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India Banking Fraud Survey
Edition IV
January 2022
03
02
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
Contents
Preface 04
Executive summary and key findings 06
Section I - Understanding the current fraud environment in the banking sector 12
• Trend analysis 13
• Impact of COVID-19 16
• Stressed assets 17
Section II - Fraud risk management (FRM) and continuous monitoring at banks 18
• Insights: Aligning the FRM function within a banks’ organisational structure 19
• Current status of the implementation of anti-fraud programmes 21
• Proactive approach in strengthening fraud risk management 27
Section III – Insights | Investing for greater resilience 32
and accelerating efficiency in fraud risk management
• Enhancing and complementing FRM teams with market intelligence 33
and data analytics capabilities to ensure continuous monitoring
• Enhancing the existing FRM function 34
• Need to enhance Early Warning System (EWS) and FRM using 38
Artificial Intelligence (AI)/Machine Learning (ML)
Closing thoughts 43
About the survey 44
About Deloitte’s Forensic practice in India 44
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India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
Preface
We, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu India LLP
(Deloitte India) are proud to present the fourth
edition of our India Banking Fraud Survey. Our
endeavour with every edition of the survey is
to bring key issues being faced by the banking
sector to the fore. When we launched our third
edition in 2018, none of us had envisioned that
the next release of this report would be at what
we hope is the end of a global pandemic.
The impact of COVID-19 has resulted in
organisations and regulators across the globe
operating in an entirely new environment. Whilst
we adjust to the new normal, there will be those
who will look to exploit gaps and weaknesses in
the systems. Financial crime across the globe is
expected to rise in response to the uncertainty
in the business landscape. For banks, the
economic slowdown has only heightened the
risk of fraud and money laundering. Banking
sector regulators have been at the forefront
of fraud mitigation strategies, prescribing
frameworks that banks need to adopt to identify
and mitigate fraud risks.
As new risks begin to emerge, banks need
to remain vigilant to ensure they continue to
effectively mitigate them. Banks that can utilise
technology to enhance their operations can stay
on top of preventive, detective, and enforcement
measures, thereby effectively guarding
themselves against increasingly complex
financial crimes.
With this backdrop, the fourth edition of the
Deloitte India Banking Fraud Survey attempts to
understand banks’ mechanisms to tackle fraud
risks, the impact of new operational models on
fraud risk management, and perspectives on
making strategic investments for the future.
We hope that the survey report will influence
discussions and debate amongst banks,
regulators, and practitioners on how to tackle
(and improve) fraud and compliance risks being
faced today. In any scenario, the industry must
prepare for the next normal to be very different
from that of the past ten years, for which, this
report is intended to provide strategic direction.
KV Karthik
Partner and Lead -
Financial Crime Compliance,
Forensic, Financial Advisory
Deloitte India
Nishkam Ojha
Partner
Forensic,
Financial Advisory
Deloitte India
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India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
Executive summary
and key findings
A comparison of some of the key findings from our previous editions indicate that while technology
(if in the wrong hands) could be used to circumvent bank systems, it can also be an effective tool to
keep ahead of and identify/detect fraud risks.
78%
respondents believe that frauds in the banking sector will
increase over the next two years
Top three responses on the factors
responsible for the increase in fraud
incidents over the next two years
Top three responses on how a fraud
incident is typically detected
Top five responses on the types
of fraud experienced over the
last two years
• Lack of oversight by the line manager or
senior management on deviations from
existing processes
• Business pressure to meet targets
• Lack of forensic analytics tools to identify
potential red flags across processes
• Through a customer complaint
• During routine account audit/
reconciliation
• Through an internal whistle-blower
complaint
• Diversion/siphoning of funds
• Fraudulent documentation
• Incorrect financial statements
• Over valuation/absence of collateral
• Identity theft
2015
• New technology/digital channels that make
fraud detection difficult
• Lack of forensic analytics tools to identify
potential red flags across different processes
• Business pressure to meet targets
• During routine account audit/internal audit/
reconciliation
• Through a customer complaint
• Through an internal whistle blower
complaint/through internal automated data
analysis or transaction monitoring software
• Fraudulent documentation
• Cybercrime
• Overvaluation/non-existence of collateral
• ATM skimming/fraud
• Siphoning/diversion of funds
2018
• Large-scale remote working models
• Increase in customers using non-branch
banking channels
• Limited/ineffective use of forensic analytics
tools to identify potential red flags
• During routine account audit/reconciliation or
process reviews
• Through internal automated data analysis or
transaction monitoring software
• Through a customer complaint/an internal
whistle blower complaint
• Data theft
• Cybercrime
• Third-party induced fraud
• Bribery and corruption
• Fake/fraudulent documentation
2021
Over the last six months, what measures has your bank implemented to mitigate fraud?
(The top three responses have been highlighted)
24%
14%
13%
9%
Mobile / Internet
banking frauds
Identity /
data theft
Phishing
Loan frauds
Optimized existing EWS and fraud
monitoring systems to cater to current
banking conditions, using AI/ML and by
integrating external databases
Enhanced case management solutions
to effectively respond to fraud incidents
and report on time
18%
Some other key survey findings to note are:
What kind of fraud risks are currently the biggest concerns for your bank?
(The top four responses have been highlighted)
Arranged trainings/workshops to upskill
staff involved in fraud-monitoring
functions
17%
23%
How frequently does your bank conduct fraud risk assessments and update the fraud risk
register?
5% Haven’t done so in the last five years
45% Once in two/three years
50% Once a year
25%
What will be some important outcomes of COVID-19 on your banks’ Fraud Risk
Management (FRM) function?
(The top three responses have been highlighted)
Increased dependence on
analytical tools for fraud
monitoring and detection
Change in target
operating model to
enhance capabilities
of the remote
FRM function
21%
Creating increased
awareness on fraud
among customers and
employees
23%
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India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
09
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India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
Which areas will your bank most likely benefit from by deploying AI/ML technology?
(The top five responses have been highlighted)
17%
Fraud risk
assessment
Credit approval
process
18%
14%
Financial analysis/
research
Fraud detection
(early warning
system)
15%
KYC and anti-money
laundering
21%
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India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
Do you believe that the current business disruption due to the pandemic can spur
banking sector frauds over the next two years?
a) Trend analysis
4%
18%
78%
Can't say/
Don't know
Yes
No
Section I
Understanding the current fraud
environment in the banking sector
COVID-19 came at a time when banks were struggling to deal with an increasing number of fraud
incidents. Banks were facing a three-pronged “attack” in combatting financial crime: Growth in
digital transactions, continually evolving regulatory guidelines, and new fraud trends.
While banks are yet to fully understand the implications and impact of the current environment on
fraud-related matters, there appears to be acceptance on part of the banks that the pandemic may
possibly lead to a rise in frauds with 78 percent respondents stating that frauds could increase over
the next two years.
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India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
Which of the following types of frauds has your bank experienced in the last two years?
Cybercrime 8%
8%
8%
8%
4%
Theft of physical assets 6%
Third party induced fraud
Bribery and corruption
Overvaluation/non-existence of collateral/
inadequate collateral
Fake/ fraudulent documentation
Siphoning of funds/diversion of funds
7%
7%
Misrepresentation of financial statements 6%
Asset stripping 3%
Incorrection sanctioning 1%
Mis-selling
Account takeover/miuse of power attroney
ATM skimming/fraud 3%
Data theft 10%
Identity theft 4%
4%
Point-of-sale fraud 3%
3%
Mobile-banking fraud
Internet-banking fraud
Over the course of the last few years, there has
been a major push towards financial inclusion and
digitisation, making both consumers and banks
rely heavily on electronic channels for banking.
This has only further intensified during the
pandemic and may likely continue to increase.
No doubt, the recent changes/ technological
advancements brought about by the pandemic
will have a lasting impact on the banking
industry. In addition, it is highly likely that further
changes may be warranted in the future in the
way the banking industry operates.
In line with these trends, data theft, cybercrime,
third-party induced fraud, bribery and
corruption, and fraudulent documentation have
been identified as the top five concerns with
over 42 percent of respondents (cumulative)
reporting to be victims of these.
Comparison with the responses to our previous
survey, risks such as data theft and bribery and
corruption have now come to the forefront.
There is a noticeable increase in these fraud
types. With a shift in these trends, banks should
make a concerted effort to proactively identify
the root cause of these fraud risks to be better
prepared in the future. Increasing instances of
data theft and cybercrime could be especially
alarming for banks, as this could have a negative
impact on consumer confidence and trust.
7%
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India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
b) Impact of COVID-19
COVID-19 forced both the Reserve Bank of India
(RBI) and financial institutions to take measures
to counter its disruptive effects. In response
to the pandemic and to help rejuvenate the
economy, the RBI and the Government of
India announced a wide variety of initiatives.
Amongst these were the moratorium on loan
re-payments, the interim freeze on Insolvency
and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) cases, and bank loan
restructuring to name a few.
Banks too had to adapt to the restrictions that
resulted from the pandemic. Lockdowns and
social distancing norms restricted the mobility
of bank staff and customers, thereby increasing
the reliance on digital channels and other
forms of non-face-to-face banking services.
With a significant number of bank staff working
from home, banks had to provide their staff
remote access to their organisation’s network
and information. This forced banks to enact
significant organisational and operational
changes within a short timeframe to avoid
service interruptions; posing a worrying
question—have all such changes been assessed
for their vulnerability to fraud?
