SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Chapter: One
Pathways to Resilience in Context
Definitions and Conceptualizations of
Resilience
 The terms ‘resilience’ or ‘resilient’ are now
widely recognized and familiar to many in
the lay public.
 These terms are often used by doctors,
therapists, policy makers, teachers,
academics, and the popular press to refer to
individuals who “bounce back” after
significant stress and adversity.
Cont.….
• After many years of productive usage in
engineering and physics, the term was adopted
by;
• ecologists and
• developmental scientists as a metaphor
for the capacity of a dynamic system
(e.g., a rain forest, a family, a community)
to respond to challenges and threats,
survive, and continue to prosper.
Cont.…
• The concept of resilience has been used in social
science fields as diverse as;
– psychology,
– economics,
– disaster studies,
– law,
– public health,
– urban planning and
– others to study how people, and the social systems
they are part of, are affected by new policies,
natural disasters, climate change, and a range of
other local to global changes.
Cont.…
• For example, in disaster studies,
resilience has been used to explore
people's resistance to and recovery
from cyclones floods, and other extreme
events.
Resilience derives from the Latin verb
‘resilire’, meaning to leap or spring
back; to rebound, recoil. It was first
introduced into the scholarly literature in
1818.
There are several definitions given for the concept resilience;
 “The term ‘resilience’ refers to the ability to
adapt to changing conditions and withstand
and rapidly recover from disruption due to
emergencies” (The White House 2011, p. 6).
 “Resilience is defined as the ability to
minimize the costs of a disaster, to return to a
state as good as or better than the status quo,
and to do so in the shortest feasible time…
(Gilbert 2010, p. 11).
Cont.…..
 Resilience is “the capacity of a system,
community, or society potentially exposed to
hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing, in
order to reach and maintain an acceptable level
of functioning and structure.
 This is determined by the degree to which
the social system is capable of organizing
itself to increase its capacity for learning
from past disasters for better future
protection and to improve risk reduction
measures” (Science for Disaster Reduction,
2005, p. 17).
Cont.…
• ‘’Resilience is the capacity of a system to
survive, adapt and grow in the face of
change and uncertainty” (Fiksel, 2006, p.
21).
• ‘’Resilience is the ability to bounce back
from adversity, frustration, and misfortune”
(Ledesma, 2014)
• Generally, Resilience is the ability to
absorb, adapt to, and/or rapidly recover
from a potentially disruptive event.
Cont.…
• Both in the case of natural and man-made
threats, analyses of resilience have focused on;
– critical infrastructures,
– communities, and regions and
– on the resilience of various subsystems (e.g., a
community’s or region’s economy, governmental
units, emergency services sector, the civilian
population).
A Social-Ecological Definition of Resilience
• Social-ecological resilience is the capacity to
adapt or transform in the face of change in social-
ecological systems, particularly unexpected
change, in ways that continue to support human
well-being (Chapin et al. 2010, Biggs et al. 2015).
• Resilience is generally considered the capacity to
tolerate, absorb, cope with, and adjust to changing
social or environmental conditions while retaining
key elements of structure, function, and identity.
• The social dimensions of resilience are vital to
understanding the impacts of environmental
changes, such as climate change, on social-
ecological systems.
Cont.…
• The social-ecological system concept explicitly recognizes that
people and nature are intricately connected.
• Human activities alter the structure and function of
ecosystems, which in turn provide people with ecosystem
goods and services that contribute to human well-being.
• There are some key social factors that provide resilience in
linked social-ecological systems, including
– (1) assets,
– (2) flexibility,
– (3) social organization,
– (4) learning,
– (5) socio-cognitive constructs, and
– (6) agency.
Cont.…
1. Assets that people can draw upon
People are generally more resilient to social-
ecological changes when they can access a
diversity of financial, technological, service-
related (i.e., health care), and other types of
assets.
2. The flexibility to change strategies,
Flexibility reflects the capacity of both
individuals and institutions to deal with change by
being able to switch between strategies.
 Flexibility is closely related to the idea of having
diversity and redundancy in a system to provide a
sort of ‘‘insurance’’ that can prevent shocks from
having catastrophic consequences.
Cont.…
3. The ability to organize and act collectively,
 The way that society is organized can enable or
inhibit resilience by influencing whether and how
people share knowledge, cooperate, and access
resources beyond their immediate domain.
 The formal and informal relationships that support
these key social processes include both social
networks and institutions, which can operate at
different scales.
4. Learning to recognize and respond to change,
• Learning reflects people’s capacity to recognize
change, attribute this change to causal factors, and
assess potential response strategies.
Cont…
• Importantly, learning is not solely about access to
information but rather captures the experiential and
experimental processes that enable people to frame or
reframe problems.
• In the context of social-ecological systems, learning
can help to build awareness of complex linkages and
feedbacks between people and ecosystems
Cont.…
5. Socio-cognitive Constructs that enable or constrain
human behaviour
• Resilience is also shaped by subjective socio-
cognitive dimensions, such as risk attitudes, personal
experience, perceived social norms, and cognitive
biases.
• Risk attitudes include perceptions about the
probability and severity of risk associated with
change as well as the costs and benefits associated
with adapting.
• Personal experience, cognitive biases, and perceived
social norms can profoundly affect risk attitudes and
whether they help to build or erode resilience.
Cont.…
6. The agency to determine whether to change or not
• Social resilience requires that people have the power
and freedom to mobilize their assets, flexibility, social
organization, learning, and socio-cognitive capacities
to actively shape their future.
• Agency reflects people’s free choice in responding to
social-ecological changes and encompasses aspects of
empowerment and self-efficacy.
• Agency also captures people’s belief in their own
ability to manage prospective situations and control
the events that affect them, which is closely linked to
the cognitive dimensions of resilience discussed
above.
Key Concepts and Terminology
• Author like Masten (2014b, p. 10) has defined
resilience as “the capacity of a dynamic system to
adapt successfully to disturbances that threaten
system function, viability, or development”.
• This definition is broad and scalable across system
levels and disciplines.
• However, it requires further delineation/explanation.
Hence, it needs key concepts and terminology in
resilience.
Cont.…
Resilience: The capacity of a dynamic system to adapt
successfully to significant disturbances and continue or recover to
healthy function or development.
Risk Factor: A variable associated with an elevated probability
of a negative outcome for a group of individuals
Cumulative Risk: The summation of all risk factors that the
individual has experienced or an index of the overall severity of
adversity experienced; this can include multiple separate risk
events or repeated occurrences of the same risk factor
Stress: The condition or experience of an imbalance in demands
impinging on a person and the actual or perceived resources
available to meet those challenges, disrupting the quality of
functioning at some level
Cont.….
Promotive Factors (assets, resources): Measurable
characteristics of individuals associated with better adaptation
(for a designated outcome) in both high and low risk conditions;
variables with equally beneficial effects regardless of risk level;
correlates of positive adaptation
Protective Factors: Measurable characteristics of individuals
associated with positive outcomes particularly in the context of
high risk or adversity; a favorable moderator of risk or adversity
Cumulative Protection: The presence of multiple protective
factors or influences in an individual’s life
Stressful or adverse life events or conditions: Experiences that
typically lead to stress responses in individuals
Adversity: Stressful life experiences that threaten adaptation or
development
Cont.…
Differential susceptibility (sensitivity to context): Individual
differences in reactivity or sensitivity to experience, associated
with moderating effects of experience on individual function or
development; such moderators may be associated with good
reactions to positive environments and poor responses to negative
environments
Developmental Tasks: Psychosocial milestones or
accomplishments expected of members in a given society or
culture in different age periods; these milestones often represent
criteria by which individual development can be evaluated within
the culture
Competence: The adaptive use of personal or contextual
resources to attain age-appropriate developmental tasks
Resilience Theory
• Resilience theory has its roots in the study of
adversity and an interest in how adverse life
experiences impact harmfully on people.
• Resilience theory is the conceptual framework for
understanding how some individuals can bounce back
in life after experiencing an adverse situation in a
strength-focused approach​
• Resilience Theory refers to the ability to adapt
successfully and bounce back from adversity, failure,
conflict, frustration and misfortune.
• It helps us to recover from the difficulties that have
taken a toll on us.
• Resilience Theory argues that the important is how
we deal with the difficulties rather than the nature of
adversities.
History of Resilience
• Resilience theory has been researched across
many disciplines.
• For example, resiliency was defined in the area
of psychology as the ability to bounce back
and to withstand hardship by repairing
oneself (Higgins, 1994; Wolin & Wolin, 1993).
• In the field of psychiatry, it is psychological
and biological strengths humans use to master
change successfully (Flach, 1988).
Cont.…
• In the field of developmental psychopathology,
it refers to the ability to cope with challenges and
threats while maintaining an internal and
integrated sense of self (Garmezy & Masten,
1986).
• In the field of human development, resiliency
was defined as the ability to withstand or
successfully cope with adversity (Werner &
Smith, 2001).
• In the field of change management, it is viewed
as the ability to demonstrate both strength and
flexibility during the change process, while
displaying minimal dysfunctional behaviour
(Conner, 1993).
Cont.…
• Resilience defined in the field of medicine as the
ability to recognize pain, acknowledge its
purpose, tolerate it for a while, until things begin
to normalize (Flach, 1988; O’Leary & Ickovics,
1995).
• In the field of epidemiology, it refers to the
ability to survive stress and to rise above
disadvantage (Rutter, 1979).
• In the field of nursing, it is the ability to
regenerate power to respond to the internal or
external environment for survival, growth, or
development (Jones, 1991).
In context of Social Sciences….
• The social sciences generally define resilience
as the ability to recover from negative life
experiences and become stronger while
overcoming them (Henderson & Milstein,
1996).
Construct of Resilience
• Masten (2005) defines resilience as a
class of phenomena characterized by
good outcomes in spite of serious threats
to adaptation of development.
• Rutter (1987), a psychiatric risk
researcher, states that the term is used to
describe the positive tone of individual
differences in people’s response to stress
and adversity.
Cont.….
• Janas (2002) identified the term as the ability
to bounce back from adversity, frustration, and
misfortune.
• Resilience is also used interchangeably with
positive coping, adaptation, and persistence (R.
R. Greene et al., 2002).
• In essence, resilience researchers agree that
resilience is concerned with individual
variations in response to risk.
Cont.….
• Perry (2002) defines resilience as the
capacity to face stressors without
significant negative disruption in
functioning.
• In developmental literature, resilience is
typically discussed in terms of protective
psychological risk factors that foster the
development of positive outcomes and
healthy personality characteristics
(Bonanno, 2004).
Cont.…
• Resilience is also used interchangeably with
positive coping, adaptation, and persistence (R.
R. Greene et al., 2002).
• In essence, resilience researchers agree that
resilience is concerned with individual
variations in response to risk.
• While some individuals succumb to stress and
adversity, others survive and respond well to
the challenges associated with life’s hazards
(Rutter, 1987).
Variables of Resilience
1. Internal Variables;
• Internal variables in resilience are defined as
self-factors, personality factors, or individual
resources.
• These factors appear to have significant impact
on how a person interprets and deals with the
crisis at hand.
• As such, these factors may include hardiness,
coping ability, a sense of coherence/unity, the
use of personal resources, cognitive resources,
threat appraisal/assessment etc. (O’Leary,
1998).
Cont.…..
• Other internal factors include temperaments
such as modes of thought, response, action,
positive self-esteem, a sense of being
effectual, and being in control of one’s
surroundings (Beardslee, 1989).
• In addition, self-factors such as optimism,
understanding, insight, intellectual
competence, direction or mission (Ungar,
2004).
External Variables of Resilience
• Researchers have defined external variables that
have influence over a person’s ability to remain
resilient in the face of adversity.
• According to studies on external variables
associated with resilience, the literature points to
the importance of relationships as a significant
factor for the individual facing adversity.
• Whether the support comes from a relative or a
caring individual, it is clear that social resources
are a critical factor in resilience (O’Leary, 1998).
Cont.……
• At the core of a person’s ability to sustain
himself is his intimacy/closeness with others,
and sometimes these relationships serve as the
major catalyst of the transformation in one’s
life and within oneself.
• In his study, Rutter (1987) identified the
availability of external support systems that
encourage and reinforce coping skills for
individuals as one of the variables associated
with resilience.
Models of Resilience
• Three types of resilience models are discussed here:
• person-focused,
• variable focused, and
• hybrid models.
• These models guided the strategies for assessment
and analyses that operationalized and tested ideas
about the connections among risks, adaptive function,
and other factors that might play a role in resilience.
1. Person-Focused Models
• Person-focused models, initially inspired by
compelling case studies, have the individual
person as their primary focus of analysis.
• Person-focused models tend to identify
resilient people and understand how resilience
develops by comparing them to non resilient
ones who are not coping well in the face of
adversity and to those who have not
experienced any harmful threats to their
development.
2. Variable-focused
• Variable-focused approaches focus on the
relationships among keys of stress/adversity,
the influencing factors of resilience and
psychosocial functions.
• The purpose of variable-focused model is to
capture the mechanism behind resilience
development.
Pathways and Trajectories: Hybrid models
• Pathway models try to disentangle how human
adaptation systems operate and how resilience
develops by focusing on change before and after the
occurrence of traumatic events or disasters.
• Recent advances in the mixed modeling of change
over time within and across individuals (e.g., growth
and trajectories (Nagin, 2005) have yielded hybrid
models that combine features of person-focused and
variable-focused models (Masten, 2013).
• Pathway models focus on identifying different
developmental trajectories and provide an opportunity
to explore turning points in individuals’ lives that might
promote resilience as well as setbacks that might hinder
positive adaptation.
The Importance of an Ecological Perspective in
Resilience Science
• During recent years, with the profound shift to a multilevel,
dynamic systems model of risk and resilience, there is a new
emphasis on the processes embedded in contexts of human
life and particularly in cultural processes.
• Identification of multiple levels within a person’s ecology
that impact resilience enhances the possibility of targeting a
variety of contexts in which to intervene in order to;
• reduce risk,
• increase resources, and
• strengthen protective systems. Such an ecologically
informed perspective may be critical in maximizing
resilient outcomes.
Chapter Two: Culture and
Resilience: Theory and Practice
 Both culture and resilience are slippery
concepts.
 When it comes to actual measurement, they
can prove as nebulous as terms such as
lifestyle and empowerment.
 Lifestyle, for instance, is a term that denotes a
typical way of life for an individual or social
group – but it encompasses personal identity,
use of technology, place of residence, and
characteristics ranging from politics to health.
Cont.……
• Culture is best defined as shared
knowledge or shared expectation – a
shared understanding of the world.
• Risk is best defined as a situation
involving elevated odds of undesirable
outcomes – and
• Resilience as the process of harnessing
resources in contexts of significant
adversity to sustain end goals (Panter-
Brick, 2014).
Risks, Resources, and Processes Underlying Resilience
• Whereas risk factors are broadly associated with
negative or undesirable outcomes in a given population,
resource factors(also known as assets or promotive
factors) generally support positive or desirable
development across individuals.
• Risks and resources are population-level constructs
that are associated with negative or positive effects on
development.
• However, at the level of individual members of a
population (e.g., a person, school, or neighbourhood),
the significance of any particular factor for
development may be influenced by the broader
context of risks and resources that surrounds the
system, as well as by specific vulnerabilities of the
system.
Cont.….
• For example, a parent’s serious illness will
increase family strain, but this effect will be
magnified in contexts where the parent is the
sole provider for the family, and/or if there is a
specific vulnerability, such as limited access to
health-care.
• Thus, the adaptive significance of a particular
risk or resource for a given individual in a
population may be influenced by other factors.
Cont.……
• Risk factors tend to aggregate and pile up
in the lives of individuals, in families, and
in communities (Masten & Wright, 1998).
