponding changes in the work, workforce, and workplace—may have significant financial implications that should be understood early in the process. Engage necessary stakeholders to gain consensus on issues such as capitalization versus the expense model, as well as internal versus external spending. • Ecosystem orchestration. The current procurement mindset often benefits the lowest cost provider, leads to transactional relationships, and binds the organization to multiyear commitments. And as the shelf life of skills moves from a lifetime to a few years, organizations cannot always rely on captive talent to do their work. Leaders are quickly realizing they should reimagine their ecosystems as sources of value cocreation, revenue, and augmentation of internal talent and skills. Businesses are evolving from members of a linear value chain that adds incremental value to participants in a much broader ecosystem of technology disrupters, incubators, startups, business partners, suppliers, and customers that cocreates business solutions, uncovers new opportunities, and delivers competitive advantage. One large distribution company built a platform that allowed real-time information to its suppliers and an integrated portal for its global distribution network that created efficiencies, reduced inventories, and increased profits across the entire ecosystem. • Technology work in the business. Pervasiveness of technology is impacting work outside of traditional boundaries of IT. What might once have been viewed as a traditional business role is now becoming very tech-centric. The impact of the changes in technology work, workforce, and workplace on business roles should also be considered. The future of work in technology
  • 25. 23 Imagine, compose, and activate the future of work G IVEN THE COMPLEXITY of the converging disciplines, new talent models, spectrum of human–machine collaboration, and other variables in this shift, developing and execut- ing the organization’s future of work strategy may seem paralyzing. To help leaders get started, we suggest using a method we’ve called “Imagine-Compose-Activate.” Instead of getting bogged down in solving an immediate problem, start by imagining the organi- zation’s future in the three- to five-year time frame. Imagine the future of work without constraints; restrictions typically evolve over time.33 If there were no budget, staffing, or other constraints, what would the business look like? How will it drive value and provide meaningful work? Composing the work and work outcomes can help businesses lay the foundation for work, workforce, and workplace components. Analyze and redesign work, workforce, and workplace options that take advantage of automation, alternative talent sources, and collaborative workplaces. Finally, activate the future of work by initiating changes to the workforce and workplace and deter- mining how to measure and report outcomes. This includes realigning operating model, culture, talent development, and leadership. Lessons from leaders The executives we interviewed provided three overarching lessons to help enable the Imagine-Compose-Activate process. Zoom out first. Technology leaders are problem- solvers who tend to “zoom in” on problems with the intent of quickly solving them. Instead of nar- rowing in on and trying to resolve specific pain points related to the future of work, consider first looking at the big picture, holistically taking into account changes in work, workforce, and work- place. “Zooming out” three to five years and envisioning a future without bounds can help lead- ers imagine and define the art of the possible without the current constraints.34 This could help leaders get “unstuck” from the present and drive a transformative mindset that could clarify the unre- alized potential of work, workforce, and workplace. Access, curate, and engage talent. The tradi- tional talent management mindset focused on attracting, developing, and retaining needed talent. The evolution of work, workforce, and workplace suggests the Attract-Develop-Retain model may have run its course. Consider instead the Access- Curate-Engage approach, in which organizations access talent on the open continuum, curate con- sumer-grade learning experiences that can enable technology athletes to build skills in real time, and engage talent by realigning rewards, incentives, and leadership to support and enable idea genera- tion, cocreation, collaboration, accountability, and transparency. Iterate, deliver, and repeat. We can’t empha- size this enough: The future of work transformation is a journey, not a destination. Continually iterate the work, workforce, and workplace models to account for changing business and technology landscapes. As new technologies and business models emerge, the work of technology will How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