With myriad changes being deployed at the
front-end but processes and systems possibly
remaining untouched, have banks been exposed
to undiagnosed vulnerabilities? Due to the
advent of new digital touchpoints between banks
and their customers for various contactless
banking and other services, banks must take
the necessary steps to understand how these
changes will impact their fraud readiness.
According to industry experts, new loans and
loan extensions are expected as a result of the
government’s stimulus package for MSMEs as
well as the RBI moratorium. Banks will need to be
extra vigilant while granting facilities or renewing
existing facilities, taking into consideration the
stress in the account and viability of the business
amidst the changed scenario.
With changes caused by the pandemic
continuing to persist in more ways than
one, banks will need to be more agile
in implementing change swiftly without
comprising on risk management.
Stressed assets continue to be an area of concern for banks, with the pandemic adversely impacting
specific industries. Respondents have cited limited asset monitoring after disbursement (38 percent),
the economic slowdown (24 percent), and insufficient due diligence prior to disbursement (21
percent) as the top three factors leading to higher stressed assets. These suggest that banks may
need to overhaul their due-diligence and monitoring frameworks.
For the overall effectiveness of asset monitoring frameworks, banks should consider an integrated
approach that applies the findings of pre-disbursement due diligence to on-going monitoring
and identifies anomalies and red flags. In this approach, it is critical that the level of due diligence
conducted has accurate, extensive, and actionable intelligence. In the post-disbursement phase,
monitoring needs to be robust and all-encompassing of EWS, new fraud scenarios, and integrating
intelligence gathered from internal and external data sources.
What do you believe has led to higher stressed assets?
c) Stressed assets
21%
Inadequate due diligence
before disbursement
Economic slowdown
24%
Limited monitoring of
assets after disbursement
38%
Collusion and malintent
3%
Regulatory changes
14%
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India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
Risk
Management
Inspection/Internal
Audit
Operations An independent
FRM department
that directly
reports to ED/MD
Others
In your bank, which department does the fraud risk management (FRM) function report to?
For an FRM function to be effective, in addition to a strong and robust Enterprise Fraud Risk
Management (EFRM) solution, a bank should have a dedicated and independent team with a strong
compliance culture. The FRM department should look to manage three pillars viz., governance,
prevention/detection/investigation, and reporting. This includes having an efficient fraud monitoring
system that takes into consideration inputs from inspection, credit monitoring, business, etc. teams;
having a skilled pool of fraud risk management officers; reporting fraud and enhancing policies,
procedures, and updating risk registers on a timely basis to avoid reoccurrence.
a) Current FRM governance and structure
Aligning the FRM function within a bank’s organisational structure
Only 24 percent respondents mentioned that their FRM department reports directly to the ED and
MD. Additionally, about 45 percent and 25 percent respondents stated that the FRM department was
a part of the Risk Management and Internal Audit/Inspection functions of the bank, respectively.  
45%
25%
4%
24%
2%
Section II
Fraud risk management and
continuous monitoring at banks
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India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
In your bank, which of the following activities is a responsibility of the FRM function?
(Respondents chose all applicable options)
Increased dependency on analytical tools for
fraud monitoring and detection
Creating increased awareness on fraud
among customers and employees
Increased regulatory scrutiny
Increased cost of investigation and damage
control
Change in target operating model to
enhance capabilities of the remote fraud-risk
management function
Increase in dedicated manpower for
evaluating fraud alerts
The need for an independent FRM Unit
Having an independent FRM department
reporting directly to the ED/MD/CEO of the
bank has many advantages, the most important
being communicating the importance that the
senior management places on the FRM function.
A second benefit is the conflict of interest
avoidance when performing FRM functions. It
contributes to the development of new products/
services, process optimisation, skill development,
etc., by bringing in aptly skilled resources in an
independent FRM unit. An independent FRM unit
can also help avoid delays in decision making,
especially in large value frauds, and promptly
bringing it to the senior management’s notice.
Fraud risk review before approval
for launching new products/
services and processes
Reporting of fraud cases to
internal and external stakeholders
Investigation and preparation of
investigation reports
Prevention and detection of
frauds
20%
29%
25%
26%
25%
13%
23%
21%
13%
5%
However, apart from aligning the FRM unit, it
is critical to create and reinforce a culture with
zero tolerance for fraud within the organisation’s
DNA. Active involvement and oversight by the
senior management/board can help set the right
tone at the top. Creating a zero-tolerance culture
also involves communicating this message and
demonstrating the focus required from senior
management. In addition, in line with the RBI,1
the fraud risk management, fraud monitoring,
and fraud investigation function must be owned
by the bank's CEO, audit committee of the board,
and the special committee of the board.
b) Current status of the implementation of anti-fraud
programmes
What do you feel will be the most important outcome of COVID-19 on your FRM function?
According to 25 percent respondents, the
most important impact of the pandemic on
fraud risk management functions has been
increased dependency on analytical tools for
fraud monitoring and detection. Using data
analytics as part of fraud risk management may
be indicative of a shift in the banking industry.
The pandemic has resulted in staff shortage,
increase in contact-less operations and services,
and remote operations increasing the need for
data analytics-oriented fraud risk management
solutions. This is evident by 21 percent
respondents highlighting that changes in their
target operating model to enhance capabilities
of the remote fraud-risk management function
will also be an outcome of the pandemic.
1
Source: https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/BS_ViewMasDirections.aspx?id=10477  
A strong fraud risk management/fraud monitoring function can help banks minimise the impact
of fraud, thereby reducing losses and safeguarding their reputation. It should be able to prevent/
detect/ investigate multiple types of fraud risks, while having the ability to prepare for new
regulations as well as tackle emerging fraud risks.
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India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
The number of fraud incidents encountered by
banks over the last two years appears to have
increased, compared with the findings of our
previous survey. Fifty-three percent respondents
indicated that they have faced more than 100
fraud incidents in retail banking (over the last
two years)—a 29 percent increase since the
previous edition.
No incidents
No incidents 12%
12%
Between 10 and 20
20%
Less than 10
More than 50 19%
37%
Between 20 and 50
Less than 100 29%
29%
Between 100 and 200
25%
More than 200
10%
7%
Unaware
How many fraud incidents has your bank encountered in the last two years?
Similarly, in the non-retail business, the current
survey highlighted that 56 percent respondents
encountered more than 20 fraud incidents;
while in the previous edition, a similar number
of incidents were experienced by 22 percent
respondents. Fraud controls and mitigation
strategies should therefore be a significant
priority due to the sheer rise in fraud incidents
and the consequential losses incurred.
Retail Banking
Non-Retail Banking
According to 35 and 30 percent respondents,
respectively, a fraud incident was detected
either during a routine account audit/
reconciliation/process review or through an
internal automated data analysis or transaction-
monitoring software (EFRMS/EWS). This
represents a significant improvement, compared
with our previous edition, wherein only 26 and
Through a
customer
complaint
15%
31%
36%
15%
3%
Through internal
automated
data analysis or
transaction-
monitoring
software (EFRMS/
EWS)
During routine
account audit/
reconciliation or
process reviews
Through
an internal
whistleblower/
anonymous
complaint
During review
by a law
enforcement
agency
How is a fraud incident currently detected in your bank?
20 percent respondents respectively attributed
fraud detection to the same factors. This also
ties in with our experience over the course
of the last two years where banks, having
realised its effectiveness, have now started
using technology, including data analytics to
proactively identify frauds.
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India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
Which of the following stages in the lifecycle of a MSME/ corporate loan is most
vulnerable to fraud?
A majority of the respondents (33 percent) cited end-use monitoring as the most vulnerable stage
within the corporate/MSME loan cycle, posing the greatest fraud risk; with sourcing (19 percent)
ranked as second. Results of this survey reaffirm the significance and criticality of optimising and
ensuring the effectiveness of the post disbursement and continuous monitoring framework.
The key to establishing an effective continuous monitoring framework is to get various enablers
right, such as an Early Warning System (EWS), market intelligence, and database research, and
synchronise their output.
19%
16% 16% 16%
33%
Sourcing Appraisal/
Renewal
Sanction Disbursement End-Use
Monitoring
50%
Once a year
45%
Once in two/ three years
5%
Have not conducted process
reviews in the last five years
How frequently does your bank conduct fraud risk assessments and update the fraud
risk register?
According to the survey findings, 45 percent
respondents conduct fraud risk assessments
and update the fraud risk registers once in
two/three years. Given the dynamic nature of
the banking environment, conducting fraud
risk assessments every two/three years may
not be prudent. Recent years has seen the
introduction of new technology enabled
products and digital payment channels helping
reduce face-to-face touchpoints between banks
and their customers. This increased reliance on
remote and electronic channels could possibly
have given rise to fraud risks that previously
may not have warranted as much attention.
The change in the banking environment has
been compounded by the pandemic-induced
disruption, resulting in a greater degree of
uncertainty. Conducting fraud risk assessments
with greater frequency is an absolute necessity
in current times to understand the impact of
these changes on fraud, as well as to proactively
identify new fraud risks/trends.