• Unemployment of a parent, for example,
may precipitate a decline in the family’s
financial security that disrupts housing
stability, increases stress, renders family
members more vulnerable to illness, and
strains social support networks.
Cont.…..
• Likewise, at a more macro level, political
violence may threaten the integrity of religious
and educational institutions, disrupt patterns of
food distribution and access, and threaten
environmental health and safety.
• Risks and resources, by definition, contribute
directly to adaptation (i.e., main effects).
However, their effects can be influenced by
other factors or by interactions among risks
and resources in combination (i.e., moderated
effects).
Cont…..
• Vulnerability factors refer to moderators that
increase the negative effects of risks, as in the
aforementioned case where lack of health-care
is a vulnerability that exacerbates the negative
effect of illness or injury.
• Protective factors mitigate risk effects, taking
on greater salience in adverse contexts as when
positive teacher–student relationships
disproportionately support academic and
behavioural competence among disadvantaged
students (Pianta, 1999).
Characterizing Resilience
• The followings are among few characteristics of
resilience;
– high diversity;
– effective governance and institutions;
– the ability to work with uncertainty and change;
– community involvement and the appropriation of local
knowledge;
– preparedness and planning for disturbances;
– high social and economic equity;
– robust social values and structures,
– continual and effective learning and
High Diversity
• …many ecologists argue that resilience is the key
to sustainable ecosystem management and that
diversity enhances resilience, stability, and
ecosystem functioning,’.
• high diversity in the range of functional groups
within a system is seen to contribute greatly to its
resilience.
• This underlines the importance of nurturing
ecological diversity but also pressures the need
for a range of available economic opportunities, a
diversity of partnerships.
• Cutter et. al. (2010) point out that single sector
economies are less resilient and more prone to
being affected by extreme events.
Cont.…..
• Adger (2000) emphasises the importance of
communities relying on diverse natural resources
as it protects them from the ‘boom and bust nature
of environmental variability and extreme weather
events.
• This point is also elucidated by Norris et. al.
(2008: 134) who note ‘Communities that are
dependent on a narrow range of resources are
less able to cope with change that involves the
depletion of that resource.’
• Diversity may also be reflected in the variety of
stakeholders engaged in an adaptive process.
Cont.…..
• The Rockefeller Foundation (2009: 2)
highlights a diversity of planning, response
and recovery activities as an essential
component of resilience to climate change
because ‘a diversity of options has greater
potential to match the particular scenario of
impacts that occur’.
Effective governance and institutions
• A number of different approaches stress the
value of effective governance and institutions
in building systems resilience.
• Mayunga (2007) stresses the importance of
trust, norms and networks within a system,
perhaps manifested through a large number of
credible civil society institutions such as
religious organisations and recreational clubs.
• Empowering Social institutions are very
important because they are effective in oiling
the wheels of the society.
Cont.…..
• A key theme running through resilience thinking
is the need for decentralised organisational
structures and policies.
• These are regarded as more flexible to cope with
change and more in touch with the needs of
communities and local realities.
• Polycentric and multi-layered institutions are very
important.
• Carpenter et. al. (2001: 778) underline the
importance of institutions that can facilitate
learning and ‘experiment in safe ways, monitor
results, update assessments, and modify policy as
new knowledge is gained’.
Cont.……
• Working with government institutions on
devolution/decentralising processes and
enhancing accountability could yield positive,
robust, long- term results.
Acceptance of uncertainty and change
• Resilience thinking is closely associated with the
ability of systems to deal with uncertainty and change
(Folke 2006).
• Norris et. al. (2008:130) note that ‘stability’ or the
failure to change could be a way of determining the
lack of resilience:
‘‘The resilience of systems, for example, depends
upon one component of the system being able to
change or adapt in response to changes in other
components; and thus the system would fail to
function if that component remained stable, (ibid:
130)’’
Cont.……
• It needs for ‘flexibility at an individual,
organizational, and systemic level, with each
level able to respond and contribute to each
situation, and to respond to shifting and
unpredictable circumstances’ (Rockefeller
Foundation, 2009: 2).
Community involvement and inclusion of
local knowledge
• Group who will inevitably have to combat
emergency situations if the scale of
disturbance overwhelms the official response
capacity.
• The importance of representatives of the ‘full
fabric’ of the community being represented in
decisions related to the disaster cycle is
considered critical to the development of
community resilience.
Cont.…..
• Community members must assess and address
their own vulnerabilities to hazards, identify and
invest in their own networks of assistance and
information while individuals from outside local
communities can help build an enabling
environment to foster recovery, communities must
be empowered to ‘take charge of the direction of
change’.
• ‘Development actions that address disaster
reduction (and other significant issues) must be
formulated through a fair and equitable process
that provides an opportunity for all affected
parties to participate.’
Cont.….
• Community involvement and local knowledge
have been at the forefront of community
based adaptation approaches.
Preparedness, planning
• Preparing and planning for disturbances also
characterises resilient systems.
• Planning requires relevant and timely
information, as well as embedding disaster
preparedness plans within existing institutional
processes, such as district and local
development plans.
High degree of equity
• A number of theorists engage with the idea that
a high degree of equity in a system leads to its
increased resilience (Adger et. al., 2002).
• It includes equitable distribution of wealth and
assets and an equitable economy as essential to
building community resilience.
Social capital, values and structures
• Social capital, built on trust, norms and
networks is cited as an important element for
building resilient systems (Mayunga, 2007).
• Healthy civil society institutions are viewed as
able to foster cooperation and coordination in a
community, this in turn can lead to a greater
amount of trust and respect amongst its
members and more equitable access to
resources and greater resilience (ibid).
Cont.…..
• Norris et. al. (2008) count social capital (which is
a combination of social support, social
embeddedness, organisational linkages,
leadership, sense of community and attachment to
a place) as one set of resources that generate
community resilience.
• Social capital is a key element of a community’s
resilience to disasters and argue that social capital
fosters social networks that create interpersonal
trust.
• This in turn, allows the community to solve
problems effectively, build consensus and reduce
risks.
Cont.…..
• Cutter et al. (2010:9) too discuss the importance
of social capital to resilience and interpret this as
‘…sense of community, place attachment, and
citizen participation.’
• This characteristic of resilience thinking would
foreground activities to mediate differences,
develop trust and build on shared social values
within communities,
• At the same time as recognising that some
adaptation activities themselves may erode
community trust, institutions and shared values
and therefore prove maladaptive.
Learning
• Learning is also central to the notion of
adaptive management (Gunderson and
Holling, 2001).
• O’Brien and O’Keefe (2010:378) note that:
‘…learning can enhance the capacity to
prepare an effective response to disastrous
situations.’
• Resilience building is a learning process at all
levels. Institutional learning empowers at the
local level and strengthens governance.
Culture and Resilience
• Resilience is a normative concept, related to moral values and
social aspirations (Panter-Brick, 2014; Ungar, 2004).
• Thus resilience has important moral, social, and political
dimensions.
• An ethnographic approach to resilience ‘across cultures’ needs
to discover the ‘political economy’ of health, in which
individual resilience is a matter of;
– navigating systems of oppressive poverty,
– insidious violence,
– vastly unequal opportunities for economic or educational
advancement, or
– overt marginalization on the grounds of sexual or religious
affiliation (Panter-Brick, 2014).
Cont.….
• Resilience is also observed at social and
structural levels, in the ways ‘successful
societies’ have navigated and negotiated
the economic and political changes
sweeping the world stage in the name of
neoliberalism (Hall & Lamont, 2013).
• These moral, social, and structural
dimensions to resilience matter for
sustaining health and wellbeing.
Cont.…..
• Resilience is understood as the process of
overcoming adverse experiences, as evidenced
by an upward trajectory in response to as
shock or stressor (Masten, 2011, 2014).
• Resilience research rightly focuses on identifying the
turning points that can leverage change – or “knife off”
past disadvantage (Rutter, 2012).
• The ‘mission’ of resilience research is to uncover which
time points are the most sensitive for effective
intervention, and which resources are the most
culturally-relevant to foster upward trajectories.
Cont.….
• If resilience is akin to ‘bouncing back’ from
adversity, it is imperative to understand the
process of ‘bouncing forward’ also (Walsh,
2002, p. 35).
Resilience Across Cultures
• How does culture affect resilience?
• Do different cultures generate resilience in
different ways?
• The concept of "culture" is applied in a wide
sense.
• Culture is;
– the way we meet and greet,
– the way we work and celebrate,
– what we eat and how we eat it,
– the way we relate to each other and
– the way we solve our differences.
Cont.…..
• The way they are expressed and the way they
work to create resilience may differ greatly
between cultures.
• In some cultures theoretical skills are valued,
in others practical or artistic skills are
important.
• The different elements in a culture contribute
to resilience according to how important that
specific factor is in each culture.
Resilience in Dynamic Systems
• Contemporary resilience science extends across
the life span; considers multiple levels of analysis,
and examines multiple systems, from families and
schools to neighborhoods and nations (e.g.,
Cicchetti, 2013, Kim-Cohen & Turkewitz, 2012;).
• Resilience emerges from the interactions of a
dynamic system as it transacts with a dynamic
context (Lerner, 2006).
• Thus, any model of resilience must consider the
interplay among multiple levels of influence and
analysis, and efforts to promote resilience in
development must do the same (Cicchetti, 2011).
Dynamic model of resilience
• Just as resilience emerges in the context of
dynamic exchanges between an adaptive
system and the broader context, so, too, must
practice efforts to support competence in
contexts of adversity (i.e., resilience)
accommodate and respond to the dynamic
nature of development.
• The influence of a given factor as either
protective or vulnerability-enhancing is
moderated by the context in which it is
embedded, and the developmental stage of
the system at the time when it is introduced.
Cont.…..
• Just as resilience is developmentally
contextualized, it is also culturally situated.
• Thus, it is important to clarify the ways in which
adversity and competence vary across different
ecological, and cultural contexts
(Ungaretal.,2013).
• Applied efforts to promote resilience that
incorporate culturally congruent values, norms,
and resources will be more readily accepted and
utilized by individuals, groups, and communities
(Black & Krishnakumar, 1998; Parsai, Castro,
Marsiglia, Harthun, & Valdez, 2011).
Transactional model of resilience
• With a growing body of research illuminating
the processes by which systems negotiate
salient developmental challenges despite
adversity, a resilience framework can guide
practice, even as research continues to build a
better knowledge base about processes of
protection, vulnerability, and differential
susceptibility.
• In turn, efficacy studies of interventions
guided by resilience science offer powerful
tests of theories about resilience processes.
Cont.…..
• These include investigations of prevention and
intervention efforts that deliberately aim to alter
the course of development in favorable directions
and natural experiments where a naturally
occurring change in circumstance (e.g., adoption)
can reveal mechanisms of developmental
deviation and recovery (Masten, 2011; Rutter,
2007).
• Scientific progress emerges from the bidirectional
influences of theory and practice in a recursive
process of theory formulation, testing, data
collection, and theory revision (Sameroff, 1983).
Cont.……
• Although prevention scientists are increasingly
incorporating resilience theory into their missions
and models of intervention, there remains a
wealth of untapped information awaiting
translation from practice to research (Howe,
Reiss, & Yuh, 2002).
• Carefully conducted evaluation research with
randomized group assignment and appropriate
comparison groups allows investigators to
experiment with altering the course of human
development in the context of identifiable and
quantifiable adversity, and to evaluate causal
hypotheses about resilience and development
(Masten, 2011).
Cont.….
• Studies that demonstrate the mediating
function of conceptually predicted variables
(e.g., improved parental discipline practices) in
the relation between intervention (e.g.,
parent education curricula) and outcome (e.g.,
reduced antisocial behaviour) yield important
data for theory testing.
• However, interventions that were highly
successful in elegant university experiments
can be difficult to implement successfully in
more typical real-world ecological settings.
Cont.…..
• The divide between the empirical efficacy of
resilience interventions in clinical research
designs and the real-world effectiveness of
resilience interventions in everyday practice
constitutes a major barrier to bidirectional
exchanges between resilience research and
practice.
• In an effort to bridge this translational divide
,investigators are teaming up with field-based
experts and consumers to design and test
interventions that are informed by frontline
knowledge and tailored to real-world contexts to
maximize the potential for effectiveness in
everyday practice from the outset.
Cont.…..
• Casey and colleagues (2014) describe an iterative
process of designing and testing the components
of a new intervention to promote executive
function skills and academic resilience in
homeless and highly mobile preschool children.
• Their design team included faculty experts in
executive function, resilience, and teacher
training; teachers and staff from community
preschools serving high-risk children; and master
teachers from a university-based early childhood
training program.
Cont.…..
• Parents also contributed their expertise via
focus groups and feedback about each
iteration of the intervention.
• Incorporating the expertise of scientists,
practitioners, and consumers yields a
translational synergy that strengthens and
accelerates the reciprocal influences of
science and practice in the design,
implementation, evaluation, and
dissemination of interventions to promote
resilience (Masten, 2011).
Cont.….
• In an elegant illustration of translational
synergy, Aber and colleagues(2011)initiated
an empirical investigation of social-emotional
learning and development.
• They began with a careful explication of
theories of change that were implicit in the
design and implementation of an applied
effort to support children’s efforts to resolve
conflict creatively.
Cont.….
• Subsequent evaluations of the theories underlying the
Resolving Conflict Creatively Program were translated
from practice to research and back again to guide the
development of a modified school-based intervention
centered on reading, writing, respect, and resolution
(4Rs).
• The 4Rs program incorporates multiple levels of
intervention (e.g., individuals, classrooms, schools) and
harnesses developmental cascades of influence across
schools, classrooms, and children.
• While acknowledging the many difficulties that thwart
synergistic translations between practice and research,
the work of Aber and colleagues (2011) also
demonstrates the incontrovertible value of confronting
these challenges.
Cont.…..
• Challenges that hinder efforts to integrate the
science and practice of resilience are
manifold.
• First, good interventions and the research on
which they are based take time, but there is a
constant press for immediate action to
support children, families, schools, and
neighbourhoods that are struggling in the
present moment and cannot abide by the
time course of rigorous science (Ager, Stark,
Akesson, & Bootby, 2010; Masten,2011).
Cont.…..
• Second, effective interventions are, almost by
definition, multifaceted, prompting a need to
identify the salient facets or active ingredients
of successful interventions to best inform
future science.
• Third, theory testing in the context of
resilience-guided interventions necessitates a
complementary shift in our evaluative lens
away from symptom remission toward
competence promotion.
Cont.……
• A legacy of interest in the problems of
adaptation has produced far fewer tools to
assess competence and positive dimensions of
development.
• As efforts to promote the health and
competence of future generations expand, they
must be met with commensurate evaluative
research to ascertain the specific features of
interventions that are effective, and to test the
theoretical hypotheses upon which they were
grounded.
Cont.…….
• Beyond the individual level, tools to evaluate
broader systems, such as communities,
governments, and nations, are particularly
scarce (see Sherrieb, Norris, & Galea, 2010, for
exception).
• Fourth, there is a dearth of practice-based
research networks through which multiple
providers in applied settings can collaborate to
develop a living laboratory to generate and
evaluate knowledge in the context of everyday
practice (McMillen, Lenze, Hawley, & Osborne,
2009).
Chapter 3 and 4
Group Assignment (Term Paper)
Chapter Five
Resilience in Practice: Assessment and Action Planning
 Resilience is a compelling concept for development and
humanitarian assistance;
 Because it can enhance practitioners’
understanding of the complex dynamics that
influence peoples’ ability to prevent and respond
to risk.
 Incorporating resilience analytics into humanitarian and
development assistance can;
 enable people,
 households and communities to sustain positive
long-term development trajectories in the face of
shocks and stresses, potentially reducing the need