  • 26. 24 continually change and leaders in technology orga- nizations likely will need to adapt quickly. Additional key recommendations Shifts matter: Move from IT capabilities to work outcomes. Technology work has often been traditionally performed by a centralized IT function and “thrown over the wall” to the busi- ness to confirm whether promised results were achieved. To kick-start a business mindset change, we purposefully have moved away from the tradi- tional notion of IT capabilities in this report and embraced the term “work outcomes.” The concept of work outcomes holds both technology and busi- ness resources accountable for product outcomes as well as adjustments and iterations that allow for continuous business value. Bias toward speed and progress, not perfec- tion. Recognize that speed and time to market are often key to competitiveness and cocreation. Releasing and iterating a minimally viable product based on customer feedback is fast becoming the norm. Technology work of the future is more akin to building speed boats than large naval vessels. Reliability, security, and resilience are still required, but flexibility, agility, and speed typically are more important. Embrace cocreation at the team, enterprise, and ecosystem levels. The future of work is not a solo journey. Partner with other executive leaders and business and functional executives and equip them with the knowledge and ability to make informed technology decisions. The global CIO sur- vey found that technology leaders who elevate the tech fluency of business counterparts are likely to have deeper and more influential relationships with their peers.35 The three most important allies for technology leaders on this journey likely will be the finance, HR, and procurement leaders—help them become equally invested and accountable for the outcomes. Iterate with end—the outcomes—in mind. This journey may be triggered by business reorga- nization, skills shortage, business realignment, office space redesign, or many other potential causes. Irrespective of its entry point, a business should define work outcomes before trying to transform the workforce or workplace. Jumping ahead to reskilling the workforce or redesigning the workplace without understanding the shift in technology work could create chaos and confusion. After establishing work outcomes, leaders can determine the tools, automation, workforce needs, and how to augment humans with machines. Work outcomes and workforce decisions together can help determine the type of physical workspace, col- laboration tools, and culture needed to support the change. Enable real-time learning. Gone are the days when professionals crafted and perfected their skills over decades, even lifetimes. An average employee may have multiple careers in an organi- zation. To engage and retain high performers, leaders should develop continuous learning pro- grams that provide real-time skills acquisition, on-the-job training, and experience-based rapid knowledge transfer. Stay informed through tech sensing. The increasing speed of technology change can make it difficult to stay abreast of advances. Technology leaders can keep informed of emerging technology trends and their business implications. Many lever- age partner ecosystems to tap into new technologies, while others collaborate with univer- sities and incubation hubs or invest in startups. Knowledge acquired as the result of such “tech sensing” approaches should be disseminated throughout the organization to help increase tech- nology fluency. Align with purpose. External corporate brand, internal culture, and the technology organization’s The future of work in technology
  • 27. 25 mission should align to a higher purpose. Top tal- ent often wants to work for companies whose ambition, passion, and purpose rise above eco- nomic considerations. They’re seeking organizations that believe in and significantly con- tribute to meaningful causes. Authentically aligning the organization to environmental issues, human development, public health, or other rele- vant cause that can help bring meaning to work can directly impact talent recruitment. Tolerate calculated risk. Typically, technology leaders avoid or minimize risk while business lead- ers seek to maximize value while taking calculated risks—two perspectives that are often at odds. Leaders shaping the future of work in technology can devise ways to consistently understand and agree on risk appetite with key stakeholders and make decisions and course corrections accordingly. Embrace ambiguity, uncertainty, and experimenta- tion and avoid making risk decisions on behalf of the business. Instead, collaborate to make more informed, data-driven decisions. Think big to create an audacious future. Focusing on the big picture, rather than a single tool or solution, can help leaders take the first steps toward creating the future of work. Foundational change takes time and persistent work across mul- tiple dimensions. Simply reskilling staff, bringing on a new leadership team, or automating existing work likely will not alleviate current challenges. Instead, a holistic plan that employs multiple work, workforce, and workplace strategies has a higher likelihood of success. Endnotes 1. Jeff Schwartz et al., What is the future of work?, Deloitte Insights, April 1, 2019. 