Lack of required skillset
to conduct forensic
audit
Lack of data analytics
capability to evaluate
large data set
Absence of a dedicated
team or inadequate
skilled resources to
conduct forensic audit
Inadequate market
intelligence capability
Technological limitations
to read and analyse
Borrower’s accounting
records maintained in
various applications
20%
21% 17% 16%
26%
Top challenges faced by banks in
performing a forensic audit in-house
include technological limitations to read
and analyse the borrower’s accounting
records (25 percent), lack of data analytics
capabilities (21 percent), and lack of
requisite skill sets (20 percent). In addition,
the lack of a dedicated team, according to
17 percent respondents, is another major
impediment. To address these issues,
banks should ideally establish a dedicated
team to address such requirements
and hire external experts to provide
necessary training on the necessary
skillsets, tools, and technology.
What are the challenges faced by your bank while conducting forensic audit in-house?
(Respondents chose all applicable options)
In the last six months, which of the following measures has your bank implemented to
mitigate fraud?
c) Proactive approach in strengthening fraud risk
management
E-verify customers’
assets/collaterals
using GPS or other
technologies
Conduct video KYC for
customer onboarding,
and KYC refresh
Arrange trainings/
workshops to enhance
skills of the staff involved
in fraud-monitoring
functions
13%
16%
17%
Mandate vendors/
customers to use
certain software and
security measures
such as encryption
Enhance Case Management
Solutions to effectively
respond to fraud incidents,
and report on time
13%
18%
23%
Optimise existing EWS and Fraud
Monitoring Systems to cater to
current banking conditions, using
artificial intelligence/machine
learning and by integrating
external databases
Survey findings reveal that a majority of the
investment in fraud mitigation measures
has been in optimising existing EWS and
fraud monitoring systems using AI/ML (22
percent), enhancing case management
solutions to better respond to frauds (17
percent), and providing training/workshops
to upskill team members as part of the
FRM function (17 percent).
Considering that a majority of respondents
indicated end-use monitoring as the most
vulnerable stage of the loan lifecycle (to
fraud), investments in optimising the
monitoring system is to be expected.
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV Brochure / report title goes here 
| Section title goes here
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
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26
73%
Yes
27%
No
Does your bank undertake continuous monitoring of transactions? Which of the following best describes your bank's approach to continuous monitoring
of assets?
(Respondents chose all applicable options)
21%
A dedicated team for handling
high-value credits staffed by
senior employees with relevant
experience and skills for FRM
5%
End-use monitoring
8%
Regular process reviews and
updates documented in the
fraud risk register
8%
Tool/Workflow management
system to ensure adequate
documentation from the
customer
11%
Use of external databases,
regulator websites, or other
sources to verify information
10%
A dedicated team for
evaluating alerts generated
15%
Use of data analytics tools
for monitoring (e.g., EWS,
EFRMS)
10%
Empanelled vendors/
consultants for conducting
market intelligence activities
12%
A dedicated Market
Intelligence Unit attached
to the FRM team
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
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As an approach to continuous monitoring of
assets, it’s encouraging to see that banks have
allocated their resources across a combination
of methods. This includes 21 percent of
respondents relying on a dedicated team with
FRM experience to handle high value credits,
supported by 15 percent of respondents that
highlighted their reliance on data analytics
tools such as EWS. Other approaches adopted
by survey respondents include a dedicated
market intelligence unit attached to the FRM
team (12 percent) and use of external sources
of information (11 percent). Considering
the increase in volume and complexity of
transactions enabled by new technologies, the
low percentage of respondents opting for data
analytics tools for asset monitoring poses a bit
of a concern.
Ideally a continuous monitoring mechanism
should include all aforesaid approaches
operating in unison for an all-encompassing view
of assets. Such a mechanism would aggregate
outputs from all the approaches/processes
mentioned above, providing more actionable
and consolidated intelligence. Reliance on only
one or some of these approaches in isolation will
not yield effective results.
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India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
About 51 percent respondents indicated that they do not include MSME assets in their continuous
monitoring process, which may be a potential area of concern. To counter the pandemic's
disruptive effects, stimulus packages were announced to help support the MSME sector. It is
anticipated that the stimulus will lead to a high volume of activity in the sector in new loans and
loan extensions. This increase in demand/activity would invariably be accompanied by parties
attempting to profit illegally. In this regard, banks should also monitor their MSME assets as part
of their ongoing monitoring process.
Which of the following products and assets are included in your bank's continuous
monitoring process?
Retail assets MSME assets Mid and large
corporates
assets
Agricultural and
rural products
All of the above
(Including
Agricultural and
rural products)
10%
42%
45%
0%
3%
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
The Indian banking industry, over the last few
years, has emphasised on the significance of
establishing anti-fraud cells or fraud monitoring
departments to perform investigations and also
focus on prevention and the timely detection
of potential fraud activities through fraud
monitoring systems, etc. However, considering
the increasing value and incidents of frauds, as
published in RBI’s Annual Report for FY 2020-21,
there appears to be significant scope to improve
the prevention and detection capabilities of
fraud monitoring units to make them more
comprehensive, and proactive in nature.2
In fact, in January 2020, the RBI had provided
excerpts of recommendations from the expert
committee on NPAs and frauds, constituted
under the chairmanship of Shri Y. H. Malegam.
The recommendations include setting up
a Market Intelligence Unit (MIU) to support
fraud risk management, as well as the
inclusion of a credit monitoring team in the
bank to provide inputs/insights at the time of
appraisal/sanctioning/during monitoring of
customer activities.
Currently, the alert definitions configured for
EWS and fraud monitoring systems are primarily
based on a customer’s transaction in the bank
and financial statements. However, inputs from
MIU will help identify and highlight red flags such
as the presence of shell companies, feedback
from top vendors/customers, reason for change
in promoters/management, progress on
construction sites, and activity levels in a factory.
To receive timely and relevant results from the
MIU, it is important to ensure that the feed
provided by the monitoring team to MIU is
accurate and current. For example, the feed
given to MIU to perform checks on suspicious
parties who have received payments from
borrowers out of the bank loan should be based
on the current information available with the
bank. This is where data analytics can play a key
role to detect potential fraud cases sooner and
reduce financial loss, as opposed to the incident
being discovered at a later stage. Data analytics
does not only mean configuring pre-defined
rules for alert generation but also identifying
ever-changing anomalous activity patterns. This
dynamism can only be brought about by the use
of AI and ML tools.
Over the coming years, banks will need to adopt
a more sophisticated approach to fraud risk
management by integrating state-of-the-art
fraud detection tools, as well as by combining
Big Data analytics with AI to generate more
meaningful and accurate alerts. Integrating
these features with the fraud risk management
approach will allow banks/FIs to monitor
customers across all stages of their lifecycle,
from onboarding to settlement.
Enhancing and complementing FRM teams with market intelligence and data analytics
capabilities to ensure continuous monitoring
Section III
Insights | Investing for greater resilience
and accelerating efficiency in fraud risk
management
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
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India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
33
2
https://www.financialexpress.com/industry/banking-finance/rbi-annual-report-number-of-frauds-in-private-banks-up-21-in-fy21/2260406/
The current traditional methods of fraud detection are plagued with the lack of centralised control,
limited feedback from FRM processes, lack of risk-based monitoring, focus on detection than
prevention, etc. To transform to a proactive, agile future and achieve a robust and comprehensive
system, EWS and FRM needs to be integrated.
Enhancing the existing FRM function
Current state
Traditional and reactive
Investigation
and remediation
• Standalone anti-fraud/AML
policies and procedures
• Threshold/materiality-based
monitoring of accounts
• Dependency on other teams -
Traditional method of detecting
frauds
• Centralised training and
communication
• More focused on reporting
• Lack of centralised control
on suspicious cases reported
by branches/zones
• Limited feedback from FRM on
process and system enhancements
• Lack of risk-based monitoring
• Focus is more on detection than
prevention
• Identify anomalies or the
potential misrepresentation
of facts
• Background checks on
promoters/borrowers
• Database screening and
source enquiries
• Tweaking of policies and
procedures, if any, for the
changing environment
• Review asset classification
to verify if account showed
stress prior to COVID-19
lockdown
• MRI index will provide
inputs to design new fraud
alert monitoring scenarios
• Identify trigger events to
revisit and enrich fraud
scenarios
• Optimise EWS with the
enhanced scenarios for
timely triggers
• Integrate internal and
external data sources to
identify potential “red flags”
• Conduct thematic testing
and portfolio analysis based
on MRI
• Detailed investigation
including enhanced
due diligence, market
intelligence, and end use of
funds on suspect customers
• Develop additional anti-
fraud controls to address
identified new risks
• Update and socialise
policies/processes
• Robust MIS reporting/
dashboards
Enhancing the
existing policies
and procedures
Effective
implementation
and monitoring
by EWS
Remediate and
enhance FRM
on a continuous
basis
Building
enhanced
diligence
mechanisms
Timely
identification and
investigation
Pro-active
reporting and
stakeholder
management
Future enhanced FRM
Future state
Proactive and agile
Enhanced
due diligence
Continuous monitoring/
enhanced EWS
34 35
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
Industry-wide banks are using various systems
that run pre-defined scenarios and generate
alerts, which may be in the form of early warning
signals, potential fraud alerts or suspicious
alerts, indicating money laundering activities.
However, most banks continue to monitor these
alerts in isolation.