for humanitarian aid.
Why do risk and resilience assessments?
• To; develop effective, measurable resilience-
building strategies;
– practitioners must consider the complex
interactions that exist between risks, people
and the socio-ecological systems in which they
live.
• These interactions occur at various spatial and
temporal scales, and are inherently dynamic.
• Thus, when shocks hit a system, they do not
occur in isolation; rather, they interact with
multiple factors that can compound their
impact and provoke downstream effects.
Cont.….
• For example, a hurricane might have a
larger negative impact on a struggling
community with poor infrastructure and
few social safety nets, than on one with
more robust infrastructure and
government response mechanisms.
• It might also provoke increased future
risk by destroying flood protection
infrastructure that protects people from
storm surge.
Cont…..
• Due to these complex interactions,
improvements in resilience capacity
often demand multiple long-term
changes across various systems, such
as;
– markets,
–governance structures and
–social norms.
Cont.….
• A risk and resilience assessment provides
a means for practitioners to better
understand the complex factors that
influence resilience to shocks and stresses
in a given context.
• This process is critical to developing and
improving a theory for effecting change,
upon which resilience-building strategies
can be based.
Cont.….
• Risk and resilience assessments can be
conducted over a range of levels of effort and
for a variety of reasons, including:
 to inform program design, development and
adaptation;
 to improve monitoring and evaluation of a
program with relation to specific resilience
metrics; and
 to increase awareness and understanding of staff
and partners of the value and practicalities of
adopting a resilience approach.
What’s Unique about Resilience Assessments?
 Though many approaches to resilience assessments
exist, they share in common several features:
Consideration of multiple interacting and cross-
scalar factors
Use of both qualitative and quantitative data
collection processes
A focus on the ability of people, communities, and
systems to mitigate risk
Recognition of existing capacities already
supporting resilience and which are inherent in
systems, e.g. traditional practices based on social
capital which can serve as safety nets in times of
shocks or stresses
Cont.….
Resilience assessments differ from other
types of related assessments, which tend
to narrowly focus on;
 individuals or specific types of risks,
favour either quantitative methods or
community perceptions,
assess static snapshots in time, or
have limited analysis of the root causes
of risk mitigation capacity.
Cont.….
What comes after a risk and resilience
assessment?
• Risk and resilience assessments are not the end
point for understanding the contexts in which
development programs take place because
these contexts continue to change and evolve
over time.
• As a result, assessment findings must be
regularly updated to ensure program strategies
remain relevant and impactful.
Cont….
• Risk and resilience assessments can
therefore play a key role in supporting an
adaptive programming process through
which humanitarian and development
strategies can be;
– monitored,
–assessed,
–evaluated and
–refined over time.
Conceptual Framework
• A risk and resilience assessment can employ
practical elements of systems thinking to
explore the relevant social, political,
economic, and ecological factors in a given
context;
–to identify the multidimensional risks that
different populations face; and
–to assess their ability to mitigate those
risks.
• In this way, risk and resilience assessments
capture the interrelationships between risks,
sources of resilience (resilience capacities) and
well-being (development outcomes).
Cont.…..
 Throughout the resilience assessment
process, the assessment team answers
Five Guiding Resilience Questions by
applying resilience thinking to a given
program or portfolio aimed at well-
being outcomes:
1. Resilience for Whom? The target
populations and their attributes that include
location (urban, peri-urban, rural),
demographic factors (sex, age, ethnicity) and
livelihood (agriculturalist, trade, unskilled
labor and pastoralist).
Cont….
2. Resilience of What? The enabling
environment, including formal and informal
institutions, infrastructure, social, ecological and
economic factors that impact the target
population’s ability to anticipate, absorb and
adapt to risks.
For example;
 livelihood shift from pastoralism to a mix of
pastoralism, agriculture, and trade,
 Increasing interactions between rural and
urban areas.
Cont….
3. Resilience to What? The complex and
compounding shocks and stresses that impact
people’s capacities to achieve development outcomes.
(e.g. Drought, flood, conflict, crop and livestock
disease)
4. Resilience through What? The absorptive,
adaptive and transformative capacities that strengthen
the ability of target populations to mitigate risk. (Early
Warning Systems & Disaster Response, Climate
smart agriculture, Conflict Management,
Appropriate financial services).
5. Resilience to What End? The primary wellbeing or
development outcomes for which we want to build
resilience. (Food Security, social cohesion… etc).
Cont….
Of What For Whom To What Through What To What End
‘X’ agro-
ecological zone,
focused on
livelihood shift
from
pastoralismto a
mix of
pastoralism,
agriculture, and
trade
Pastoralists &
Agro-pastoralists
Youth
Drought Early Warning
Systems &
Disaster
Response
Food Security
Flood Climate smart
agriculture
Inclusive
Economic
Opportunity
Crop & livestock
disease
Pest Management Social Cohesion
Increasing
interactions
between rural
and urban areas
Women
Land Degradation WaSH Strategies
Conflict Conflict
Management
Children Price shocks Appropriate
financial services
Gender-based
violence
Risk and Resilience Assessment Process
• The process of undertaking a risk and
resilience assessment can be categorized
into four adaptable steps, summarized
below:
Step 1: Planning and Design.
 Determine the purpose, scope and scale of
the assessment and decide Level of Effort.
 Take stock of existing data, identify
knowledge gaps and create a research plan
to respond to key questions on resilience
capacities and risks.
Cont.….
• The conceptualization and design of any risk
and resilience assessment starts by clearly
defining;
– the purpose (intended outputs and outcomes),
– the scope (well-being outcomes of interest)
and
– the scale (boundaries and dynamics) of the
assessment,
– to properly contextualize local conditions, any
foreseeable programmatic technical issues and
associated needs for the assessment.
Cont.….
• The purpose of risk and resilience assessments varies
depending on institutional;
– needs,
– resources,
– geographies and programs.
• In general, the scope and scale should be established
according to the programming, strategy and learning
needs of the supporting institutions.
• To achieve the most grounded results, this process
must be driven and “owned” by key stakeholders at
the level that corresponds with its scope (region,
country, state, etc.).
Cont.…..
• It is critical that key staff are in place and
involved in initial scoping discussions to
ensure the team will function with a common
understanding of the assessment framework and
research questions throughout the process.
• Ideally, the staff involved will have familiarity
with;
• risk and resilience theory,
• experience carrying out interdisciplinary
research, and
• proficiency in qualitative research
methods.
Cont.….
Cont.….
• Before beginning the process, several
considerations can help to determine what
level of effort should be undertaken based
on available resources which may be
limited by budget, staffing, and time
constraints.
• Setting the scope of the assessment is best
done cooperatively with;
• local team members,
• community representatives and
• partners.
Cont….
• A useful starting point is;
• to ask local team members to develop
initial responses to the Five Guiding
Resilience Questions (of what?, for
whom?, to what?, through what?, to
what end?) based upon their own
knowledge, a brief review of existing
literature, or expert interviews.
• These can be used as inputs for an
initial.
Cont…
• Conducting a risk and resilience
assessment is;
• a powerful capacity building and
relationship buildingprocess;
• the process often holds as much
value in itself as the results it
produces.
• Ensuring and encouraging the active
participation of a diverse set of partners
and teams is key to enhancing learning.
Cont….
• Doing so can enable each
participant;
• to confront the complexity of
their working context and
•better understand how their
contributions to increased
resilience capacity can connect
their work to achieving broader
development goals.
Step 2: Data Collection.
• Collect qualitative and quantitative data from primary
and/or secondary sources to fill knowledge gaps
identified in Step 1.
• A risk and resilience assessment typically employs
qualitative and quantitative data, and includes data
from primary and/or secondary sources.
• This is done in order to inform;
– the analysis from the existing evidence base,
– as well as the perspectives of various stakeholders
in the target populationsand
– the enabling environment.
Cont…..
• Primary data can be collected to fill
specific gaps in knowledge identified in
the scoping phase, while testing
resilience-related hypotheses with
communities in target areas.
• The timing of these activities is fluid,
iterative, often done in parallel, and able
to be adapted as needed.
Cont….
• Data can be collected depends on the factors
identified on first step.
• Fieldwork: After
developing a research plan
in the Planning and Design
phase;
– training data collectors
and
– finalizing logistics,
– the collection of primary
and secondary data can
begin.
Sample…..
Type Location FGD Types KII Types
Urban (towns)
BH Town
4 Total: Men,
Woman, Boys,Girls
Local shop ownersEmployees
Local/Regional Government Representatives
G Town
4 Total: Men,
Woman, Boys,Girls
Rural MS
4 Total: Men,
Woman, Boys,Girls
Local shop ownersEmployees
National /Regional
AA
NGO Country Directors, FAO, Ministry of Waterand
Environment, ‘X’ Youth Empowerment Network, ‘E’
National Early Warning Disaster commission
Cont.….
• Step 3: Analysis. Combine and interpret data
to answer key questions as determined in Step
1.
• The objectives of the data analysis step
are to combine data from various
sources in order to answer key
questions related to risk, resilience
capacity and development trends, as
determinedduring the design phase.
Cont….
• In the Analysis stage, the team may elect to do the
following:
1. Identify relevant development trends;
2. Deepen understanding of the different risk profiles
of target populations and systems including the
effects of risk drivers and recent trends;
3. Identify key resilience capacities, and how well
they are accessed and used to mitigate potential or
realized impacts of shocks or stresses; and
4. Identify gaps related to risk mitigation that need
to be addressed in order to foster improvements in
resilience over the short, medium, and long-term.
Two types of analysis….
• Risk Profile Analysis is an approach that requires
organizing primary and secondary data to
characterize the unique risk profiles for different
target populations and systems. To conduct this
analysis, one should:
– 1) revisit and potentially revise any assumptions made
in the resilience assessment design process;
– 2) develop a detailed understanding of the key
development trends and contributing factors (shocks,
stresses, development constraints); and
– 3) gather perceptions of target populations and
stakeholders of the sources, drivers and effects of risk.
Cont…..
 Resilience Capacities Analysis is an
approach that requires organizing primary
and secondary data to characterize the
resilience capacities of different target
populations and systems.
 To conduct this analysis, one should:
1) revisit and revise assumptions made during
the design phase;
2) categorize the resources the target
population (people, households, communities)
and systems need to mitigate different aspects
of their risk.
Cont….
3) detail the actions target populations and
systems take to mitigate different aspects of
their risk; and
4) consider the underlying enabling and
disabling factors that underpin (strengthen)
the ability of target populations and systems
to;
 access those resources and
 undertake those actions necessary to
mitigate risk over the short-, medium- and
long-term.
Step 4: Strategic Planning.
• In the Strategic Planning Step, findings
from the resilience assessment are
translated into the appropriate outputs,
depending on the purpose of the
assessment.
• Outputs may include;
– new or adapted intervention plans that
strengthen a set of resilience capacities;
– learning documents that reveal new or
updated understandings of resilience in
a development context.
Cont….
• New resilience strengthening
strategies should target both;
– risks and capacities, as well as
–the root causes of risks and
– the factors that help support
capacities.
Cont.…..
Education and Resilience
Children spend around half of their lives in
school yet they are often unsafe places to be.
Every year, school buildings are damaged or
destroyed from disasters, and many children,
teachers and education officials do not know
what to do in the event of an emergency.
Schools may also be used as evacuation
shelters during an emergency which can result
in children not having access to education for
weeks, months or even years.
Cont…..
• The impact of disasters threatens
children’s right to access a continuous,
uninterrupted basic education and puts
investments made in education
programmes at risk.
• There are a number of steps we can take
to ensure schools are safe and protective
environments for all girls and boys as
well as education staff.
Cont….
Global school safety commitments and
standards
 All schools are safe from disaster risk
and that all learners live in a culture
of safety.
 Education institutions should not be
targeted in conflict and all are
responsible to protect them.
Pillar One: Safe
Learning
Facilities
Pillar Two:
School
Disaster
Management
Pillar Three:
Risk Reduction
and Resilience
Education
Cont….
• Pillar One: Safe Learning Facilities
- focuses on safe school construction
practices.
• It involves ensuring that any
construction or renovation/renewal
work within an education facility is
safe from future disasters as well as
inclusive of children with
disabilities.
Cont….
• Pillar Two: School Disaster Management –
focuses on ensuring that schools have
inclusive disaster plans in place and that
these plans are connected to overall school
management plans.
• The development of these plans should be
based on a comprehensive risk assessment that
is participatory, involving girls, boys, parents,
teachers and school leadership.
• This should include head teachers and school
management committees.
Cont….
• Pillar Three: Risk Reduction
and Resilience Education –
explores how to integrate
resilience within the national,
local and informal curriculum,
as well as teacher training
institutes
Livelihoods and Environment
• Globally 2.5 billion people, many of them
women, rely on agriculture for their
livelihood.
• Agricultural livelihoods, especially, are
directly impacted by climate change and
changing weather patterns which ultimately
affect food security and nutrition.
• At the same time, rapid urbanization and a
growing youth population compels us to think
through resilience in livelihoods projects and
programmes.
Cont…..
• Livelihoods is traditionally most closely related
to resilience, as skills, savings and food security
can help primary actors bounce back much
quicker after a crisis.
• Crises, however, can disrupt many of the factors
that people rely on to maintain their livelihoods.
• People affected by crises may lose their jobs or
have to abandon their land or water sources.
• Assets may be destroyed, contaminated or
stolen, and markets may stop functioning or not
be accessible any longer.
Cont….
• In the initial stages of a crisis, meeting
basic survival needs is often seen as the
priority.
• However, during recovery livelihoods is
often a priority as it helps primary actors
get back to a normal life quicker.
Resilience in livelihoods context….
• Supporting livelihood diversification
in fragile and post-disaster contexts
• Managing resources and reforestation
to reduce soil erosion and to better
protect their communities from flood
and drought for crisis like climate
change.
Cont…..
• Empowers individuals, households and
communities through training and
supporting.
• All livelihoods interventions should be
locally acceptable and consider how to
use and / or support local markets.
• During emergencies, food prices tend to
increase drastically.
Health and Protection
• Disasters can result in people having to stay in
overcrowded and inadequate shelters with poor
sanitation and insufficient access to safe
drinking water.
• Disasters can also result in food insecurity that
increases the risk of malnutrition and
outbreaks of communicable diseases.
• Reduced access to healthcare and interrupted
medicine supply can disrupt ongoing
treatment.
• Most importantly, people with poor health and
nutrition are more vulnerable to disasters.
Cont……
The following are some of health and
resilience interventions;
Promoting nutritional food through gardens
and leading to increased food security and a
more balanced diet.
Promoting hygiene and sanitation sensitization
activities.
 Supporting pregnant and lactating mothers
through hygiene and sanitation sensitization.
Supporting emergency responses in the health
sector.
Cont…..
• Disasters can also disrupt existing social safety
nets and cause displacement.
• This can bring a whole new set of protection risks
including child trafficking.
• It is recognized by humanitarian and development
actors that protection must be at the center of
humanitarian action
• It is recognized that all humanitarian and
development actors must incorporate protection
in their programming.
Cont…..
• Ensuring all vulnerable groups are protected in
everything you do is fundamental, and
volunteers and staff play an active role in this.
• Every child regardless of age, disability,
ethnicity, religion, sex or sexual orientation,
has a right to equal protection from harm.
• In order to ensure they are truly protected
during the resilience activities, try to think
ahead about the outcomes of certain scenarios.
Volunteering and Resilience
• Working together, community, national and
international volunteers are playing vital roles
in building resilience before and after disasters
and by supporting disaster response and
recovery.
• Each volunteer contributes their unique skills,
knowledge and experience to resilience
building interventions.
• Community volunteers often act as role models
within the community encouraging community
members to participate in resilience
interventions.
Cont…..
• Both community and specialist volunteers can
support communities to self-organize to
implement community based resilience initiatives.
• They often act as a bridge between different
groups within communities and the services they
depend on and access local and national
government support.
• Volunteers may introduce innovative solutions
to communities or recognize existing innovation