2. Interview with Satish Alapati, conducted January 28, 2019. 3. Interview with anonymous CIO, conducted January 22, 2019. 4. Bill Briggs et al., Manifesting legacy: Looking beyond the digital era, Deloitte Insights, April 8, 2018. 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid. 7. Interview with Jo-ann Olsovsky, conducted December 4, 2018. 8. Jim Guszcza and Jeff Schwartz, Superminds: How humans and machines can work together, Deloitte Insights, Janu- ary 28, 2019. 9. Interview with John Hagel, conducted November 27, 2018. 10. Unpublished data from Punit Renjen, How leaders are navigating the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Deloitte Insights, January 20, 2019. 11. CIO Journal, “Closing technology, talent gaps for Industry 4.0,” Wall Street Journal, January 22, 2019. 12. Briggs et al., Manifesting legacy. 13. Ibid. 14. Interview with Rachel Parent, conducted December 14, 2018. 15. Interview with Steve Price conducted March 25, 2019. How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
  • 28. 26 16. Schwartz et al., What is the future of work? 17. Guszcza and Schwartz, Superminds. 18. Briggs et al., Manifesting legacy. 19. Schwartz et al., What is the future of work? 20. Briggs et al., Manifesting legacy. 21. Ibid. 22. Unpublished data from Renjen, How leaders are navigating the Fourth Industrial Revolution. 23. Unpublished Future of Work in Technology survey data, collected February 2019. 24. Bill Pelster, Careers and learning: Real time, all the time, Deloitte Insights, February 28, 2017. 25. Interview with Stella Ward, conducted April 1, 2019. 26. Interview with Rachel Parent, conducted December 14, 2018. 27. Larry Dignan, “Survey confirms collaboration and the apps that come with it still suck,” ZDNet, March 5, 2018. 28. Wrike, “The high cost of multitasking: 40% of productivity lost by task switching,” September 24, 2015. 29. Goodreads, “Guy Kawasaki quotes,” accessed May 22, 2019. 30. Khalid Kark, Digital vanguard organizations, Deloitte Insights, February 1, 2019. 31. Erica Volini et al., From employee experience to human experience: Putting meaning back into work, Deloitte Insights, April 11, 2019. 32. CIO Journal, “Societal impact: Purpose begins to pay off,” Wall Street Journal, January 28, 2019. 33. John Hagel and John Seely Brown, “Take a zoom out, zoom in approach to business strategy,” Wall Street Journal, August 2, 2018. 34. Ibid. 35. Briggs et al., Manifesting legacy. The authors would like to thank Jeff Schwartz, Steve Hatfield, Kristi Lamar, John Tweardy, Cece Kadiyala, Neil Walker-Neveras, Reuben Daniel, and Lisa Dubay-Albert for their thoughtful ideas, reviews, and advice. Caroline Brown was the lead writer and the chief wordsmith. Jeremy Arnold, Tanha Ashraf, and Mike McLaughlin were instrumental in helping us with content development, interviews, reviews, and launch planning, and Tiffany Stronsky provided her expertise in marketing, public relations, and social media. As always, Eliz Moore, Allen Qiu, and Liz Sarno pro- vided support with data analysis and survey development. Junko Kaji, Rithu Thomas, Preetha Devan, Mike Boone, Sonya Vasilieff, Anoop K R, and the entire Deloitte Insights team continue to provide outstanding editorial and production skills and immeasurable support, patience, and flexibility. Acknowledgments The future of work in technology
  • 29. 27 Khalid Kark | kkark@deloitte.com Khalid Kark is a director with Deloitte LLP where he leads the development of research and insights for the CIO Program. Kark has decades of experience serving as a trusted advisor to large, multinational clients, and helping technology leaders anticipate and plan for the impacts of new technology. Previously, Kark led the CIO Research practice at Forrester Research. His research has appeared in media outlets such as MSNBC, The Boston Globe, and CIO magazine. Kark is based in Dallas. Connect with him on LinkedIn at https://www.linkedin.com/in/khalidkark and on Twitter at https://twitter.com/khalidkark?lang=en. Bill Briggs | wbriggs@deloitte.com Bill Briggs is Deloitte Consulting LLP’s global chief technology officer and helps clients anticipate the impact emerging technologies may have on their business in the future, and how to get there from the realities of today. He also helps define the vision and strategy for Deloitte Consulting LLP’s evolving technology services and offerings. Briggs also serves as executive sponsor of Deloitte’s CIO Program, offering CIOs and other IT executives insights on navigating