Several banks have begun to integrate various
alert monitoring tools to bring synergy and
get a comprehensive view of customers and
their transactions. Integration of alerts does
not necessarily mean that one team reviews
all alerts generated by various tools deployed
by banks. Bringing more synergy may entail
Bringing synergy across various fraud risk monitoring tools What challenges does your bank face to
effectively implement EWS/ EFRMS?
revisiting the alert scenarios defined in various
systems, alignment between the FRM and
EWS teams, data sharing between the FRM
and credit monitoring/inspection departments
to proactively identify red flags, providing
meaningful insights to the AML transaction
monitoring team for review, and reporting to FIU,
if required, etc.
For banks, this combined effort will help achieve
the ultimate common objective of protecting
its customers from potential financial loss and
enhancing trust amongst customers and the
banks’ stakeholders.
Limited monitoring after disbursement
of assets has been identified as a major
contributor to stressed assets by more than
38 percent respondents. This appears to
have elicited an appropriate response from
the banking sector in the form of increased
reliance on measures such as EWS and data
analytics. The survey also indicates banks’
heavy reliance on FRM human resources for
effective continuous monitoring of assets, with
20 percent respondents opting for a dedicated
team of experienced FRM professionals to
handle high-value credits.
Upscaling resources in FRM
The industry seems to have reached a
consensus on the need of continuous
monitoring and effectiveness of tools, such
as EWS and data analytics; however, there
appears to be several challenges in the
effective implementation of these tools/
measures. The survey cites factors such as lack
of data integrity due to siloed systems, lack
of dedicated teams and the absence of the
overall skill sets required in market intelligence,
forensic audits, and EWS alert reviews and
analytics, as impediments to operationalise an
effective fraud monitoring framework.
The criticality of having an effective fraud
monitoring framework has been amplified
due to an upward trend in frauds since our
previous survey. Concerns are heightened by
expectations that the transaction volume will
rise as a result of government stimulus and
78 percent survey respondents stating that
banking frauds may increase over the next two
years. In this regard, upscaling FRM resources
is necessary, both in terms of their strength
and skill sets. The banking industry needs to
identify resources with appropriate skill sets
and experience to staff its FRM function and
ensure that data analytics capabilities in critical
areas such as market intelligence, forensic
audits, and EWS alert reviews are developed.
This calls upon the banking industry to make
strategic investments in areas of training and
skill development.
1%
6%
11%
11%
14%
15%
21%
21%
Others
No defined policy/procedures around
alert review, investigation, reporting etc.
Lack of skilled resources to review alerts
High proportion of false
positive/duplicate alerts
Shortage of manpower to evaluate alerts
Inadequate market intelligence
capabilities within the bank
Lack of data integrity
due to siloed systems
making it challenging
to identify risks
Inadequate data captured
in system
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
37
36
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
39
38
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
The increase in the use of digital channels
for transactions by customers, on one hand,
has contributed to the ease and speed
of transactions. On the other hand, with
evolving business models and increased
technology use, fraud risk management
frameworks have been introduced to newer
and more complex challenges.
This ever-evolving technology across banking
channels means that human decision-making
and traditional transaction alert systems are no
longer effective in the timely detection of frauds.
Digitalisation of business transactions has led to
an enormous increase in transactions every day,
which in turn, has rapidly increased the volume
of bank transaction datasets. Interestingly, this
data holds several valuable insights that can
identify fraudulent behaviour or patterns in the
transaction activities of a particular customer at
an early stage. An intelligent data analytics tool
can mine through vast volumes of data, gather
and analyse intelligence from external sources,
and identify hidden relationships and red flags.
This will enable banks to proactively identify
Need to enhance EWS and FRM using AI/ML
potential fraudulent transactions before they
manifest themselves. Through human decision-
making, along with machine learning algorithms
(that can learn from these datasets), fraud risk
identification and detection can be much faster
and more efficient.
Currently, most early-warning and transaction
monitoring systems that generate fraud alerts
are rule-based. When a certain threshold
exceeds/certain conditions are met/recurrence
is identified, the transaction is marked for
further investigation. One operational challenge
of such traditional EWS and fraud alert
monitoring systems, with predefined thresholds/
parameters, is the number of “false positives”—
transactions that are flagged as suspicious, but
that turn out to be regular. Following up and
investigating such false positives can be a very
time-consuming and cost-intensive activity for
banks. However, by performing periodic reviews
of test results and incorporating learnings into
monitoring systems, the existing system can
learn to detect true anomalies more efficiently,
with lower false alarm levels.
Prevention: Before flagging
off suspicious transactions
Investigation
Market Intelligence
MIS generation and reporting
All of the above
Detection: Early warning
signals/FRMS
In which of the following areas are you currently using Artificial Intelligence and Machine
learning tools to improve FRM?
16%
20%
11%
22%
11%
20%
41
40
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
To obtain better results, AI techniques can be
used to reduce false positives and spot true
positives and detect new patterns. Anomaly
detection algorithms are tailor-made to detect
fraudulent transactions by isolating exceptional
items based on variables known to the model.
The input from risk, compliance, and business
teams complemented with intelligence gathered
through external sources is essential to
implement this use case. In addition, banks can
use data segmentation, coupled with statistical
There are several benefits to utilising ML in fraud
monitoring and detection:
• Works with large datasets – ML is better than
humans at processing large datasets and its
prediction results improve as datasets grow.
• Reduces operational cost – It eliminates the
need to spend as much time and resources
on reviewing every alert transaction due to
better accuracy and automated predictions.
• Detects and prevents fraud more effectively
– ML can quickly adapt to new behaviours of
fraudulent transactions and helps improve
reactions to suspicious outliers.
analyses to identify characteristics specific to
each peer group and create custom thresholds.
For example, high net-worth customers tend to
be associated with large transaction amounts
and may therefore require different parameters
than lower income clients. Banks can then
perform a sensitivity analysis to help determine
whether threshold levels should be increased
if too many false alerts are generated or
decreased if suspicious activity is being missed,
a process known as alert tuning.
• Reduces false positives and prevents frauds
with more efficacy.
Advanced analytics can help reshape the
way banks conduct fraud tests and monitor
their operations. In fact, without using proper
data interrogation techniques, efficiently and
effectively using all the sources of information
available—both internal and external—the
process of uncovering fraudulent behaviours
may not be as accurate as desired and can take
more time and effort, given the large volumes of
data generated by banks.
Financial analysis/
research
15%
Treasury
9%
Credit approval
process
18%
KYC and
anti-money
laundering
21%
Fraud risk
assessment
17%
Fraud detection
(Early Warning
System)
15%
Operations
5%
Which of the following areas do you think banking institutions are likely to benefit the
most by deploying AI/ machine learning technology?
43
42
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
The banking business has never been without risk; however, given the current rise in fraud
trends, there is an immediate need for banks to implement robust, effective, and efficient control
frameworks. Over the past few years, we have witnessed various banks increase their investments
in enhancing their FRM frameworks and monitoring systems and controls; however, it appears that
these efforts have not been sufficient.
The current siloed approach to fraud risk management will no longer be effective. Whilst banks
navigate through these unprecedented times, there are a number of actions that should be
considered when protecting their business from fraudsters who want to use the pandemic for their
own gain.
The manner in which banks choose to respond to challenges will continue to be the focus of the
public, regulators, and investors, and will position them well to cope with any future crises that
comes their way.
Closing thoughts
1
Review scenarios/rules to reflect the “new normal”. This will ensure
banks are neither being inundated by alerts of customers who have
deviated significantly in behaviour, such as payment flows being changed
significantly due to re-configured supply chains, nor are new patterns/
fraud trends missed out on.
Reflect on the technology used/strategy to prevent, monitor, and detect
financial crime. A key challenge for banks managing their regulatory
obligations is finding the balance between risk management and
efficiency/effectiveness through innovation using AI and ML.
With many regulators across the globe releasing guidelines, banks
need to take the time to measure the effectiveness, appropriateness,
and efficiency of existing controls against an updated risk
assessment. Regular/timely and updated risk assessments can help
banks ensure that there are linkages between risk typologies and the
control framework.
2
3
45
44
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
About the survey
We gathered the views of 70 key C-suite stakeholders/ senior management responsible for
compliance and fraud risk management, audit/ finance, asset recovery from varied financial
institutions based in India. Banks and financial institutions who participated in the survey included
private, public, foreign, co-operative and regional rural banks in India.
Each statistic used in this report is derived from the number of responses to that question and must
not be considered consistent across the report. For multiple choice questions and priority-based
questions, the weighted average of responses for that question has been used to derive the statistics.
About Deloitte’s Forensic practice in India
Deloitte’s Forensic practice in India helps organisations protect their brand and reputation through
proactive advice on their exposure to fraud, corruption, non-compliance, misconduct, and other
future business risk issues. The practice also helps clients react quickly and confidently in a crisis,
investigation, or dispute scenario. We use our global network, deep industry experience, and
advanced analytical technology to understand and resolve/deal with all such issues. The team
comprises of professionals who bring in diverse skill sets to the practice. For more information, you
may visit our page.