within communities and can be brokers of
technical and financial support from other
stakeholders to communities.
END OF CHAPTER
FIVE!!
Chapter 6
6.1. Resilience and Risk in Pastoralist areas
6.1.1. Recent Trends in Diversified and Alternative
Livelihoods Among Pastoralists in Eastern Africa
 This chapter deals with recent trends and issues
surrounding livelihoods diversification and
alternative livelihoods in the drylands of eastern
Africa.
 It also emphasizes households and communities
that are combining pastoralism with other
livelihood activities or have moved out of
pastoralism and are involved in an alternative
livelihood
Cont….
• There is no single “magic arrow” or technology
for enhancing resilience in drylands.
• Rather, there are multiple, incremental options,
including livelihood diversification, that, when
adapted to local contexts and circumstances, can
increase probabilities for improved livelihoods
and resilience.
• Urbanization, commercialization, new forms of
violence, novel technologies (especially mobile
phones), and population growth are recent
phenomena that shape current diversification
patterns.
Cont…..
• (1) negative or maladapted diversification
choices, including activities with high social and
environmental costs (i.e., charcoal making and
risky dryland farming); and
• (2) positive or adapted choices with minimal
environmental or social costs (i.e., salaried
employment).
• In particular, women diversify into petty trading,
casual waged labor, food/drink sales, and,
recently, labor migration to towns where they face
risks of physical abuse and discrimination.
Cont…..
• Empirical materials also highlight several
common factors that drive different patterns
and options for diversification, including;
–cumulative effects of drought-induced
livestock loss,
–violence,
–loss of land and reduced land productivity,
– animal disease, and depletion of herds to
buy food.
Cont…..
• Opportunity or “pull” factors that
impact diversification include;
– better employment and business
prospects,
– education,
–security, and health.
 Increased urbanization and associated
business developments in the larger
towns attract wealthier herders who
seek investments.
Cont…..
• Building resilience opportunities in the
drylands, including:
–Land tenure and land use policies
–Education and skills training
–Support for women-owned enterprises,
employment programs for youth.
–Value-added activities around livestock
production and trade (e.g., fodder
production, meat processing, and local
fattening enterprises for trade)
Cont…..
–Support to local communities for
natural product extraction, processing,
and marketing
–Nutritional extension and support for
settled/ex-pastoralist communities.
–Urban and peri-urban planning and
infrastructure in drylands, especially
sanitation and water.
Cont…..
• Livelihood diversification among pastoralists in
eastern Africa has been common for the past 50
or more years, but has been especially prominent
since the regional droughts of 1979–80 and 1984.
– The increased complexity and prevalence of
commercial livestock markets,
– the growth of local and regional towns, and
– increased incidences of drought and
– conflict are factors that drive and shape current
livelihood diversification and alternative livelihoods.
Cont……
• Little, Smith et al. (2001), for example, argue
that a herder’s decision to diversify is
influenced by three sets of variables:
• (1) conditional variables (e.g., rangeland
availability, population density, per capita
livestock holdings, climate, and other factors);
• (2) opportunity variables (human capital
[education], distance to markets and towns,
and related factors); and
Cont…..
• (3) local response variables (gender, wealth,
and age).
• Importantly, not all pastoralist regions afford
the same opportunities for livelihood
diversification depending on;
– differences in market and town access,
– climate, and other factors, nor do different
groups of pastoralists (rich/poor,
male/female, and young/old) share the same
interests in diversification.
Cont…..
• Catley and Aklilu (2012) classifies households
who:
• (1) “moving up” and capable of earning
considerable cash from livestock-based
activities; (remain strongly invested in
pastoralism).
• (2) “stepping out” and engaging in non-
pastoral activities but maintaining a degree of
reliance on livestock; and
• (3) “moving out” and leaving pastoralism all
together.
Cont….
• The “stepping out” stage reflects
pastoralist diversification where non-
pastoralist activities are used to
supplement the pastoral/livestock
component,
• while the “moving out” strategy
represents alternative livelihoods
where individuals and families have
left pastoralism.
Historical Patterns
• In the 19th and early 20th centuries, pastoralists
who lost animals due to drought or other
shocks often joined agricultural communities
or pursued hunting and gathering activities
until they could rebuild their herds.
• In some cases, impoverished pastoralists
would join these communities permanently,
but in most cases they would transition back
into mobile pastoralism once their herds
recovered (Little 1992).
Cont….
• Availability of non-pastoral livelihood options
have always been influenced by the presence
or absence of urban centers.
• Towns afford trading and business
opportunities and the chance to engage in the
cash economy and supplement pastoral
livelihoods.
• Colonialism created a network of
administrative centers in the twentieth century
that also served as markets and provided
opportunities for petty trade and casual wage
employment.
Cont…..
• More importantly, colonial policies and actions,
including those of the Abyssinian Imperial
government in Ethiopia;
– did much to discourage mobile pastoralism,
– often imposing boundaries to restrict movements,
– resettling pastoralists to make room for European
settlement and farming,
– alienating prime dry season grazing for irrigation
schemes,
– taxing livestock, and
– resettling pastoralists for security purposes.
Cont……
• Collectively, these interventions
forced herders to diversify to survive.
• A growth in irrigation and settlement
schemes as alternative livelihoods, as
well as the introduction of modern
weapons in the area, further impacted
pastoralism.
Cont….
• They decreased the amount of secure,
usable rangelands and increased the need
to diversify into non-pastoral activities.
• The frequency of climate and conflict-
induced events accelerated in the 1980s
and 1990s, further diminishing herds,
reducing usable lands, and making
pastoralist diversification even more
essential.
Cont…..
• The collapse of the Somali state and of the Derg
military regime in 1991 increased the flow of
destructive weapons and violence, thereby
encouraging additional population movements to
towns as safe havens.
• Migration to towns grew as well, with a small
minority of educated pastoralists seeking salaried
employment with;
– non-governmental organizations (NGOs),
– government, and
– private companies.
Contemporary Patterns
• What has changed in the past 15–20 years is;
– the scale,
–range, and
–persistence of diversification strategies,
–as well as the pressures that pastoralist
communities currently confront.
• Movements to towns by pastoralists and
transitions to agro-pastoralism have become
more permanent than in the past, although
many ex-pastoralists continue to maintain ties
to the pastoral sector and invest in livestock.
Cont….
• On a regional basis, many of those who
move out of pastoralism remain linked to
livestock activities through employment
as;
– town-based livestock and milk traders,
– transporters, and/or
–petty traders which operate at livestock
markets.
Cont….
• The growth in domestic, regional/cross-border,
and international livestock trade (i.e., mainly
to the Middle East) represents another
significant recent change that affects
pastoralist diversification strategies.
• These different trades have been dependent on
pastoralist suppliers for decades, but as urban
centers grew and international demand from
the Middle East for livestock and animal
products increased, their scale and complexity
changed.
Cont…..
• Another recent change is the new types of
conflict in pastoralist areas.
• It increases security concerns in rangelands
and disrupts trade and markets.
Factors That Explain Current Patterns of Livelihood
Diversification and Resilience
• The are several common factors that drive patterns
and options for diversification.
• Similar to other research on pastoralist
diversification in eastern Africa, they emphasize the
dominance of push (necessity) over pull
(attraction) factors in explaining pastoralist
diversification, with;
– herd loss and
– general poverty and
– food insecurity being the main reasons
pastoralists diversify in the first place.
Cont…..
–The cumulative effects of drought-
induced livestock loss,
–violence,
–loss of land and reduced land
productivity,
–animal disease, and depletion of herds to
buy food are poverty-related “push
factors” that motivate pastoralists to
pursue supplemental livelihood
activities.
Cont…..
• Opportunity or “pull” factors related to
towns that impact diversification include
better employment and business
prospects, education, security, and health.
• Investment in formal education by
pastoralists has greatly increased during
the past 15 years, although it still remains
low relative to agricultural and urban
populations.
Cont…..
• Increased urbanization and associated
business developments in the larger
towns are also opportunity factors that
attract wealthier herders who seek
investments in business and others.
• For the wealthiest herders, diversification
into urban-based businesses is a risk-
mitigating strategy in the event of a
drought or an animal disease outbreak.
Resilience and Risk in Borana Pastoral Areas of
Southern Ethiopia
• Adopting a wide range of livelihood choices
and strategies has allowed pastoralists to
respond to climate and socioeconomic
shocks and stresses.
• The diversity of livelihood options and
strategies are dynamic, and changes depend on
different shock or stress factors.
• These strategies, in turn, have implications for
the resilience of pastoral systems, especially in
regard to climate and other shocks.
Cont……
• The literature on pastoralism demonstrates that
pastoral livelihood systems are increasingly under
pressure because of multiple and reinforcing
natural and anthropogenic disturbances (Fratkin
2013).
• In response to these pressures, households over
time have supplemented pastoralism with non-
pastoral strategies to survive and adapt to
different shock risks (especially drought), which
has forced many households to pursue livelihood
diversification as a long term strategy (Little,
2001).
Cont…..
• Catastrophic livestock losses caused by recent
droughts in the Horn of Africa have generated
tremendous interest among donors and
national governments in support of livelihood
diversification as a “drought resilience
building” initiative.
• However, all livelihood diversification and
alternative livelihoods pursued by pastoralists
themselves or driven externally by donors and
government may not always contribute to
resilience building.
Cont…..
• While some diversification enhances welfare
and resilience, others can be erosive or
maladaptive and do not build resilience but
rather increase risk and vulnerability (Little
2009).
• Analyses of patterns of livelihood
diversification and alternative livelihoods over
time are important to evaluate their impacts on
resilience building (Gunderson and Holling
2002; Berkes et al. 2003).
Cont……
• Several studies of livelihood and food security
in pastoral regions assert that diversification is
the norm among pastoralists (Fratkin 2013:
Little, Smith et al. 2001; Barrett et al. 2001;
Fernandez-Gimenez and Le Febre 2006).
• However, diversification among pastoralists
and the causes of it are multi-faceted and vary
among pastoral groups based on cultural,
economic, and ecological differences.
Cont…..
• Historically, Borana livelihoods are based on
combinations of three core assets: cattle
(economic capital), social resources (social
capital), and grazing and water resources
(natural capital).
• In Borana society, the family forms the basic
unit of human reproduction and cattle
(economic) production, and clans serve as the
main unit of social organization beyond the
household.
Cont…
• The clan is a key social asset that is strongly
embedded in the kinship system, ideology, and
identity of Borana culture and its Gada
political system.
• Property rights over cattle for individuals
within the family can come from inheritance
or transfer of cattle from father to son (Loon
handhuraa) and transfers to extended family
members in response to losses because of
conflict (hirba exchanges) and drought
(buusaa-gonofaa exchanges).
Cont.…..
• In terms of social capital, cattle wealth is
an important social resource used for
building social and political capital
within the Gada system.
• Borana herders describe their relationship
with cattle by simply saying, “If you do
not have cattle, you are not a Borana,”
equating having no cattle with a loss of
social identity.
Cont.….
• Borana herders strongly believe that
changes in number of cattle owned
influences not only household food
security, but also social and cultural
activities (such as marriage, resource
redistribution, and collective actions).
Cont.….
• Regardless of ecological variability, Borana pastoralism
is described as the most successful system in East
Africa (Cossins and Upton 1987), attributed to the use of
several interrelated and interdependent adaptive
strategies.
• This includes:
• (1) skillful uses of multiple natural resources and
management of livestock;
• (2) strong local natural resource governance and
institutions;
• (3) vast productive territorial system; and
• (4) an extraordinarily productive and
physiologically superior cattle breed, called Boran.
Cont.….
• Traditional Borana households depend on
cattle production as means of livelihood and
income, although small stock and camel are
used as supplementary to cattle.
• However, during the last 30–40 years,
biophysical, socio-economic, policy, and
cultural changes have made the system
untenable for cattle production, which has
compelled herders to diversify their sources of
income and adopt alternative livelihood
strategies.
Cont.….
• Livelihood diversification activities within
pastoralism range from changes in animal breed and
species composition, to adoption of poultry
production and intensification of livestock
production.
• Intensification of livestock production through
pasture production, use of reserve enclosures, and
use of commercial feed are other strategies adopted
by herders.
• While the tactic of pasture production is used as an
adaptive strategy, the latter two techniques are
employed during drought to enhance the survival of
breeding stock.
Cont.…..
• The use of commercial feed is another aspect of
intensification of Borana livestock production.
• Historically, Borana livestock production
depended entirely on natural grazing resources.
• However, during the last decade, the use of
commercial feed, such as crop-straw and wheat
bran (a by-product from food industries), has
grown.
• The use and supply of commercial feed is linked
with drought events and often introduced by aid
agencies to prevent loss of breeding stock.
Cont.….
• Traditionally, Borana pastoralists enclosed
grazing patches within a residential territory as
a dry season reserve for calves.
• It is known as seera yaabii (kaloo), which
literally means “custom of grazing reserve for
calves.”
•
Cont.…..
• Historically, camels have not been part of
Borana production systems. However, the
species has been increasingly adopted during
the last 30–40 years.
• Borana herders have shown an increasing
tendency towards keeping small stock in
response to increased environmental change
and drought risk.
• In Borana culture, a camel was without social
and economic value except as a pack animal
for hauling water.
Cont…..
• Camels have a better coping capacity
to drought and water shortage and
thus are able to maintain milk
production when all other species,
particularly cattle, are unable to do
so.
• This reduces household vulnerability
to food insecurity during droughts.
Cont.…..
• Borana households do not solely depend on
livestock to meet their food and welfare needs.
• Their pattern of livelihood change is very
similar to pastoral livelihood diversification
elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa (see
Homewood et al. 2009; Little, Smith et al.
2001).
• In addition to using livestock as sources of
subsistence and income, households also
depend on non-pastoral livelihood activities.
Cont.…..
• This includes;
•crop cultivation for subsistence,
•wage employment,
•petty trade,
•remittance,
•charcoal and firewood sale,
•food and drink sale,
•investment, and sale of livestock
feed.
Determinants of Livelihood
Diversification
1. Landscape Heterogeneity: Topography,
Soil, and Rainfall Variability
The Borana ecosystem is highly heterogeneous
in terms of topography, vegetation, soils, and
climate.
Soil property and rainfall are key determinants
of farming because of their influences on the
length of the growing season.
Cont….
2. Sedentarization and Urbanization
Livelihood diversification among pastoralists is
often associated with Sedentarization and
urbanization (Fratkin 2013).
The cause-effect relation between Sedentarization
and livelihood diversification in Borana is very
complex because, poor and rich households have
different motivations and “push” or “pull” factors
influencing their decisions.
Poor households are pushed away from
pastoralism because of few or no livestock and
forced to settle and seek an alternative livelihood.
Cont….
• They pursue in towns, including petty trade
and unskilled casual labor.
• Sedentarization and urbanization, in turn,
increase opportunities for diversification
activities for the poor, who would have few
alternatives if they remained in the rangelands
(Little, Smith et al. 2001).
• The increase of some low-income livelihood
activities, including charcoal and firewood
selling, is associated with urban and peri-urban
expansion of existing or new settlements.
Cont….
3. Population Growth and Density
 Human population density is another factor
underlying livelihood diversification and
intensification of livestock production (Fratkin
2013).
4. The decline in the system of common
property rights and weakening of customary
institutions and governance of natural
resources.
• It impacted livelihood diversification.
Cont….
5. Education, Formal Employment, and
Remittance
 Education is a well-established prerequisite for
skilled labor employment, which increases
opportunities for sending remittances to family
members.
 Access to formal education can increase
employment opportunities for Borana family
members and have direct impact on
livelihoods.
Cont….
• In spite of the positive effect of education
on livelihood diversification and food
security, some elders express concerns that
education is posing a risk to pastoralism.
• According to some elders, the negative
effect of education on pastoral livelihoods is
associated with changes in socio-cultural
values, including rules of marriage and
attitudes toward pastoralism.
Cont.….
• In sum, Borana herders diversify their
livelihood options within and outside
pastoralism.
Chapter 7
Individual Assignment (Article Review)