the complex challenges they face in busi- ness and technology. He is based in Kansas City. Connect with him on LinkedIn at https://www.linkedin.com/in/billbriggsdeloitte/ and on Twitter at https://twitter.com/wdbthree?lang=en. Atilla Terzioglu | aterzioglu@deloitte.com Atilla Terzioglu is a principal in the Technology Strategy and Architecture practice within Deloitte Consulting LLP. He helps clients plan and execute new business strategies with technology, drive effi- cient IT operations, evolve key IT capabilities to meet changing market dynamics, and deliver IT-enabled business transformation. He has led major IT transformation initiatives enabling clients to deliver IT as a service, as well as initiatives to reduce, cost, complexity, and business risk. He is based in Boston. Connect with him on LinkedIn at https://www.linkedin.com/in/atilla-terzioglu. Minu Puranik | mpuranik@deloitte.com Minu Puranik is a senior manager at Deloitte LLP. Puranik is the Deloitte University Client Experience strategy leader with Deloitte’s Client Accelerator program and the former leader of Deloitte’s US CIO Program’s Content and Connections team where she was responsible for program alumni sustainment, events and alliances, and thought leadership and research, including the CIO Insider research series and in-depth research reports. She has over 15 years of experience in developing and delivering tech- nology-led programs across many industries and sectors. Puranik is based in Dallas. Connect with her on LinkedIn at https://www.linkedin.com/in/minu-puranik-83b6352/. About the authors How technology leaders can reimagine technology work, the workforce, and the workplace
  • 30. 28 Contact us Our insights can help you take advantage of change. If you’re looking for fresh ideas to address your challenges, we should talk. Industry leadership Khalid Kark Managing director, US CIO Program | Deloitte Consulting LLP +1 214 840 7754 | kkark@deloitte.com Bill Briggs Global CTO | Deloitte Consulting LLP +1 816 802 7350 | wbriggs@deloitte.com Atilla Terzioglu Principal, Technology Strategy and Architecture | Deloitte Consulting LLP +1 617 449 5070 | aterzioglu@deloitte.com Minu Puranik Senior manager, Client Accelerators | Deloitte LLP +1 214 840 7334 | mpuranik@deloitte.com The future of work in technology
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  • 32. About Deloitte Insights Deloitte Insights publishes original articles, reports and periodicals that provide insights for businesses, the public sector and NGOs. Our goal is to draw upon research and experience from throughout our professional services organization, and that of coauthors in academia and business, to advance the conversation on a broad spectrum of topics of interest to executives and government leaders. Deloitte Insights is an imprint of Deloitte Development LLC. About this publication This publication contains general information only, and none of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, its member firms, or its and their affiliates are, by means of this publication, rendering accounting, business, financial, investment, legal, tax, or other profes- sional advice or services. This publication is not a substitute for such professional advice or services, nor should it be used as a basis for any decision or action that may affect your finances or your business. Before making any decision or taking any action that may affect your finances or your business, you should consult a qualified professional adviser. None of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, its member firms, or its and their respective affiliates shall be responsible for any loss whatsoever sustained by any person who relies on this publication. About Deloitte Deloitte refers to one or more of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, a UK private company limited by guarantee (“DTTL”), its network of member firms, and their related entities. DTTL and each of its member firms are legally separate and independent entities. DTTL (also referred to as “Deloitte Global”) does not provide services to clients. In the United States, Deloitte refers to one or more of the US member firms of DTTL, their related entities that operate using the “Deloitte” name in the United States and their respective affiliates. Certain services may not be available to attest clients under the rules and regulations of public accounting. Please see www.deloitte.com/about to learn more about our global network of member firms. Copyright © 2019 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. Member of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited Sign up for Deloitte Insights updates at www.deloitte.com/insights. Follow @DeloitteInsight Deloitte Insights contributors Editorial: Rithu Thomas, Preetha Devan, Rupesh Bhat, and Abrar Khan Creative: Anoop K R Promotion: Alexandra Kawecki Cover artwork: Sonya Vasilieff