Connect with us
Nikhil Bedi
Partner and Leader – Forensic
Financial Advisory
Deloitte India
nikhilbedi@deloitte.com
Amol Mhapankar
Director – Forensic
Financial Advisory
Deloitte India
amhapankar@deloitte.com
KV Karthik
Partner - Forensic
Financial Advisory
Deloitte India
kvkarthik@deloitte.com
Soniya Mahajan
Director – Forensic
Financial Advisory
Deloitte India
somahajan@deloitte.com
Nishkam Ojha
Partner – Forensic
Financial Advisory
Deloitte India
nojha@deloitte.com
Manish Mandhyan
Director – Forensic
Financial Advisory
Deloitte India
mmandhyan@deloitte.com
Contributors
Anurag Datta
Soniya Mahajan
Amol Mhapankar
Deloitte refers to one or more of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, a UK
private company limited by guarantee (“DTTL”), its network of member firms,
and their related entities. DTTL and each of its member firms are legally
separate and independent entities. DTTL (also referred to as “Deloitte Global”)
does not provide services to clients. Please see www.deloitte.com/about for a
more detailed description of DTTL and its member firms.
This material is prepared by Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu India LLP (DTTILLP).
This material (including any information contained in it) is intended to provide
general information on a particular subject(s) and is not an exhaustive
treatment of such subject(s) or a substitute to obtaining professional
services or advice. This material may contain information sourced from
publicly available information or other third-party sources. DTTILLP does
not independently verify any such sources and is not responsible for any
loss whatsoever caused due to reliance placed on information sourced from
such sources. Deloitte, by means of this material, is not rendering any kind of
investment, legal or other professional advice or services. You should consult
a relevant professional for these kinds of services. This material or information
is not intended to be relied upon as the sole basis for any decision which may
affect you or your business. Before making any decision or taking any action
that might affect your personal finances or business, you should consult a
qualified professional adviser. Further, nothing in this material creates any
contractual relationship between DTTILLP and you. Any mutually binding legal
obligations or rights may only be created between you and DTTILLP upon
execution of a legally binding contract.Deloitte shall not be responsible for
any loss whatsoever sustained by any person or entity by reason of access to,
use of or reliance on, this material. By using this material or any information
contained in it, the user accepts this entire notice and terms of use.
©2022 Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu India LLP. Member of Deloitte Touche
Tohmatsu Limited

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India Banking Fraud Survey Edition IV - Deloitte

  • 1. India Banking Fraud Survey Edition IV January 2022
  • 2. 03 02 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV Contents Preface 04 Executive summary and key findings 06 Section I - Understanding the current fraud environment in the banking sector 12 • Trend analysis 13 • Impact of COVID-19 16 • Stressed assets 17 Section II - Fraud risk management (FRM) and continuous monitoring at banks 18 • Insights: Aligning the FRM function within a banks’ organisational structure 19 • Current status of the implementation of anti-fraud programmes 21 • Proactive approach in strengthening fraud risk management 27 Section III – Insights | Investing for greater resilience 32 and accelerating efficiency in fraud risk management • Enhancing and complementing FRM teams with market intelligence 33 and data analytics capabilities to ensure continuous monitoring • Enhancing the existing FRM function 34 • Need to enhance Early Warning System (EWS) and FRM using 38 Artificial Intelligence (AI)/Machine Learning (ML) Closing thoughts 43 About the survey 44 About Deloitte’s Forensic practice in India 44
  • 3. 05 04 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV Preface We, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu India LLP (Deloitte India) are proud to present the fourth edition of our India Banking Fraud Survey. Our endeavour with every edition of the survey is to bring key issues being faced by the banking sector to the fore. When we launched our third edition in 2018, none of us had envisioned that the next release of this report would be at what we hope is the end of a global pandemic. The impact of COVID-19 has resulted in organisations and regulators across the globe operating in an entirely new environment. Whilst we adjust to the new normal, there will be those who will look to exploit gaps and weaknesses in the systems. Financial crime across the globe is expected to rise in response to the uncertainty in the business landscape. For banks, the economic slowdown has only heightened the risk of fraud and money laundering. Banking sector regulators have been at the forefront of fraud mitigation strategies, prescribing frameworks that banks need to adopt to identify and mitigate fraud risks. As new risks begin to emerge, banks need to remain vigilant to ensure they continue to effectively mitigate them. Banks that can utilise technology to enhance their operations can stay on top of preventive, detective, and enforcement measures, thereby effectively guarding themselves against increasingly complex financial crimes. With this backdrop, the fourth edition of the Deloitte India Banking Fraud Survey attempts to understand banks’ mechanisms to tackle fraud risks, the impact of new operational models on fraud risk management, and perspectives on making strategic investments for the future. We hope that the survey report will influence discussions and debate amongst banks, regulators, and practitioners on how to tackle (and improve) fraud and compliance risks being faced today. In any scenario, the industry must prepare for the next normal to be very different from that of the past ten years, for which, this report is intended to provide strategic direction. KV Karthik Partner and Lead - Financial Crime Compliance, Forensic, Financial Advisory Deloitte India Nishkam Ojha Partner Forensic, Financial Advisory Deloitte India
  • 4. 07 06 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV Executive summary and key findings A comparison of some of the key findings from our previous editions indicate that while technology (if in the wrong hands) could be used to circumvent bank systems, it can also be an effective tool to keep ahead of and identify/detect fraud risks. 78% respondents believe that frauds in the banking sector will increase over the next two years Top three responses on the factors responsible for the increase in fraud incidents over the next two years Top three responses on how a fraud incident is typically detected Top five responses on the types of fraud experienced over the last two years • Lack of oversight by the line manager or senior management on deviations from existing processes • Business pressure to meet targets • Lack of forensic analytics tools to identify potential red flags across processes • Through a customer complaint • During routine account audit/ reconciliation • Through an internal whistle-blower complaint • Diversion/siphoning of funds • Fraudulent documentation • Incorrect financial statements • Over valuation/absence of collateral • Identity theft 2015 • New technology/digital channels that make fraud detection difficult • Lack of forensic analytics tools to identify potential red flags across different processes • Business pressure to meet targets • During routine account audit/internal audit/ reconciliation • Through a customer complaint • Through an internal whistle blower complaint/through internal automated data analysis or transaction monitoring software • Fraudulent documentation • Cybercrime • Overvaluation/non-existence of collateral • ATM skimming/fraud • Siphoning/diversion of funds 2018 • Large-scale remote working models • Increase in customers using non-branch banking channels • Limited/ineffective use of forensic analytics tools to identify potential red flags • During routine account audit/reconciliation or process reviews • Through internal automated data analysis or transaction monitoring software • Through a customer complaint/an internal whistle blower complaint • Data theft • Cybercrime • Third-party induced fraud • Bribery and corruption • Fake/fraudulent documentation 2021
  • 5. Over the last six months, what measures has your bank implemented to mitigate fraud? (The top three responses have been highlighted) 24% 14% 13% 9% Mobile / Internet banking frauds Identity / data theft Phishing Loan frauds Optimized existing EWS and fraud monitoring systems to cater to current banking conditions, using AI/ML and by integrating external databases Enhanced case management solutions to effectively respond to fraud incidents and report on time 18% Some other key survey findings to note are: What kind of fraud risks are currently the biggest concerns for your bank? (The top four responses have been highlighted) Arranged trainings/workshops to upskill staff involved in fraud-monitoring functions 17% 23% How frequently does your bank conduct fraud risk assessments and update the fraud risk register? 5% Haven’t done so in the last five years 45% Once in two/three years 50% Once a year 25% What will be some important outcomes of COVID-19 on your banks’ Fraud Risk Management (FRM) function? (The top three responses have been highlighted) Increased dependence on analytical tools for fraud monitoring and detection Change in target operating model to enhance capabilities of the remote FRM function 21% Creating increased awareness on fraud among customers and employees 23% 08 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV 09
  • 6. 11 10 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV Which areas will your bank most likely benefit from by deploying AI/ML technology? (The top five responses have been highlighted) 17% Fraud risk assessment Credit approval process 18% 14% Financial analysis/ research Fraud detection (early warning system) 15% KYC and anti-money laundering 21%
  • 7. 13 12 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV Do you believe that the current business disruption due to the pandemic can spur banking sector frauds over the next two years? a) Trend analysis 4% 18% 78% Can't say/ Don't know Yes No Section I Understanding the current fraud environment in the banking sector COVID-19 came at a time when banks were struggling to deal with an increasing number of fraud incidents. Banks were facing a three-pronged “attack” in combatting financial crime: Growth in digital transactions, continually evolving regulatory guidelines, and new fraud trends. While banks are yet to fully understand the implications and impact of the current environment on fraud-related matters, there appears to be acceptance on part of the banks that the pandemic may possibly lead to a rise in frauds with 78 percent respondents stating that frauds could increase over the next two years.