More Related Content

What's hot

CAUSES OF FLOOD
CAUSES OF FLOODCAUSES OF FLOOD
CAUSES OF FLOOD
Sagar Kaptan
 
Module 2: Defining Gender-based Violence (GBV)
Module 2: Defining Gender-based Violence (GBV)Module 2: Defining Gender-based Violence (GBV)
Module 2: Defining Gender-based Violence (GBV)
GBV Guidelines
 
Social institutions
Social institutionsSocial institutions
Social institutions
Wenlie Jean
 
Sociology - Groups
Sociology - GroupsSociology - Groups
Sociology - Groups
shoetzlein
 
Gender based violence
Gender based violenceGender based violence
Gender based violence
SushantLuitel1
 
Social capital
Social capitalSocial capital
Gender mainstreaming ppt
Gender mainstreaming pptGender mainstreaming ppt
Gender mainstreaming ppt
May Martinez
 
Sediments transport
Sediments transportSediments transport
Sediments transport
Jyoti Khatiwada
 
Aggression
AggressionAggression
Aggression
Danish ali khan
 
Social control
Social controlSocial control
Social control
reshma murgun
 
Sociology, the science - a brief outline
Sociology, the science - a brief outlineSociology, the science - a brief outline
Sociology, the science - a brief outline
gogolink
 
Social Groups in Sociology
Social Groups in SociologySocial Groups in Sociology
Social Groups in Sociology
Zunair Bhatti
 
Gender issue effect on health of women
Gender issue effect on health of womenGender issue effect on health of women
Gender issue effect on health of women
Kirtti Kumar Bebarta
 
Gender based violence
Gender based violenceGender based violence
Gender based violence
Dr. Kishor Adhikari
 
Gender based violence_in_humanitarian_settings__a_practical_guidlines__by_dr_...
Gender based violence_in_humanitarian_settings__a_practical_guidlines__by_dr_...Gender based violence_in_humanitarian_settings__a_practical_guidlines__by_dr_...
Gender based violence_in_humanitarian_settings__a_practical_guidlines__by_dr_...
Malik Khalid Mehmood
 
Conflict resolution ppt, SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION
Conflict resolution ppt, SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATIONConflict resolution ppt, SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION
Conflict resolution ppt, SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION
RitaThakkar1
 
Sex and Gender Roles
Sex and Gender RolesSex and Gender Roles
Sex and Gender Roles
Mypzi
 
Dynamic of change
Dynamic of changeDynamic of change
Dynamic of change
ABUL AZAD
 
Structural functionalism
Structural functionalismStructural functionalism
Structural functionalism
Roland Sayago
 
Conflict perspective
Conflict perspectiveConflict perspective
Conflict perspective
marchiemarchie
 

What's hot (20)

CAUSES OF FLOOD
CAUSES OF FLOODCAUSES OF FLOOD
CAUSES OF FLOOD
 
Module 2: Defining Gender-based Violence (GBV)
Module 2: Defining Gender-based Violence (GBV)Module 2: Defining Gender-based Violence (GBV)
Module 2: Defining Gender-based Violence (GBV)
 
Social institutions
Social institutionsSocial institutions
Social institutions
 
Sociology - Groups
Sociology - GroupsSociology - Groups
Sociology - Groups
 
Gender based violence
Gender based violenceGender based violence
Gender based violence
 
Social capital
Social capitalSocial capital
Social capital
 
Gender mainstreaming ppt
Gender mainstreaming pptGender mainstreaming ppt
Gender mainstreaming ppt
 
Sediments transport
Sediments transportSediments transport
Sediments transport
 
Aggression
AggressionAggression
Aggression
 
Social control
Social controlSocial control
Social control
 
Sociology, the science - a brief outline
Sociology, the science - a brief outlineSociology, the science - a brief outline
Sociology, the science - a brief outline
 
Social Groups in Sociology
Social Groups in SociologySocial Groups in Sociology
Social Groups in Sociology
 
Gender issue effect on health of women
Gender issue effect on health of womenGender issue effect on health of women
Gender issue effect on health of women
 
Gender based violence
Gender based violenceGender based violence
Gender based violence
 
Gender based violence_in_humanitarian_settings__a_practical_guidlines__by_dr_...
Gender based violence_in_humanitarian_settings__a_practical_guidlines__by_dr_...Gender based violence_in_humanitarian_settings__a_practical_guidlines__by_dr_...
Gender based violence_in_humanitarian_settings__a_practical_guidlines__by_dr_...
 
Conflict resolution ppt, SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION
Conflict resolution ppt, SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATIONConflict resolution ppt, SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION
Conflict resolution ppt, SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION
 
Sex and Gender Roles
Sex and Gender RolesSex and Gender Roles
Sex and Gender Roles
 
Dynamic of change
Dynamic of changeDynamic of change
Dynamic of change
 
Structural functionalism
Structural functionalismStructural functionalism
Structural functionalism
 
Conflict perspective
Conflict perspectiveConflict perspective
Conflict perspective
 

Similar to Culture, Risk and Resilience

An Introduction to Resilience for Humanitarian Workers
An Introduction to Resilience for Humanitarian WorkersAn Introduction to Resilience for Humanitarian Workers
An Introduction to Resilience for Humanitarian Workers
Shashanka Saadi
 
Vulnerability and resilience in small states
Vulnerability and resilience in small statesVulnerability and resilience in small states
Vulnerability and resilience in small states
University of West Indies
 
Community Resilience for the Environmental Health officer
Community Resilience for the Environmental Health officerCommunity Resilience for the Environmental Health officer
Community Resilience for the Environmental Health officer
David Eisenman
 
Social Resilience and Natural Resource Dependent Societies -Kenya-
Social Resilience andNatural Resource Dependent Societies  -Kenya-Social Resilience andNatural Resource Dependent Societies  -Kenya-
Social Resilience and Natural Resource Dependent Societies -Kenya-
Dr. Asenath Maobe
 
BA.pptx
BA.pptxBA.pptx
BA.pptx
huseinmuzayen
 
First draft of CSDRM approach
First draft of CSDRM approachFirst draft of CSDRM approach
First draft of CSDRM approach
Strengthening Climate Resilience
 
Conceptual Models for Disaster Resilient Communities
Conceptual Models for Disaster Resilient CommunitiesConceptual Models for Disaster Resilient Communities
Conceptual Models for Disaster Resilient Communities
Global Risk Forum GRFDavos
 
One Resilience article_latest Popsci_Jan16
One Resilience article_latest Popsci_Jan16One Resilience article_latest Popsci_Jan16
One Resilience article_latest Popsci_Jan16
Noel L.J. MIRANDA
 
HDM-Lec-03.pptx
HDM-Lec-03.pptxHDM-Lec-03.pptx
HDM-Lec-03.pptx
Waqas Khan
 
Human Capital and Disaster Resilience
Human Capital and Disaster ResilienceHuman Capital and Disaster Resilience
Human Capital and Disaster Resilience
Raman Kumar
 
Midterm lecture emergency management
Midterm lecture emergency managementMidterm lecture emergency management
Midterm lecture emergency management
PiaJayCalizo
 
Farzad Behtash - Conceptual models for disaster resilient communities
Farzad Behtash - Conceptual models for disaster resilient communitiesFarzad Behtash - Conceptual models for disaster resilient communities
Farzad Behtash - Conceptual models for disaster resilient communities
Global Risk Forum GRFDavos
 
HDM-Lec-03.pptx
HDM-Lec-03.pptxHDM-Lec-03.pptx
HDM-Lec-03.pptx
Waqas Khan
 
The City of Resilience
The City of ResilienceThe City of Resilience
The City of Resilience
Regional Science Academy
 
vulnerability in disaster.pptx
vulnerability in disaster.pptxvulnerability in disaster.pptx
vulnerability in disaster.pptx
carlmanaay
 
Enhancing resilience
Enhancing resilienceEnhancing resilience
Enhancing resilience
Prof. David E. Alexander (UCL)
 
Resilient Human Communities - Social-Ecological Resilience Theory
Resilient Human Communities - Social-Ecological Resilience Theory  Resilient Human Communities - Social-Ecological Resilience Theory
Resilient Human Communities - Social-Ecological Resilience Theory
OSU_Superfund
 
What do we know about resilience and food security? – Most recent progress in...
What do we know about resilience and food security? – Most recent progress in...What do we know about resilience and food security? – Most recent progress in...
What do we know about resilience and food security? – Most recent progress in...
CIAT
 
Vulnerability Mapping (Vulnerability Assessment)
Vulnerability Mapping (Vulnerability Assessment)Vulnerability Mapping (Vulnerability Assessment)
Vulnerability Mapping (Vulnerability Assessment)
ESD UNU-IAS
 
Disaster Risk Reduction Versus Disaster Management July 10, 2011
 Disaster Risk Reduction Versus Disaster Management July 10, 2011 Disaster Risk Reduction Versus Disaster Management July 10, 2011
Disaster Risk Reduction Versus Disaster Management July 10, 2011
RustyBinas
 

Similar to Culture, Risk and Resilience (20)

An Introduction to Resilience for Humanitarian Workers
An Introduction to Resilience for Humanitarian WorkersAn Introduction to Resilience for Humanitarian Workers
An Introduction to Resilience for Humanitarian Workers
 
Vulnerability and resilience in small states
Vulnerability and resilience in small statesVulnerability and resilience in small states
Vulnerability and resilience in small states
 
Community Resilience for the Environmental Health officer
Community Resilience for the Environmental Health officerCommunity Resilience for the Environmental Health officer
Community Resilience for the Environmental Health officer
 
Social Resilience and Natural Resource Dependent Societies -Kenya-
Social Resilience andNatural Resource Dependent Societies  -Kenya-Social Resilience andNatural Resource Dependent Societies  -Kenya-
Social Resilience and Natural Resource Dependent Societies -Kenya-
 
BA.pptx
BA.pptxBA.pptx
BA.pptx
 
First draft of CSDRM approach
First draft of CSDRM approachFirst draft of CSDRM approach
First draft of CSDRM approach
 
Conceptual Models for Disaster Resilient Communities
Conceptual Models for Disaster Resilient CommunitiesConceptual Models for Disaster Resilient Communities
Conceptual Models for Disaster Resilient Communities
 
One Resilience article_latest Popsci_Jan16
One Resilience article_latest Popsci_Jan16One Resilience article_latest Popsci_Jan16
One Resilience article_latest Popsci_Jan16
 
HDM-Lec-03.pptx
HDM-Lec-03.pptxHDM-Lec-03.pptx
HDM-Lec-03.pptx
 
Human Capital and Disaster Resilience
Human Capital and Disaster ResilienceHuman Capital and Disaster Resilience
Human Capital and Disaster Resilience
 
Midterm lecture emergency management
Midterm lecture emergency managementMidterm lecture emergency management
Midterm lecture emergency management
 
Farzad Behtash - Conceptual models for disaster resilient communities
Farzad Behtash - Conceptual models for disaster resilient communitiesFarzad Behtash - Conceptual models for disaster resilient communities
Farzad Behtash - Conceptual models for disaster resilient communities
 
HDM-Lec-03.pptx
HDM-Lec-03.pptxHDM-Lec-03.pptx
HDM-Lec-03.pptx
 
The City of Resilience
The City of ResilienceThe City of Resilience
The City of Resilience
 
vulnerability in disaster.pptx
vulnerability in disaster.pptxvulnerability in disaster.pptx
vulnerability in disaster.pptx
 
Enhancing resilience
Enhancing resilienceEnhancing resilience
Enhancing resilience
 
Resilient Human Communities - Social-Ecological Resilience Theory
Resilient Human Communities - Social-Ecological Resilience Theory  Resilient Human Communities - Social-Ecological Resilience Theory
Resilient Human Communities - Social-Ecological Resilience Theory
 
What do we know about resilience and food security? – Most recent progress in...
What do we know about resilience and food security? – Most recent progress in...What do we know about resilience and food security? – Most recent progress in...
What do we know about resilience and food security? – Most recent progress in...
 
Vulnerability Mapping (Vulnerability Assessment)
Vulnerability Mapping (Vulnerability Assessment)Vulnerability Mapping (Vulnerability Assessment)
Vulnerability Mapping (Vulnerability Assessment)
 
Disaster Risk Reduction Versus Disaster Management July 10, 2011
 Disaster Risk Reduction Versus Disaster Management July 10, 2011 Disaster Risk Reduction Versus Disaster Management July 10, 2011
Disaster Risk Reduction Versus Disaster Management July 10, 2011
 

More from Kebede Lemu Bekelcha

Belt and ROAD INITIATIVE.pptx
Belt and ROAD INITIATIVE.pptxBelt and ROAD INITIATIVE.pptx
Belt and ROAD INITIATIVE.pptx
Kebede Lemu Bekelcha
 
Irreecha.pptx
Irreecha.pptxIrreecha.pptx
Irreecha.pptx
Kebede Lemu Bekelcha
 
Introduction to Archaeological Anthropology.pptx
Introduction to Archaeological Anthropology.pptxIntroduction to Archaeological Anthropology.pptx
Introduction to Archaeological Anthropology.pptx
Kebede Lemu Bekelcha
 
Anthropology of Development.pptx
Anthropology of Development.pptxAnthropology of Development.pptx
Anthropology of Development.pptx
Kebede Lemu Bekelcha
 
Anthropology of pastoral Society
Anthropology of pastoral SocietyAnthropology of pastoral Society
Anthropology of pastoral Society
Kebede Lemu Bekelcha
 
Project Design and Management
Project Design and Management Project Design and Management
Project Design and Management
Kebede Lemu Bekelcha
 
Anthropology of Religion
Anthropology of ReligionAnthropology of Religion
Anthropology of Religion
Kebede Lemu Bekelcha
 
Introduction to Gada System-1.pptx
Introduction to Gada System-1.pptxIntroduction to Gada System-1.pptx
Introduction to Gada System-1.pptx
Kebede Lemu Bekelcha
 
Introduction to Anthropology Course
Introduction to Anthropology CourseIntroduction to Anthropology Course
Introduction to Anthropology Course
Kebede Lemu Bekelcha
 

More from Kebede Lemu Bekelcha (9)

Belt and ROAD INITIATIVE.pptx
Belt and ROAD INITIATIVE.pptxBelt and ROAD INITIATIVE.pptx
Belt and ROAD INITIATIVE.pptx
 
Irreecha.pptx
Irreecha.pptxIrreecha.pptx
Irreecha.pptx
 
Introduction to Archaeological Anthropology.pptx
Introduction to Archaeological Anthropology.pptxIntroduction to Archaeological Anthropology.pptx
Introduction to Archaeological Anthropology.pptx
 
Anthropology of Development.pptx
Anthropology of Development.pptxAnthropology of Development.pptx
Anthropology of Development.pptx
 
Anthropology of pastoral Society
Anthropology of pastoral SocietyAnthropology of pastoral Society
Anthropology of pastoral Society
 
Project Design and Management
Project Design and Management Project Design and Management
Project Design and Management
 
Anthropology of Religion
Anthropology of ReligionAnthropology of Religion
Anthropology of Religion
 
Introduction to Gada System-1.pptx
Introduction to Gada System-1.pptxIntroduction to Gada System-1.pptx
Introduction to Gada System-1.pptx
 
Introduction to Anthropology Course
Introduction to Anthropology CourseIntroduction to Anthropology Course
Introduction to Anthropology Course
 

Recently uploaded

The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
History of Stoke Newington
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
IreneSebastianRueco1
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Fajar Baskoro
 
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHatAzure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Scholarhat
 
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptxS1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
tarandeep35
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
RAHUL
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
Celine George
 
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
PECB
 
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
Colégio Santa Teresinha
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
Israel Genealogy Research Association
 
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
ak6969907
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5
Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5
Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5
sayalidalavi006
 
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdfWalmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
TechSoup
 
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and InclusionExecutive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
TechSoup
 
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docxMain Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
adhitya5119
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
WaniBasim
 
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments UnitDigital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
chanes7
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
 
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
RPMS TEMPLATE FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2023-2024 FOR TEACHER 1 TO TEACHER 3
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
 
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHatAzure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
Azure Interview Questions and Answers PDF By ScholarHat
 
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptxS1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
S1-Introduction-Biopesticides in ICM.pptx
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
 
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
 
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
 
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
World environment day ppt For 5 June 2024
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
 
Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5
Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5
Community pharmacy- Social and preventive pharmacy UNIT 5
 
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdfWalmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
 
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and InclusionExecutive Directors Chat  Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
Executive Directors Chat Leveraging AI for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
 
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docxMain Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
 
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments UnitDigital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
Digital Artifact 1 - 10VCD Environments Unit
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
 