  • 8. 15 14 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV Which of the following types of frauds has your bank experienced in the last two years? Cybercrime 8% 8% 8% 8% 4% Theft of physical assets 6% Third party induced fraud Bribery and corruption Overvaluation/non-existence of collateral/ inadequate collateral Fake/ fraudulent documentation Siphoning of funds/diversion of funds 7% 7% Misrepresentation of financial statements 6% Asset stripping 3% Incorrection sanctioning 1% Mis-selling Account takeover/miuse of power attroney ATM skimming/fraud 3% Data theft 10% Identity theft 4% 4% Point-of-sale fraud 3% 3% Mobile-banking fraud Internet-banking fraud Over the course of the last few years, there has been a major push towards financial inclusion and digitisation, making both consumers and banks rely heavily on electronic channels for banking. This has only further intensified during the pandemic and may likely continue to increase. No doubt, the recent changes/ technological advancements brought about by the pandemic will have a lasting impact on the banking industry. In addition, it is highly likely that further changes may be warranted in the future in the way the banking industry operates. In line with these trends, data theft, cybercrime, third-party induced fraud, bribery and corruption, and fraudulent documentation have been identified as the top five concerns with over 42 percent of respondents (cumulative) reporting to be victims of these. Comparison with the responses to our previous survey, risks such as data theft and bribery and corruption have now come to the forefront. There is a noticeable increase in these fraud types. With a shift in these trends, banks should make a concerted effort to proactively identify the root cause of these fraud risks to be better prepared in the future. Increasing instances of data theft and cybercrime could be especially alarming for banks, as this could have a negative impact on consumer confidence and trust. 7%
  • 9. 17 16 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV b) Impact of COVID-19 COVID-19 forced both the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and financial institutions to take measures to counter its disruptive effects. In response to the pandemic and to help rejuvenate the economy, the RBI and the Government of India announced a wide variety of initiatives. Amongst these were the moratorium on loan re-payments, the interim freeze on Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) cases, and bank loan restructuring to name a few. Banks too had to adapt to the restrictions that resulted from the pandemic. Lockdowns and social distancing norms restricted the mobility of bank staff and customers, thereby increasing the reliance on digital channels and other forms of non-face-to-face banking services. With a significant number of bank staff working from home, banks had to provide their staff remote access to their organisation’s network and information. This forced banks to enact significant organisational and operational changes within a short timeframe to avoid service interruptions; posing a worrying question—have all such changes been assessed for their vulnerability to fraud? With myriad changes being deployed at the front-end but processes and systems possibly remaining untouched, have banks been exposed to undiagnosed vulnerabilities? Due to the advent of new digital touchpoints between banks and their customers for various contactless banking and other services, banks must take the necessary steps to understand how these changes will impact their fraud readiness. According to industry experts, new loans and loan extensions are expected as a result of the government’s stimulus package for MSMEs as well as the RBI moratorium. Banks will need to be extra vigilant while granting facilities or renewing existing facilities, taking into consideration the stress in the account and viability of the business amidst the changed scenario. With changes caused by the pandemic continuing to persist in more ways than one, banks will need to be more agile in implementing change swiftly without comprising on risk management. Stressed assets continue to be an area of concern for banks, with the pandemic adversely impacting specific industries. Respondents have cited limited asset monitoring after disbursement (38 percent), the economic slowdown (24 percent), and insufficient due diligence prior to disbursement (21 percent) as the top three factors leading to higher stressed assets. These suggest that banks may need to overhaul their due-diligence and monitoring frameworks. For the overall effectiveness of asset monitoring frameworks, banks should consider an integrated approach that applies the findings of pre-disbursement due diligence to on-going monitoring and identifies anomalies and red flags. In this approach, it is critical that the level of due diligence conducted has accurate, extensive, and actionable intelligence. In the post-disbursement phase, monitoring needs to be robust and all-encompassing of EWS, new fraud scenarios, and integrating intelligence gathered from internal and external data sources. What do you believe has led to higher stressed assets? c) Stressed assets 21% Inadequate due diligence before disbursement Economic slowdown 24% Limited monitoring of assets after disbursement 38% Collusion and malintent 3% Regulatory changes 14%
  • 10. 19 18 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV Risk Management Inspection/Internal Audit Operations An independent FRM department that directly reports to ED/MD Others In your bank, which department does the fraud risk management (FRM) function report to? For an FRM function to be effective, in addition to a strong and robust Enterprise Fraud Risk Management (EFRM) solution, a bank should have a dedicated and independent team with a strong compliance culture. The FRM department should look to manage three pillars viz., governance, prevention/detection/investigation, and reporting. This includes having an efficient fraud monitoring system that takes into consideration inputs from inspection, credit monitoring, business, etc. teams; having a skilled pool of fraud risk management officers; reporting fraud and enhancing policies, procedures, and updating risk registers on a timely basis to avoid reoccurrence. a) Current FRM governance and structure Aligning the FRM function within a bank’s organisational structure Only 24 percent respondents mentioned that their FRM department reports directly to the ED and MD. Additionally, about 45 percent and 25 percent respondents stated that the FRM department was a part of the Risk Management and Internal Audit/Inspection functions of the bank, respectively. 45% 25% 4% 24% 2% Section II Fraud risk management and continuous monitoring at banks
  • 11. 21 20 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV In your bank, which of the following activities is a responsibility of the FRM function? (Respondents chose all applicable options) Increased dependency on analytical tools for fraud monitoring and detection Creating increased awareness on fraud among customers and employees Increased regulatory scrutiny Increased cost of investigation and damage control Change in target operating model to enhance capabilities of the remote fraud-risk management function Increase in dedicated manpower for evaluating fraud alerts The need for an independent FRM Unit Having an independent FRM department reporting directly to the ED/MD/CEO of the bank has many advantages, the most important being communicating the importance that the senior management places on the FRM function. A second benefit is the conflict of interest avoidance when performing FRM functions. It contributes to the development of new products/ services, process optimisation, skill development, etc., by bringing in aptly skilled resources in an independent FRM unit. An independent FRM unit can also help avoid delays in decision making, especially in large value frauds, and promptly bringing it to the senior management’s notice. Fraud risk review before approval for launching new products/ services and processes Reporting of fraud cases to internal and external stakeholders Investigation and preparation of investigation reports Prevention and detection of frauds 20% 29% 25% 26% 25% 13% 23% 21% 13% 5% However, apart from aligning the FRM unit, it is critical to create and reinforce a culture with zero tolerance for fraud within the organisation’s DNA. Active involvement and oversight by the senior management/board can help set the right tone at the top. Creating a zero-tolerance culture also involves communicating this message and demonstrating the focus required from senior management. In addition, in line with the RBI,1 the fraud risk management, fraud monitoring, and fraud investigation function must be owned by the bank's CEO, audit committee of the board, and the special committee of the board. b) Current status of the implementation of anti-fraud programmes What do you feel will be the most important outcome of COVID-19 on your FRM function? According to 25 percent respondents, the most important impact of the pandemic on fraud risk management functions has been increased dependency on analytical tools for fraud monitoring and detection. Using data analytics as part of fraud risk management may be indicative of a shift in the banking industry. The pandemic has resulted in staff shortage, increase in contact-less operations and services, and remote operations increasing the need for data analytics-oriented fraud risk management solutions. This is evident by 21 percent respondents highlighting that changes in their target operating model to enhance capabilities of the remote fraud-risk management function will also be an outcome of the pandemic. 1 Source: https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/BS_ViewMasDirections.aspx?id=10477 A strong fraud risk management/fraud monitoring function can help banks minimise the impact of fraud, thereby reducing losses and safeguarding their reputation. It should be able to prevent/ detect/ investigate multiple types of fraud risks, while having the ability to prepare for new regulations as well as tackle emerging fraud risks.
  • 12. 23 22 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV The number of fraud incidents encountered by banks over the last two years appears to have increased, compared with the findings of our previous survey. Fifty-three percent respondents indicated that they have faced more than 100 fraud incidents in retail banking (over the last two years)—a 29 percent increase since the previous edition. No incidents No incidents 12% 12% Between 10 and 20 20% Less than 10 More than 50 19% 37% Between 20 and 50 Less than 100 29% 29% Between 100 and 200 25% More than 200 10% 7% Unaware How many fraud incidents has your bank encountered in the last two years? Similarly, in the non-retail business, the current survey highlighted that 56 percent respondents encountered more than 20 fraud incidents; while in the previous edition, a similar number of incidents were experienced by 22 percent respondents. Fraud controls and mitigation strategies should therefore be a significant priority due to the sheer rise in fraud incidents and the consequential losses incurred. Retail Banking Non-Retail Banking According to 35 and 30 percent respondents, respectively, a fraud incident was detected either during a routine account audit/ reconciliation/process review or through an internal automated data analysis or transaction- monitoring software (EFRMS/EWS). This represents a significant improvement, compared with our previous edition, wherein only 26 and Through a customer complaint 15% 31% 36% 15% 3% Through internal automated data analysis or transaction- monitoring software (EFRMS/ EWS) During routine account audit/ reconciliation or process reviews Through an internal whistleblower/ anonymous complaint During review by a law enforcement agency How is a fraud incident currently detected in your bank? 20 percent respondents respectively attributed fraud detection to the same factors. This also ties in with our experience over the course of the last two years where banks, having realised its effectiveness, have now started using technology, including data analytics to proactively identify frauds.
  • 13. 25 24 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV Which of the following stages in the lifecycle of a MSME/ corporate loan is most vulnerable to fraud? A majority of the respondents (33 percent) cited end-use monitoring as the most vulnerable stage within the corporate/MSME loan cycle, posing the greatest fraud risk; with sourcing (19 percent) ranked as second. Results of this survey reaffirm the significance and criticality of optimising and ensuring the effectiveness of the post disbursement and continuous monitoring framework. The key to establishing an effective continuous monitoring framework is to get various enablers right, such as an Early Warning System (EWS), market intelligence, and database research, and synchronise their output. 19% 16% 16% 16% 33% Sourcing Appraisal/ Renewal Sanction Disbursement End-Use Monitoring 50% Once a year 45% Once in two/ three years 5% Have not conducted process reviews in the last five years How frequently does your bank conduct fraud risk assessments and update the fraud risk register? According to the survey findings, 45 percent respondents conduct fraud risk assessments and update the fraud risk registers once in two/three years. Given the dynamic nature of the banking environment, conducting fraud risk assessments every two/three years may not be prudent. Recent years has seen the introduction of new technology enabled products and digital payment channels helping reduce face-to-face touchpoints between banks and their customers. This increased reliance on remote and electronic channels could possibly have given rise to fraud risks that previously may not have warranted as much attention. The change in the banking environment has been compounded by the pandemic-induced disruption, resulting in a greater degree of uncertainty. Conducting fraud risk assessments with greater frequency is an absolute necessity in current times to understand the impact of these changes on fraud, as well as to proactively identify new fraud risks/trends.
  • 14. Lack of required skillset to conduct forensic audit Lack of data analytics capability to evaluate large data set Absence of a dedicated team or inadequate skilled resources to conduct forensic audit Inadequate market intelligence capability Technological limitations to read and analyse Borrower’s accounting records maintained in various applications 20% 21% 17% 16% 26% Top challenges faced by banks in performing a forensic audit in-house include technological limitations to read and analyse the borrower’s accounting records (25 percent), lack of data analytics capabilities (21 percent), and lack of requisite skill sets (20 percent). In addition, the lack of a dedicated team, according to 17 percent respondents, is another major impediment. To address these issues, banks should ideally establish a dedicated team to address such requirements and hire external experts to provide necessary training on the necessary skillsets, tools, and technology. What are the challenges faced by your bank while conducting forensic audit in-house? (Respondents chose all applicable options) In the last six months, which of the following measures has your bank implemented to mitigate fraud? c) Proactive approach in strengthening fraud risk management E-verify customers’ assets/collaterals using GPS or other technologies Conduct video KYC for customer onboarding, and KYC refresh Arrange trainings/ workshops to enhance skills of the staff involved in fraud-monitoring functions 13% 16% 17% Mandate vendors/ customers to use certain software and security measures such as encryption Enhance Case Management Solutions to effectively respond to fraud incidents, and report on time 13% 18% 23% Optimise existing EWS and Fraud Monitoring Systems to cater to current banking conditions, using artificial intelligence/machine learning and by integrating external databases Survey findings reveal that a majority of the investment in fraud mitigation measures has been in optimising existing EWS and fraud monitoring systems using AI/ML (22 percent), enhancing case management solutions to better respond to frauds (17 percent), and providing training/workshops to upskill team members as part of the FRM function (17 percent). Considering that a majority of respondents indicated end-use monitoring as the most vulnerable stage of the loan lifecycle (to fraud), investments in optimising the monitoring system is to be expected. India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV Brochure / report title goes here | Section title goes here India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV 27 26
  • 15. 73% Yes 27% No Does your bank undertake continuous monitoring of transactions? Which of the following best describes your bank's approach to continuous monitoring of assets? (Respondents chose all applicable options) 21% A dedicated team for handling high-value credits staffed by senior employees with relevant experience and skills for FRM 5% End-use monitoring 8% Regular process reviews and updates documented in the fraud risk register 8% Tool/Workflow management system to ensure adequate documentation from the customer 11% Use of external databases, regulator websites, or other sources to verify information 10% A dedicated team for evaluating alerts generated 15% Use of data analytics tools for monitoring (e.g., EWS, EFRMS) 10% Empanelled vendors/ consultants for conducting market intelligence activities 12% A dedicated Market Intelligence Unit attached to the FRM team India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV 29 28 As an approach to continuous monitoring of assets, it’s encouraging to see that banks have allocated their resources across a combination of methods. This includes 21 percent of respondents relying on a dedicated team with FRM experience to handle high value credits, supported by 15 percent of respondents that highlighted their reliance on data analytics tools such as EWS. Other approaches adopted by survey respondents include a dedicated market intelligence unit attached to the FRM team (12 percent) and use of external sources of information (11 percent). Considering the increase in volume and complexity of transactions enabled by new technologies, the low percentage of respondents opting for data analytics tools for asset monitoring poses a bit of a concern. Ideally a continuous monitoring mechanism should include all aforesaid approaches operating in unison for an all-encompassing view of assets. Such a mechanism would aggregate outputs from all the approaches/processes mentioned above, providing more actionable and consolidated intelligence. Reliance on only one or some of these approaches in isolation will not yield effective results.
  • 16. 31 30 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV About 51 percent respondents indicated that they do not include MSME assets in their continuous monitoring process, which may be a potential area of concern. To counter the pandemic's disruptive effects, stimulus packages were announced to help support the MSME sector. It is anticipated that the stimulus will lead to a high volume of activity in the sector in new loans and loan extensions. This increase in demand/activity would invariably be accompanied by parties attempting to profit illegally. In this regard, banks should also monitor their MSME assets as part of their ongoing monitoring process. Which of the following products and assets are included in your bank's continuous monitoring process? Retail assets MSME assets Mid and large corporates assets Agricultural and rural products All of the above (Including Agricultural and rural products) 10% 42% 45% 0% 3%
  • 17. India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV The Indian banking industry, over the last few years, has emphasised on the significance of establishing anti-fraud cells or fraud monitoring departments to perform investigations and also focus on prevention and the timely detection of potential fraud activities through fraud monitoring systems, etc. However, considering the increasing value and incidents of frauds, as published in RBI’s Annual Report for FY 2020-21, there appears to be significant scope to improve the prevention and detection capabilities of fraud monitoring units to make them more comprehensive, and proactive in nature.2 In fact, in January 2020, the RBI had provided excerpts of recommendations from the expert committee on NPAs and frauds, constituted under the chairmanship of Shri Y. H. Malegam. The recommendations include setting up a Market Intelligence Unit (MIU) to support fraud risk management, as well as the inclusion of a credit monitoring team in the bank to provide inputs/insights at the time of appraisal/sanctioning/during monitoring of customer activities. Currently, the alert definitions configured for EWS and fraud monitoring systems are primarily based on a customer’s transaction in the bank and financial statements. However, inputs from MIU will help identify and highlight red flags such as the presence of shell companies, feedback from top vendors/customers, reason for change in promoters/management, progress on construction sites, and activity levels in a factory. To receive timely and relevant results from the MIU, it is important to ensure that the feed provided by the monitoring team to MIU is accurate and current. For example, the feed given to MIU to perform checks on suspicious parties who have received payments from borrowers out of the bank loan should be based on the current information available with the bank. This is where data analytics can play a key role to detect potential fraud cases sooner and reduce financial loss, as opposed to the incident being discovered at a later stage. Data analytics does not only mean configuring pre-defined rules for alert generation but also identifying ever-changing anomalous activity patterns. This dynamism can only be brought about by the use of AI and ML tools. Over the coming years, banks will need to adopt a more sophisticated approach to fraud risk management by integrating state-of-the-art fraud detection tools, as well as by combining Big Data analytics with AI to generate more meaningful and accurate alerts. Integrating these features with the fraud risk management approach will allow banks/FIs to monitor customers across all stages of their lifecycle, from onboarding to settlement. Enhancing and complementing FRM teams with market intelligence and data analytics capabilities to ensure continuous monitoring Section III Insights | Investing for greater resilience and accelerating efficiency in fraud risk management India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV 32 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV 33 2 https://www.financialexpress.com/industry/banking-finance/rbi-annual-report-number-of-frauds-in-private-banks-up-21-in-fy21/2260406/
  • 18. The current traditional methods of fraud detection are plagued with the lack of centralised control, limited feedback from FRM processes, lack of risk-based monitoring, focus on detection than prevention, etc. To transform to a proactive, agile future and achieve a robust and comprehensive system, EWS and FRM needs to be integrated. Enhancing the existing FRM function Current state Traditional and reactive Investigation and remediation • Standalone anti-fraud/AML policies and procedures • Threshold/materiality-based monitoring of accounts • Dependency on other teams - Traditional method of detecting frauds • Centralised training and communication • More focused on reporting • Lack of centralised control on suspicious cases reported by branches/zones • Limited feedback from FRM on process and system enhancements • Lack of risk-based monitoring • Focus is more on detection than prevention • Identify anomalies or the potential misrepresentation of facts • Background checks on promoters/borrowers • Database screening and source enquiries • Tweaking of policies and procedures, if any, for the changing environment • Review asset classification to verify if account showed stress prior to COVID-19 lockdown • MRI index will provide inputs to design new fraud alert monitoring scenarios • Identify trigger events to revisit and enrich fraud scenarios • Optimise EWS with the enhanced scenarios for timely triggers • Integrate internal and external data sources to identify potential “red flags” • Conduct thematic testing and portfolio analysis based on MRI • Detailed investigation including enhanced due diligence, market intelligence, and end use of funds on suspect customers • Develop additional anti- fraud controls to address identified new risks • Update and socialise policies/processes • Robust MIS reporting/ dashboards Enhancing the existing policies and procedures Effective implementation and monitoring by EWS Remediate and enhance FRM on a continuous basis Building enhanced diligence mechanisms Timely identification and investigation Pro-active reporting and stakeholder management Future enhanced FRM Future state Proactive and agile Enhanced due diligence Continuous monitoring/ enhanced EWS 34 35 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