Culture, Risk and Resilience

  • 1. Chapter: One Pathways to Resilience in Context Definitions and Conceptualizations of Resilience  The terms ‘resilience’ or ‘resilient’ are now widely recognized and familiar to many in the lay public.  These terms are often used by doctors, therapists, policy makers, teachers, academics, and the popular press to refer to individuals who “bounce back” after significant stress and adversity.
  • 2. Cont.…. • After many years of productive usage in engineering and physics, the term was adopted by; • ecologists and • developmental scientists as a metaphor for the capacity of a dynamic system (e.g., a rain forest, a family, a community) to respond to challenges and threats, survive, and continue to prosper.
  • 3. Cont.… • The concept of resilience has been used in social science fields as diverse as; – psychology, – economics, – disaster studies, – law, – public health, – urban planning and – others to study how people, and the social systems they are part of, are affected by new policies, natural disasters, climate change, and a range of other local to global changes.
  • 4. Cont.… • For example, in disaster studies, resilience has been used to explore people's resistance to and recovery from cyclones floods, and other extreme events. Resilience derives from the Latin verb ‘resilire’, meaning to leap or spring back; to rebound, recoil. It was first introduced into the scholarly literature in 1818.
  • 5. There are several definitions given for the concept resilience;  “The term ‘resilience’ refers to the ability to adapt to changing conditions and withstand and rapidly recover from disruption due to emergencies” (The White House 2011, p. 6).  “Resilience is defined as the ability to minimize the costs of a disaster, to return to a state as good as or better than the status quo, and to do so in the shortest feasible time… (Gilbert 2010, p. 11).
  • 6. Cont.…..  Resilience is “the capacity of a system, community, or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing, in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure.  This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase its capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures” (Science for Disaster Reduction, 2005, p. 17).
  • 7. Cont.… • ‘’Resilience is the capacity of a system to survive, adapt and grow in the face of change and uncertainty” (Fiksel, 2006, p. 21). • ‘’Resilience is the ability to bounce back from adversity, frustration, and misfortune” (Ledesma, 2014) • Generally, Resilience is the ability to absorb, adapt to, and/or rapidly recover from a potentially disruptive event.
  • 8. Cont.… • Both in the case of natural and man-made threats, analyses of resilience have focused on; – critical infrastructures, – communities, and regions and – on the resilience of various subsystems (e.g., a community’s or region’s economy, governmental units, emergency services sector, the civilian population).
  • 9. A Social-Ecological Definition of Resilience • Social-ecological resilience is the capacity to adapt or transform in the face of change in social- ecological systems, particularly unexpected change, in ways that continue to support human well-being (Chapin et al. 2010, Biggs et al. 2015). • Resilience is generally considered the capacity to tolerate, absorb, cope with, and adjust to changing social or environmental conditions while retaining key elements of structure, function, and identity. • The social dimensions of resilience are vital to understanding the impacts of environmental changes, such as climate change, on social- ecological systems.
  • 10. Cont.… • The social-ecological system concept explicitly recognizes that people and nature are intricately connected. • Human activities alter the structure and function of ecosystems, which in turn provide people with ecosystem goods and services that contribute to human well-being. • There are some key social factors that provide resilience in linked social-ecological systems, including – (1) assets, – (2) flexibility, – (3) social organization, – (4) learning, – (5) socio-cognitive constructs, and – (6) agency.
  • 11. Cont.… 1. Assets that people can draw upon People are generally more resilient to social- ecological changes when they can access a diversity of financial, technological, service- related (i.e., health care), and other types of assets. 2. The flexibility to change strategies, Flexibility reflects the capacity of both individuals and institutions to deal with change by being able to switch between strategies.  Flexibility is closely related to the idea of having diversity and redundancy in a system to provide a sort of ‘‘insurance’’ that can prevent shocks from having catastrophic consequences.
  • 12. Cont.… 3. The ability to organize and act collectively,  The way that society is organized can enable or inhibit resilience by influencing whether and how people share knowledge, cooperate, and access resources beyond their immediate domain.  The formal and informal relationships that support these key social processes include both social networks and institutions, which can operate at different scales. 4. Learning to recognize and respond to change, • Learning reflects people’s capacity to recognize change, attribute this change to causal factors, and assess potential response strategies.
  • 13. Cont… • Importantly, learning is not solely about access to information but rather captures the experiential and experimental processes that enable people to frame or reframe problems. • In the context of social-ecological systems, learning can help to build awareness of complex linkages and feedbacks between people and ecosystems
  • 14. Cont.… 5. Socio-cognitive Constructs that enable or constrain human behaviour • Resilience is also shaped by subjective socio- cognitive dimensions, such as risk attitudes, personal experience, perceived social norms, and cognitive biases. • Risk attitudes include perceptions about the probability and severity of risk associated with change as well as the costs and benefits associated with adapting. • Personal experience, cognitive biases, and perceived social norms can profoundly affect risk attitudes and whether they help to build or erode resilience.
  • 15. Cont.… 6. The agency to determine whether to change or not • Social resilience requires that people have the power and freedom to mobilize their assets, flexibility, social organization, learning, and socio-cognitive capacities to actively shape their future. • Agency reflects people’s free choice in responding to social-ecological changes and encompasses aspects of empowerment and self-efficacy. • Agency also captures people’s belief in their own ability to manage prospective situations and control the events that affect them, which is closely linked to the cognitive dimensions of resilience discussed above.
  • 16. Key Concepts and Terminology • Author like Masten (2014b, p. 10) has defined resilience as “the capacity of a dynamic system to adapt successfully to disturbances that threaten system function, viability, or development”. • This definition is broad and scalable across system levels and disciplines. • However, it requires further delineation/explanation. Hence, it needs key concepts and terminology in resilience.
  • 17. Cont.… Resilience: The capacity of a dynamic system to adapt successfully to significant disturbances and continue or recover to healthy function or development. Risk Factor: A variable associated with an elevated probability of a negative outcome for a group of individuals Cumulative Risk: The summation of all risk factors that the individual has experienced or an index of the overall severity of adversity experienced; this can include multiple separate risk events or repeated occurrences of the same risk factor Stress: The condition or experience of an imbalance in demands impinging on a person and the actual or perceived resources available to meet those challenges, disrupting the quality of functioning at some level
  • 18. Cont.…. Promotive Factors (assets, resources): Measurable characteristics of individuals associated with better adaptation (for a designated outcome) in both high and low risk conditions; variables with equally beneficial effects regardless of risk level; correlates of positive adaptation Protective Factors: Measurable characteristics of individuals associated with positive outcomes particularly in the context of high risk or adversity; a favorable moderator of risk or adversity Cumulative Protection: The presence of multiple protective factors or influences in an individual’s life Stressful or adverse life events or conditions: Experiences that typically lead to stress responses in individuals Adversity: Stressful life experiences that threaten adaptation or development
  • 19. Cont.… Differential susceptibility (sensitivity to context): Individual differences in reactivity or sensitivity to experience, associated with moderating effects of experience on individual function or development; such moderators may be associated with good reactions to positive environments and poor responses to negative environments Developmental Tasks: Psychosocial milestones or accomplishments expected of members in a given society or culture in different age periods; these milestones often represent criteria by which individual development can be evaluated within the culture Competence: The adaptive use of personal or contextual resources to attain age-appropriate developmental tasks
  • 20. Resilience Theory • Resilience theory has its roots in the study of adversity and an interest in how adverse life experiences impact harmfully on people. • Resilience theory is the conceptual framework for understanding how some individuals can bounce back in life after experiencing an adverse situation in a strength-focused approach​ • Resilience Theory refers to the ability to adapt successfully and bounce back from adversity, failure, conflict, frustration and misfortune. • It helps us to recover from the difficulties that have taken a toll on us. • Resilience Theory argues that the important is how we deal with the difficulties rather than the nature of adversities.
  • 21. History of Resilience • Resilience theory has been researched across many disciplines. • For example, resiliency was defined in the area of psychology as the ability to bounce back and to withstand hardship by repairing oneself (Higgins, 1994; Wolin & Wolin, 1993). • In the field of psychiatry, it is psychological and biological strengths humans use to master change successfully (Flach, 1988).
  • 22. Cont.… • In the field of developmental psychopathology, it refers to the ability to cope with challenges and threats while maintaining an internal and integrated sense of self (Garmezy & Masten, 1986). • In the field of human development, resiliency was defined as the ability to withstand or successfully cope with adversity (Werner & Smith, 2001). • In the field of change management, it is viewed as the ability to demonstrate both strength and flexibility during the change process, while displaying minimal dysfunctional behaviour (Conner, 1993).
  • 23. Cont.… • Resilience defined in the field of medicine as the ability to recognize pain, acknowledge its purpose, tolerate it for a while, until things begin to normalize (Flach, 1988; O’Leary & Ickovics, 1995). • In the field of epidemiology, it refers to the ability to survive stress and to rise above disadvantage (Rutter, 1979). • In the field of nursing, it is the ability to regenerate power to respond to the internal or external environment for survival, growth, or development (Jones, 1991).
  • 24. In context of Social Sciences…. • The social sciences generally define resilience as the ability to recover from negative life experiences and become stronger while overcoming them (Henderson & Milstein, 1996).
  • 25. Construct of Resilience • Masten (2005) defines resilience as a class of phenomena characterized by good outcomes in spite of serious threats to adaptation of development. • Rutter (1987), a psychiatric risk researcher, states that the term is used to describe the positive tone of individual differences in people’s response to stress and adversity.
  • 26. Cont.…. • Janas (2002) identified the term as the ability to bounce back from adversity, frustration, and misfortune. • Resilience is also used interchangeably with positive coping, adaptation, and persistence (R. R. Greene et al., 2002). • In essence, resilience researchers agree that resilience is concerned with individual variations in response to risk.
  • 27. Cont.…. • Perry (2002) defines resilience as the capacity to face stressors without significant negative disruption in functioning. • In developmental literature, resilience is typically discussed in terms of protective psychological risk factors that foster the development of positive outcomes and healthy personality characteristics (Bonanno, 2004).
  • 28. Cont.… • Resilience is also used interchangeably with positive coping, adaptation, and persistence (R. R. Greene et al., 2002). • In essence, resilience researchers agree that resilience is concerned with individual variations in response to risk. • While some individuals succumb to stress and adversity, others survive and respond well to the challenges associated with life’s hazards (Rutter, 1987).
  • 29. Variables of Resilience 1. Internal Variables; • Internal variables in resilience are defined as self-factors, personality factors, or individual resources. • These factors appear to have significant impact on how a person interprets and deals with the crisis at hand. • As such, these factors may include hardiness, coping ability, a sense of coherence/unity, the use of personal resources, cognitive resources, threat appraisal/assessment etc. (O’Leary, 1998).
  • 30. Cont.….. • Other internal factors include temperaments such as modes of thought, response, action, positive self-esteem, a sense of being effectual, and being in control of one’s surroundings (Beardslee, 1989). • In addition, self-factors such as optimism, understanding, insight, intellectual competence, direction or mission (Ungar, 2004).
  • 31. External Variables of Resilience • Researchers have defined external variables that have influence over a person’s ability to remain resilient in the face of adversity. • According to studies on external variables associated with resilience, the literature points to the importance of relationships as a significant factor for the individual facing adversity. • Whether the support comes from a relative or a caring individual, it is clear that social resources are a critical factor in resilience (O’Leary, 1998).
  • 32. Cont.…… • At the core of a person’s ability to sustain himself is his intimacy/closeness with others, and sometimes these relationships serve as the major catalyst of the transformation in one’s life and within oneself. • In his study, Rutter (1987) identified the availability of external support systems that encourage and reinforce coping skills for individuals as one of the variables associated with resilience.
  • 33. Models of Resilience • Three types of resilience models are discussed here: • person-focused, • variable focused, and • hybrid models. • These models guided the strategies for assessment and analyses that operationalized and tested ideas about the connections among risks, adaptive function, and other factors that might play a role in resilience.
  • 34. 1. Person-Focused Models • Person-focused models, initially inspired by compelling case studies, have the individual person as their primary focus of analysis. • Person-focused models tend to identify resilient people and understand how resilience develops by comparing them to non resilient ones who are not coping well in the face of adversity and to those who have not experienced any harmful threats to their development.
  • 35. 2. Variable-focused • Variable-focused approaches focus on the relationships among keys of stress/adversity, the influencing factors of resilience and psychosocial functions. • The purpose of variable-focused model is to capture the mechanism behind resilience development.
  • 36. Pathways and Trajectories: Hybrid models • Pathway models try to disentangle how human adaptation systems operate and how resilience develops by focusing on change before and after the occurrence of traumatic events or disasters. • Recent advances in the mixed modeling of change over time within and across individuals (e.g., growth and trajectories (Nagin, 2005) have yielded hybrid models that combine features of person-focused and variable-focused models (Masten, 2013). • Pathway models focus on identifying different developmental trajectories and provide an opportunity to explore turning points in individuals’ lives that might promote resilience as well as setbacks that might hinder positive adaptation.
  • 37. The Importance of an Ecological Perspective in Resilience Science • During recent years, with the profound shift to a multilevel, dynamic systems model of risk and resilience, there is a new emphasis on the processes embedded in contexts of human life and particularly in cultural processes. • Identification of multiple levels within a person’s ecology that impact resilience enhances the possibility of targeting a variety of contexts in which to intervene in order to; • reduce risk, • increase resources, and • strengthen protective systems. Such an ecologically informed perspective may be critical in maximizing resilient outcomes.
  • 38.
  • 39. Chapter Two: Culture and Resilience: Theory and Practice  Both culture and resilience are slippery concepts.  When it comes to actual measurement, they can prove as nebulous as terms such as lifestyle and empowerment.  Lifestyle, for instance, is a term that denotes a typical way of life for an individual or social group – but it encompasses personal identity, use of technology, place of residence, and characteristics ranging from politics to health.
  • 40. Cont.…… • Culture is best defined as shared knowledge or shared expectation – a shared understanding of the world. • Risk is best defined as a situation involving elevated odds of undesirable outcomes – and • Resilience as the process of harnessing resources in contexts of significant adversity to sustain end goals (Panter- Brick, 2014).
  • 41. Risks, Resources, and Processes Underlying Resilience • Whereas risk factors are broadly associated with negative or undesirable outcomes in a given population, resource factors(also known as assets or promotive factors) generally support positive or desirable development across individuals. • Risks and resources are population-level constructs that are associated with negative or positive effects on development. • However, at the level of individual members of a population (e.g., a person, school, or neighbourhood), the significance of any particular factor for development may be influenced by the broader context of risks and resources that surrounds the system, as well as by specific vulnerabilities of the system.
  • 42. Cont.…. • For example, a parent’s serious illness will increase family strain, but this effect will be magnified in contexts where the parent is the sole provider for the family, and/or if there is a specific vulnerability, such as limited access to health-care. • Thus, the adaptive significance of a particular risk or resource for a given individual in a population may be influenced by other factors.
  • 43. Cont.…… • Risk factors tend to aggregate and pile up in the lives of individuals, in families, and in communities (Masten & Wright, 1998). • Unemployment of a parent, for example, may precipitate a decline in the family’s financial security that disrupts housing stability, increases stress, renders family members more vulnerable to illness, and strains social support networks.
  • 44. Cont.….. • Likewise, at a more macro level, political violence may threaten the integrity of religious and educational institutions, disrupt patterns of food distribution and access, and threaten environmental health and safety. • Risks and resources, by definition, contribute directly to adaptation (i.e., main effects). However, their effects can be influenced by other factors or by interactions among risks and resources in combination (i.e., moderated effects).
  • 45. Cont….. • Vulnerability factors refer to moderators that increase the negative effects of risks, as in the aforementioned case where lack of health-care is a vulnerability that exacerbates the negative effect of illness or injury. • Protective factors mitigate risk effects, taking on greater salience in adverse contexts as when positive teacher–student relationships disproportionately support academic and behavioural competence among disadvantaged students (Pianta, 1999).
  • 46. Characterizing Resilience • The followings are among few characteristics of resilience; – high diversity; – effective governance and institutions; – the ability to work with uncertainty and change; – community involvement and the appropriation of local knowledge; – preparedness and planning for disturbances; – high social and economic equity; – robust social values and structures, – continual and effective learning and
  • 47. High Diversity • …many ecologists argue that resilience is the key to sustainable ecosystem management and that diversity enhances resilience, stability, and ecosystem functioning,’. • high diversity in the range of functional groups within a system is seen to contribute greatly to its resilience. • This underlines the importance of nurturing ecological diversity but also pressures the need for a range of available economic opportunities, a diversity of partnerships. • Cutter et. al. (2010) point out that single sector economies are less resilient and more prone to being affected by extreme events.
  • 48. Cont.….. • Adger (2000) emphasises the importance of communities relying on diverse natural resources as it protects them from the ‘boom and bust nature of environmental variability and extreme weather events. • This point is also elucidated by Norris et. al. (2008: 134) who note ‘Communities that are dependent on a narrow range of resources are less able to cope with change that involves the depletion of that resource.’ • Diversity may also be reflected in the variety of stakeholders engaged in an adaptive process.
  • 49. Cont.….. • The Rockefeller Foundation (2009: 2) highlights a diversity of planning, response and recovery activities as an essential component of resilience to climate change because ‘a diversity of options has greater potential to match the particular scenario of impacts that occur’.
  • 50. Effective governance and institutions • A number of different approaches stress the value of effective governance and institutions in building systems resilience. • Mayunga (2007) stresses the importance of trust, norms and networks within a system, perhaps manifested through a large number of credible civil society institutions such as religious organisations and recreational clubs. • Empowering Social institutions are very important because they are effective in oiling the wheels of the society.
  • 51. Cont.….. • A key theme running through resilience thinking is the need for decentralised organisational structures and policies. • These are regarded as more flexible to cope with change and more in touch with the needs of communities and local realities. • Polycentric and multi-layered institutions are very important. • Carpenter et. al. (2001: 778) underline the importance of institutions that can facilitate learning and ‘experiment in safe ways, monitor results, update assessments, and modify policy as new knowledge is gained’.
  • 52. Cont.…… • Working with government institutions on devolution/decentralising processes and enhancing accountability could yield positive, robust, long- term results.
  • 53. Acceptance of uncertainty and change • Resilience thinking is closely associated with the ability of systems to deal with uncertainty and change (Folke 2006). • Norris et. al. (2008:130) note that ‘stability’ or the failure to change could be a way of determining the lack of resilience: ‘‘The resilience of systems, for example, depends upon one component of the system being able to change or adapt in response to changes in other components; and thus the system would fail to function if that component remained stable, (ibid: 130)’’
  • 54. Cont.…… • It needs for ‘flexibility at an individual, organizational, and systemic level, with each level able to respond and contribute to each situation, and to respond to shifting and unpredictable circumstances’ (Rockefeller Foundation, 2009: 2).
  • 55. Community involvement and inclusion of local knowledge • Group who will inevitably have to combat emergency situations if the scale of disturbance overwhelms the official response capacity. • The importance of representatives of the ‘full fabric’ of the community being represented in decisions related to the disaster cycle is considered critical to the development of community resilience.
  • 56. Cont.….. • Community members must assess and address their own vulnerabilities to hazards, identify and invest in their own networks of assistance and information while individuals from outside local communities can help build an enabling environment to foster recovery, communities must be empowered to ‘take charge of the direction of change’. • ‘Development actions that address disaster reduction (and other significant issues) must be formulated through a fair and equitable process that provides an opportunity for all affected parties to participate.’
  • 57. Cont.…. • Community involvement and local knowledge have been at the forefront of community based adaptation approaches.
  • 58. Preparedness, planning • Preparing and planning for disturbances also characterises resilient systems. • Planning requires relevant and timely information, as well as embedding disaster preparedness plans within existing institutional processes, such as district and local development plans.
  • 59. High degree of equity • A number of theorists engage with the idea that a high degree of equity in a system leads to its increased resilience (Adger et. al., 2002). • It includes equitable distribution of wealth and assets and an equitable economy as essential to building community resilience.
  • 60. Social capital, values and structures • Social capital, built on trust, norms and networks is cited as an important element for building resilient systems (Mayunga, 2007). • Healthy civil society institutions are viewed as able to foster cooperation and coordination in a community, this in turn can lead to a greater amount of trust and respect amongst its members and more equitable access to resources and greater resilience (ibid).
  • 61. Cont.….. • Norris et. al. (2008) count social capital (which is a combination of social support, social embeddedness, organisational linkages, leadership, sense of community and attachment to a place) as one set of resources that generate community resilience. • Social capital is a key element of a community’s resilience to disasters and argue that social capital fosters social networks that create interpersonal trust. • This in turn, allows the community to solve problems effectively, build consensus and reduce risks.
  • 62. Cont.….. • Cutter et al. (2010:9) too discuss the importance of social capital to resilience and interpret this as ‘…sense of community, place attachment, and citizen participation.’ • This characteristic of resilience thinking would foreground activities to mediate differences, develop trust and build on shared social values within communities, • At the same time as recognising that some adaptation activities themselves may erode community trust, institutions and shared values and therefore prove maladaptive.
  • 63. Learning • Learning is also central to the notion of adaptive management (Gunderson and Holling, 2001). • O’Brien and O’Keefe (2010:378) note that: ‘…learning can enhance the capacity to prepare an effective response to disastrous situations.’ • Resilience building is a learning process at all levels. Institutional learning empowers at the local level and strengthens governance.
  • 64. Culture and Resilience • Resilience is a normative concept, related to moral values and social aspirations (Panter-Brick, 2014; Ungar, 2004). • Thus resilience has important moral, social, and political dimensions. • An ethnographic approach to resilience ‘across cultures’ needs to discover the ‘political economy’ of health, in which individual resilience is a matter of; – navigating systems of oppressive poverty, – insidious violence, – vastly unequal opportunities for economic or educational advancement, or – overt marginalization on the grounds of sexual or religious affiliation (Panter-Brick, 2014).