  • 19. Industry-wide banks are using various systems that run pre-defined scenarios and generate alerts, which may be in the form of early warning signals, potential fraud alerts or suspicious alerts, indicating money laundering activities. However, most banks continue to monitor these alerts in isolation. Several banks have begun to integrate various alert monitoring tools to bring synergy and get a comprehensive view of customers and their transactions. Integration of alerts does not necessarily mean that one team reviews all alerts generated by various tools deployed by banks. Bringing more synergy may entail Bringing synergy across various fraud risk monitoring tools What challenges does your bank face to effectively implement EWS/ EFRMS? revisiting the alert scenarios defined in various systems, alignment between the FRM and EWS teams, data sharing between the FRM and credit monitoring/inspection departments to proactively identify red flags, providing meaningful insights to the AML transaction monitoring team for review, and reporting to FIU, if required, etc. For banks, this combined effort will help achieve the ultimate common objective of protecting its customers from potential financial loss and enhancing trust amongst customers and the banks’ stakeholders. Limited monitoring after disbursement of assets has been identified as a major contributor to stressed assets by more than 38 percent respondents. This appears to have elicited an appropriate response from the banking sector in the form of increased reliance on measures such as EWS and data analytics. The survey also indicates banks’ heavy reliance on FRM human resources for effective continuous monitoring of assets, with 20 percent respondents opting for a dedicated team of experienced FRM professionals to handle high-value credits. Upscaling resources in FRM The industry seems to have reached a consensus on the need of continuous monitoring and effectiveness of tools, such as EWS and data analytics; however, there appears to be several challenges in the effective implementation of these tools/ measures. The survey cites factors such as lack of data integrity due to siloed systems, lack of dedicated teams and the absence of the overall skill sets required in market intelligence, forensic audits, and EWS alert reviews and analytics, as impediments to operationalise an effective fraud monitoring framework. The criticality of having an effective fraud monitoring framework has been amplified due to an upward trend in frauds since our previous survey. Concerns are heightened by expectations that the transaction volume will rise as a result of government stimulus and 78 percent survey respondents stating that banking frauds may increase over the next two years. In this regard, upscaling FRM resources is necessary, both in terms of their strength and skill sets. The banking industry needs to identify resources with appropriate skill sets and experience to staff its FRM function and ensure that data analytics capabilities in critical areas such as market intelligence, forensic audits, and EWS alert reviews are developed. This calls upon the banking industry to make strategic investments in areas of training and skill development. 1% 6% 11% 11% 14% 15% 21% 21% Others No defined policy/procedures around alert review, investigation, reporting etc. Lack of skilled resources to review alerts High proportion of false positive/duplicate alerts Shortage of manpower to evaluate alerts Inadequate market intelligence capabilities within the bank Lack of data integrity due to siloed systems making it challenging to identify risks Inadequate data captured in system India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV 37 36 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV
  • 20. 39 38 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV The increase in the use of digital channels for transactions by customers, on one hand, has contributed to the ease and speed of transactions. On the other hand, with evolving business models and increased technology use, fraud risk management frameworks have been introduced to newer and more complex challenges. This ever-evolving technology across banking channels means that human decision-making and traditional transaction alert systems are no longer effective in the timely detection of frauds. Digitalisation of business transactions has led to an enormous increase in transactions every day, which in turn, has rapidly increased the volume of bank transaction datasets. Interestingly, this data holds several valuable insights that can identify fraudulent behaviour or patterns in the transaction activities of a particular customer at an early stage. An intelligent data analytics tool can mine through vast volumes of data, gather and analyse intelligence from external sources, and identify hidden relationships and red flags. This will enable banks to proactively identify Need to enhance EWS and FRM using AI/ML potential fraudulent transactions before they manifest themselves. Through human decision- making, along with machine learning algorithms (that can learn from these datasets), fraud risk identification and detection can be much faster and more efficient. Currently, most early-warning and transaction monitoring systems that generate fraud alerts are rule-based. When a certain threshold exceeds/certain conditions are met/recurrence is identified, the transaction is marked for further investigation. One operational challenge of such traditional EWS and fraud alert monitoring systems, with predefined thresholds/ parameters, is the number of “false positives”— transactions that are flagged as suspicious, but that turn out to be regular. Following up and investigating such false positives can be a very time-consuming and cost-intensive activity for banks. However, by performing periodic reviews of test results and incorporating learnings into monitoring systems, the existing system can learn to detect true anomalies more efficiently, with lower false alarm levels. Prevention: Before flagging off suspicious transactions Investigation Market Intelligence MIS generation and reporting All of the above Detection: Early warning signals/FRMS In which of the following areas are you currently using Artificial Intelligence and Machine learning tools to improve FRM? 16% 20% 11% 22% 11% 20%
  • 21. 41 40 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV To obtain better results, AI techniques can be used to reduce false positives and spot true positives and detect new patterns. Anomaly detection algorithms are tailor-made to detect fraudulent transactions by isolating exceptional items based on variables known to the model. The input from risk, compliance, and business teams complemented with intelligence gathered through external sources is essential to implement this use case. In addition, banks can use data segmentation, coupled with statistical There are several benefits to utilising ML in fraud monitoring and detection: • Works with large datasets – ML is better than humans at processing large datasets and its prediction results improve as datasets grow. • Reduces operational cost – It eliminates the need to spend as much time and resources on reviewing every alert transaction due to better accuracy and automated predictions. • Detects and prevents fraud more effectively – ML can quickly adapt to new behaviours of fraudulent transactions and helps improve reactions to suspicious outliers. analyses to identify characteristics specific to each peer group and create custom thresholds. For example, high net-worth customers tend to be associated with large transaction amounts and may therefore require different parameters than lower income clients. Banks can then perform a sensitivity analysis to help determine whether threshold levels should be increased if too many false alerts are generated or decreased if suspicious activity is being missed, a process known as alert tuning. • Reduces false positives and prevents frauds with more efficacy. Advanced analytics can help reshape the way banks conduct fraud tests and monitor their operations. In fact, without using proper data interrogation techniques, efficiently and effectively using all the sources of information available—both internal and external—the process of uncovering fraudulent behaviours may not be as accurate as desired and can take more time and effort, given the large volumes of data generated by banks. Financial analysis/ research 15% Treasury 9% Credit approval process 18% KYC and anti-money laundering 21% Fraud risk assessment 17% Fraud detection (Early Warning System) 15% Operations 5% Which of the following areas do you think banking institutions are likely to benefit the most by deploying AI/ machine learning technology?
  • 22. 43 42 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV The banking business has never been without risk; however, given the current rise in fraud trends, there is an immediate need for banks to implement robust, effective, and efficient control frameworks. Over the past few years, we have witnessed various banks increase their investments in enhancing their FRM frameworks and monitoring systems and controls; however, it appears that these efforts have not been sufficient. The current siloed approach to fraud risk management will no longer be effective. Whilst banks navigate through these unprecedented times, there are a number of actions that should be considered when protecting their business from fraudsters who want to use the pandemic for their own gain. The manner in which banks choose to respond to challenges will continue to be the focus of the public, regulators, and investors, and will position them well to cope with any future crises that comes their way. Closing thoughts 1 Review scenarios/rules to reflect the “new normal”. This will ensure banks are neither being inundated by alerts of customers who have deviated significantly in behaviour, such as payment flows being changed significantly due to re-configured supply chains, nor are new patterns/ fraud trends missed out on. Reflect on the technology used/strategy to prevent, monitor, and detect financial crime. A key challenge for banks managing their regulatory obligations is finding the balance between risk management and efficiency/effectiveness through innovation using AI and ML. With many regulators across the globe releasing guidelines, banks need to take the time to measure the effectiveness, appropriateness, and efficiency of existing controls against an updated risk assessment. Regular/timely and updated risk assessments can help banks ensure that there are linkages between risk typologies and the control framework. 2 3
  • 23. 45 44 India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV India Banking Fraud Survey | Edition IV About the survey We gathered the views of 70 key C-suite stakeholders/ senior management responsible for compliance and fraud risk management, audit/ finance, asset recovery from varied financial institutions based in India. Banks and financial institutions who participated in the survey included private, public, foreign, co-operative and regional rural banks in India. Each statistic used in this report is derived from the number of responses to that question and must not be considered consistent across the report. For multiple choice questions and priority-based questions, the weighted average of responses for that question has been used to derive the statistics. About Deloitte’s Forensic practice in India Deloitte’s Forensic practice in India helps organisations protect their brand and reputation through proactive advice on their exposure to fraud, corruption, non-compliance, misconduct, and other future business risk issues. The practice also helps clients react quickly and confidently in a crisis, investigation, or dispute scenario. We use our global network, deep industry experience, and advanced analytical technology to understand and resolve/deal with all such issues. The team comprises of professionals who bring in diverse skill sets to the practice. For more information, you may visit our page. Connect with us Nikhil Bedi Partner and Leader – Forensic Financial Advisory Deloitte India nikhilbedi@deloitte.com Amol Mhapankar Director – Forensic Financial Advisory Deloitte India amhapankar@deloitte.com KV Karthik Partner - Forensic Financial Advisory Deloitte India kvkarthik@deloitte.com Soniya Mahajan Director – Forensic Financial Advisory Deloitte India somahajan@deloitte.com Nishkam Ojha Partner – Forensic Financial Advisory Deloitte India nojha@deloitte.com Manish Mandhyan Director – Forensic Financial Advisory Deloitte India mmandhyan@deloitte.com Contributors Anurag Datta Soniya Mahajan Amol Mhapankar
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