  • 65. Cont.…. • Resilience is also observed at social and structural levels, in the ways ‘successful societies’ have navigated and negotiated the economic and political changes sweeping the world stage in the name of neoliberalism (Hall & Lamont, 2013). • These moral, social, and structural dimensions to resilience matter for sustaining health and wellbeing.
  • 66. Cont.….. • Resilience is understood as the process of overcoming adverse experiences, as evidenced by an upward trajectory in response to as shock or stressor (Masten, 2011, 2014). • Resilience research rightly focuses on identifying the turning points that can leverage change – or “knife off” past disadvantage (Rutter, 2012). • The ‘mission’ of resilience research is to uncover which time points are the most sensitive for effective intervention, and which resources are the most culturally-relevant to foster upward trajectories.
  • 67. Cont.…. • If resilience is akin to ‘bouncing back’ from adversity, it is imperative to understand the process of ‘bouncing forward’ also (Walsh, 2002, p. 35).
  • 68. Resilience Across Cultures • How does culture affect resilience? • Do different cultures generate resilience in different ways? • The concept of "culture" is applied in a wide sense. • Culture is; – the way we meet and greet, – the way we work and celebrate, – what we eat and how we eat it, – the way we relate to each other and – the way we solve our differences.
  • 69. Cont.….. • The way they are expressed and the way they work to create resilience may differ greatly between cultures. • In some cultures theoretical skills are valued, in others practical or artistic skills are important. • The different elements in a culture contribute to resilience according to how important that specific factor is in each culture.
  • 70. Resilience in Dynamic Systems • Contemporary resilience science extends across the life span; considers multiple levels of analysis, and examines multiple systems, from families and schools to neighborhoods and nations (e.g., Cicchetti, 2013, Kim-Cohen & Turkewitz, 2012;). • Resilience emerges from the interactions of a dynamic system as it transacts with a dynamic context (Lerner, 2006). • Thus, any model of resilience must consider the interplay among multiple levels of influence and analysis, and efforts to promote resilience in development must do the same (Cicchetti, 2011).
  • 71. Dynamic model of resilience • Just as resilience emerges in the context of dynamic exchanges between an adaptive system and the broader context, so, too, must practice efforts to support competence in contexts of adversity (i.e., resilience) accommodate and respond to the dynamic nature of development. • The influence of a given factor as either protective or vulnerability-enhancing is moderated by the context in which it is embedded, and the developmental stage of the system at the time when it is introduced.
  • 72. Cont.….. • Just as resilience is developmentally contextualized, it is also culturally situated. • Thus, it is important to clarify the ways in which adversity and competence vary across different ecological, and cultural contexts (Ungaretal.,2013). • Applied efforts to promote resilience that incorporate culturally congruent values, norms, and resources will be more readily accepted and utilized by individuals, groups, and communities (Black & Krishnakumar, 1998; Parsai, Castro, Marsiglia, Harthun, & Valdez, 2011).
  • 73. Transactional model of resilience • With a growing body of research illuminating the processes by which systems negotiate salient developmental challenges despite adversity, a resilience framework can guide practice, even as research continues to build a better knowledge base about processes of protection, vulnerability, and differential susceptibility. • In turn, efficacy studies of interventions guided by resilience science offer powerful tests of theories about resilience processes.
  • 74. Cont.….. • These include investigations of prevention and intervention efforts that deliberately aim to alter the course of development in favorable directions and natural experiments where a naturally occurring change in circumstance (e.g., adoption) can reveal mechanisms of developmental deviation and recovery (Masten, 2011; Rutter, 2007). • Scientific progress emerges from the bidirectional influences of theory and practice in a recursive process of theory formulation, testing, data collection, and theory revision (Sameroff, 1983).
  • 75. Cont.…… • Although prevention scientists are increasingly incorporating resilience theory into their missions and models of intervention, there remains a wealth of untapped information awaiting translation from practice to research (Howe, Reiss, & Yuh, 2002). • Carefully conducted evaluation research with randomized group assignment and appropriate comparison groups allows investigators to experiment with altering the course of human development in the context of identifiable and quantifiable adversity, and to evaluate causal hypotheses about resilience and development (Masten, 2011).
  • 76. Cont.…. • Studies that demonstrate the mediating function of conceptually predicted variables (e.g., improved parental discipline practices) in the relation between intervention (e.g., parent education curricula) and outcome (e.g., reduced antisocial behaviour) yield important data for theory testing. • However, interventions that were highly successful in elegant university experiments can be difficult to implement successfully in more typical real-world ecological settings.
  • 77. Cont.….. • The divide between the empirical efficacy of resilience interventions in clinical research designs and the real-world effectiveness of resilience interventions in everyday practice constitutes a major barrier to bidirectional exchanges between resilience research and practice. • In an effort to bridge this translational divide ,investigators are teaming up with field-based experts and consumers to design and test interventions that are informed by frontline knowledge and tailored to real-world contexts to maximize the potential for effectiveness in everyday practice from the outset.
  • 78. Cont.….. • Casey and colleagues (2014) describe an iterative process of designing and testing the components of a new intervention to promote executive function skills and academic resilience in homeless and highly mobile preschool children. • Their design team included faculty experts in executive function, resilience, and teacher training; teachers and staff from community preschools serving high-risk children; and master teachers from a university-based early childhood training program.
  • 79. Cont.….. • Parents also contributed their expertise via focus groups and feedback about each iteration of the intervention. • Incorporating the expertise of scientists, practitioners, and consumers yields a translational synergy that strengthens and accelerates the reciprocal influences of science and practice in the design, implementation, evaluation, and dissemination of interventions to promote resilience (Masten, 2011).
  • 80. Cont.…. • In an elegant illustration of translational synergy, Aber and colleagues(2011)initiated an empirical investigation of social-emotional learning and development. • They began with a careful explication of theories of change that were implicit in the design and implementation of an applied effort to support children’s efforts to resolve conflict creatively.
  • 81. Cont.…. • Subsequent evaluations of the theories underlying the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program were translated from practice to research and back again to guide the development of a modified school-based intervention centered on reading, writing, respect, and resolution (4Rs). • The 4Rs program incorporates multiple levels of intervention (e.g., individuals, classrooms, schools) and harnesses developmental cascades of influence across schools, classrooms, and children. • While acknowledging the many difficulties that thwart synergistic translations between practice and research, the work of Aber and colleagues (2011) also demonstrates the incontrovertible value of confronting these challenges.
  • 82. Cont.….. • Challenges that hinder efforts to integrate the science and practice of resilience are manifold. • First, good interventions and the research on which they are based take time, but there is a constant press for immediate action to support children, families, schools, and neighbourhoods that are struggling in the present moment and cannot abide by the time course of rigorous science (Ager, Stark, Akesson, & Bootby, 2010; Masten,2011).
  • 83. Cont.….. • Second, effective interventions are, almost by definition, multifaceted, prompting a need to identify the salient facets or active ingredients of successful interventions to best inform future science. • Third, theory testing in the context of resilience-guided interventions necessitates a complementary shift in our evaluative lens away from symptom remission toward competence promotion.
  • 84. Cont.…… • A legacy of interest in the problems of adaptation has produced far fewer tools to assess competence and positive dimensions of development. • As efforts to promote the health and competence of future generations expand, they must be met with commensurate evaluative research to ascertain the specific features of interventions that are effective, and to test the theoretical hypotheses upon which they were grounded.
  • 85. Cont.……. • Beyond the individual level, tools to evaluate broader systems, such as communities, governments, and nations, are particularly scarce (see Sherrieb, Norris, & Galea, 2010, for exception). • Fourth, there is a dearth of practice-based research networks through which multiple providers in applied settings can collaborate to develop a living laboratory to generate and evaluate knowledge in the context of everyday practice (McMillen, Lenze, Hawley, & Osborne, 2009).
  • 86. Chapter 3 and 4 Group Assignment (Term Paper)
  • 87. Chapter Five Resilience in Practice: Assessment and Action Planning  Resilience is a compelling concept for development and humanitarian assistance;  Because it can enhance practitioners’ understanding of the complex dynamics that influence peoples’ ability to prevent and respond to risk.  Incorporating resilience analytics into humanitarian and development assistance can;  enable people,  households and communities to sustain positive long-term development trajectories in the face of shocks and stresses, potentially reducing the need for humanitarian aid.
  • 88. Why do risk and resilience assessments? • To; develop effective, measurable resilience- building strategies; – practitioners must consider the complex interactions that exist between risks, people and the socio-ecological systems in which they live. • These interactions occur at various spatial and temporal scales, and are inherently dynamic. • Thus, when shocks hit a system, they do not occur in isolation; rather, they interact with multiple factors that can compound their impact and provoke downstream effects.
  • 89. Cont.…. • For example, a hurricane might have a larger negative impact on a struggling community with poor infrastructure and few social safety nets, than on one with more robust infrastructure and government response mechanisms. • It might also provoke increased future risk by destroying flood protection infrastructure that protects people from storm surge.
  • 90. Cont….. • Due to these complex interactions, improvements in resilience capacity often demand multiple long-term changes across various systems, such as; – markets, –governance structures and –social norms.
  • 91. Cont.…. • A risk and resilience assessment provides a means for practitioners to better understand the complex factors that influence resilience to shocks and stresses in a given context. • This process is critical to developing and improving a theory for effecting change, upon which resilience-building strategies can be based.
  • 92. Cont.…. • Risk and resilience assessments can be conducted over a range of levels of effort and for a variety of reasons, including:  to inform program design, development and adaptation;  to improve monitoring and evaluation of a program with relation to specific resilience metrics; and  to increase awareness and understanding of staff and partners of the value and practicalities of adopting a resilience approach.
  • 93. What’s Unique about Resilience Assessments?  Though many approaches to resilience assessments exist, they share in common several features: Consideration of multiple interacting and cross- scalar factors Use of both qualitative and quantitative data collection processes A focus on the ability of people, communities, and systems to mitigate risk Recognition of existing capacities already supporting resilience and which are inherent in systems, e.g. traditional practices based on social capital which can serve as safety nets in times of shocks or stresses
  • 94. Cont.…. Resilience assessments differ from other types of related assessments, which tend to narrowly focus on;  individuals or specific types of risks, favour either quantitative methods or community perceptions, assess static snapshots in time, or have limited analysis of the root causes of risk mitigation capacity.
  • 95. Cont.…. What comes after a risk and resilience assessment? • Risk and resilience assessments are not the end point for understanding the contexts in which development programs take place because these contexts continue to change and evolve over time. • As a result, assessment findings must be regularly updated to ensure program strategies remain relevant and impactful.
  • 96. Cont…. • Risk and resilience assessments can therefore play a key role in supporting an adaptive programming process through which humanitarian and development strategies can be; – monitored, –assessed, –evaluated and –refined over time.
  • 97. Conceptual Framework • A risk and resilience assessment can employ practical elements of systems thinking to explore the relevant social, political, economic, and ecological factors in a given context; –to identify the multidimensional risks that different populations face; and –to assess their ability to mitigate those risks. • In this way, risk and resilience assessments capture the interrelationships between risks, sources of resilience (resilience capacities) and well-being (development outcomes).
  • 98. Cont.…..  Throughout the resilience assessment process, the assessment team answers Five Guiding Resilience Questions by applying resilience thinking to a given program or portfolio aimed at well- being outcomes: 1. Resilience for Whom? The target populations and their attributes that include location (urban, peri-urban, rural), demographic factors (sex, age, ethnicity) and livelihood (agriculturalist, trade, unskilled labor and pastoralist).
  • 99. Cont…. 2. Resilience of What? The enabling environment, including formal and informal institutions, infrastructure, social, ecological and economic factors that impact the target population’s ability to anticipate, absorb and adapt to risks. For example;  livelihood shift from pastoralism to a mix of pastoralism, agriculture, and trade,  Increasing interactions between rural and urban areas.
  • 100. Cont…. 3. Resilience to What? The complex and compounding shocks and stresses that impact people’s capacities to achieve development outcomes. (e.g. Drought, flood, conflict, crop and livestock disease) 4. Resilience through What? The absorptive, adaptive and transformative capacities that strengthen the ability of target populations to mitigate risk. (Early Warning Systems & Disaster Response, Climate smart agriculture, Conflict Management, Appropriate financial services). 5. Resilience to What End? The primary wellbeing or development outcomes for which we want to build resilience. (Food Security, social cohesion… etc).
  • 101. Cont…. Of What For Whom To What Through What To What End ‘X’ agro- ecological zone, focused on livelihood shift from pastoralismto a mix of pastoralism, agriculture, and trade Pastoralists & Agro-pastoralists Youth Drought Early Warning Systems & Disaster Response Food Security Flood Climate smart agriculture Inclusive Economic Opportunity Crop & livestock disease Pest Management Social Cohesion Increasing interactions between rural and urban areas Women Land Degradation WaSH Strategies Conflict Conflict Management Children Price shocks Appropriate financial services Gender-based violence
  • 102. Risk and Resilience Assessment Process • The process of undertaking a risk and resilience assessment can be categorized into four adaptable steps, summarized below: Step 1: Planning and Design.  Determine the purpose, scope and scale of the assessment and decide Level of Effort.  Take stock of existing data, identify knowledge gaps and create a research plan to respond to key questions on resilience capacities and risks.
  • 103. Cont.…. • The conceptualization and design of any risk and resilience assessment starts by clearly defining; – the purpose (intended outputs and outcomes), – the scope (well-being outcomes of interest) and – the scale (boundaries and dynamics) of the assessment, – to properly contextualize local conditions, any foreseeable programmatic technical issues and associated needs for the assessment.
  • 104. Cont.…. • The purpose of risk and resilience assessments varies depending on institutional; – needs, – resources, – geographies and programs. • In general, the scope and scale should be established according to the programming, strategy and learning needs of the supporting institutions. • To achieve the most grounded results, this process must be driven and “owned” by key stakeholders at the level that corresponds with its scope (region, country, state, etc.).
  • 105. Cont.….. • It is critical that key staff are in place and involved in initial scoping discussions to ensure the team will function with a common understanding of the assessment framework and research questions throughout the process. • Ideally, the staff involved will have familiarity with; • risk and resilience theory, • experience carrying out interdisciplinary research, and • proficiency in qualitative research methods.
  • 107. Cont.…. • Before beginning the process, several considerations can help to determine what level of effort should be undertaken based on available resources which may be limited by budget, staffing, and time constraints. • Setting the scope of the assessment is best done cooperatively with; • local team members, • community representatives and • partners.
  • 108. Cont…. • A useful starting point is; • to ask local team members to develop initial responses to the Five Guiding Resilience Questions (of what?, for whom?, to what?, through what?, to what end?) based upon their own knowledge, a brief review of existing literature, or expert interviews. • These can be used as inputs for an initial.
  • 109. Cont… • Conducting a risk and resilience assessment is; • a powerful capacity building and relationship buildingprocess; • the process often holds as much value in itself as the results it produces. • Ensuring and encouraging the active participation of a diverse set of partners and teams is key to enhancing learning.
  • 110. Cont…. • Doing so can enable each participant; • to confront the complexity of their working context and •better understand how their contributions to increased resilience capacity can connect their work to achieving broader development goals.
  • 111. Step 2: Data Collection. • Collect qualitative and quantitative data from primary and/or secondary sources to fill knowledge gaps identified in Step 1. • A risk and resilience assessment typically employs qualitative and quantitative data, and includes data from primary and/or secondary sources. • This is done in order to inform; – the analysis from the existing evidence base, – as well as the perspectives of various stakeholders in the target populationsand – the enabling environment.
  • 112. Cont….. • Primary data can be collected to fill specific gaps in knowledge identified in the scoping phase, while testing resilience-related hypotheses with communities in target areas. • The timing of these activities is fluid, iterative, often done in parallel, and able to be adapted as needed.
  • 113. Cont…. • Data can be collected depends on the factors identified on first step. • Fieldwork: After developing a research plan in the Planning and Design phase; – training data collectors and – finalizing logistics, – the collection of primary and secondary data can begin.
  • 114. Sample….. Type Location FGD Types KII Types Urban (towns) BH Town 4 Total: Men, Woman, Boys,Girls Local shop ownersEmployees Local/Regional Government Representatives G Town 4 Total: Men, Woman, Boys,Girls Rural MS 4 Total: Men, Woman, Boys,Girls Local shop ownersEmployees National /Regional AA NGO Country Directors, FAO, Ministry of Waterand Environment, ‘X’ Youth Empowerment Network, ‘E’ National Early Warning Disaster commission
  • 115. Cont.…. • Step 3: Analysis. Combine and interpret data to answer key questions as determined in Step 1. • The objectives of the data analysis step are to combine data from various sources in order to answer key questions related to risk, resilience capacity and development trends, as determinedduring the design phase.
  • 116. Cont…. • In the Analysis stage, the team may elect to do the following: 1. Identify relevant development trends; 2. Deepen understanding of the different risk profiles of target populations and systems including the effects of risk drivers and recent trends; 3. Identify key resilience capacities, and how well they are accessed and used to mitigate potential or realized impacts of shocks or stresses; and 4. Identify gaps related to risk mitigation that need to be addressed in order to foster improvements in resilience over the short, medium, and long-term.
  • 117. Two types of analysis…. • Risk Profile Analysis is an approach that requires organizing primary and secondary data to characterize the unique risk profiles for different target populations and systems. To conduct this analysis, one should: – 1) revisit and potentially revise any assumptions made in the resilience assessment design process; – 2) develop a detailed understanding of the key development trends and contributing factors (shocks, stresses, development constraints); and – 3) gather perceptions of target populations and stakeholders of the sources, drivers and effects of risk.
  • 118. Cont…..  Resilience Capacities Analysis is an approach that requires organizing primary and secondary data to characterize the resilience capacities of different target populations and systems.  To conduct this analysis, one should: 1) revisit and revise assumptions made during the design phase; 2) categorize the resources the target population (people, households, communities) and systems need to mitigate different aspects of their risk.
  • 119. Cont…. 3) detail the actions target populations and systems take to mitigate different aspects of their risk; and 4) consider the underlying enabling and disabling factors that underpin (strengthen) the ability of target populations and systems to;  access those resources and  undertake those actions necessary to mitigate risk over the short-, medium- and long-term.
  • 120. Step 4: Strategic Planning. • In the Strategic Planning Step, findings from the resilience assessment are translated into the appropriate outputs, depending on the purpose of the assessment. • Outputs may include; – new or adapted intervention plans that strengthen a set of resilience capacities; – learning documents that reveal new or updated understandings of resilience in a development context.
  • 121. Cont…. • New resilience strengthening strategies should target both; – risks and capacities, as well as –the root causes of risks and – the factors that help support capacities.
  • 123. Education and Resilience Children spend around half of their lives in school yet they are often unsafe places to be. Every year, school buildings are damaged or destroyed from disasters, and many children, teachers and education officials do not know what to do in the event of an emergency. Schools may also be used as evacuation shelters during an emergency which can result in children not having access to education for weeks, months or even years.
  • 124. Cont….. • The impact of disasters threatens children’s right to access a continuous, uninterrupted basic education and puts investments made in education programmes at risk. • There are a number of steps we can take to ensure schools are safe and protective environments for all girls and boys as well as education staff.
  • 125. Cont…. Global school safety commitments and standards  All schools are safe from disaster risk and that all learners live in a culture of safety.  Education institutions should not be targeted in conflict and all are responsible to protect them.
  • 126. Pillar One: Safe Learning Facilities Pillar Two: School Disaster Management Pillar Three: Risk Reduction and Resilience Education
  • 127. Cont…. • Pillar One: Safe Learning Facilities - focuses on safe school construction practices. • It involves ensuring that any construction or renovation/renewal work within an education facility is safe from future disasters as well as inclusive of children with disabilities.
  • 128. Cont…. • Pillar Two: School Disaster Management – focuses on ensuring that schools have inclusive disaster plans in place and that these plans are connected to overall school management plans. • The development of these plans should be based on a comprehensive risk assessment that is participatory, involving girls, boys, parents, teachers and school leadership. • This should include head teachers and school management committees.
  • 129. Cont…. • Pillar Three: Risk Reduction and Resilience Education – explores how to integrate resilience within the national, local and informal curriculum, as well as teacher training institutes
  • 130. Livelihoods and Environment • Globally 2.5 billion people, many of them women, rely on agriculture for their livelihood. • Agricultural livelihoods, especially, are directly impacted by climate change and changing weather patterns which ultimately affect food security and nutrition. • At the same time, rapid urbanization and a growing youth population compels us to think through resilience in livelihoods projects and programmes.
  • 131. Cont….. • Livelihoods is traditionally most closely related to resilience, as skills, savings and food security can help primary actors bounce back much quicker after a crisis. • Crises, however, can disrupt many of the factors that people rely on to maintain their livelihoods. • People affected by crises may lose their jobs or have to abandon their land or water sources. • Assets may be destroyed, contaminated or stolen, and markets may stop functioning or not be accessible any longer.
  • 132. Cont…. • In the initial stages of a crisis, meeting basic survival needs is often seen as the priority. • However, during recovery livelihoods is often a priority as it helps primary actors get back to a normal life quicker.
  • 133. Resilience in livelihoods context…. • Supporting livelihood diversification in fragile and post-disaster contexts • Managing resources and reforestation to reduce soil erosion and to better protect their communities from flood and drought for crisis like climate change.
  • 134. Cont….. • Empowers individuals, households and communities through training and supporting. • All livelihoods interventions should be locally acceptable and consider how to use and / or support local markets. • During emergencies, food prices tend to increase drastically.
  • 135. Health and Protection • Disasters can result in people having to stay in overcrowded and inadequate shelters with poor sanitation and insufficient access to safe drinking water. • Disasters can also result in food insecurity that increases the risk of malnutrition and outbreaks of communicable diseases. • Reduced access to healthcare and interrupted medicine supply can disrupt ongoing treatment. • Most importantly, people with poor health and nutrition are more vulnerable to disasters.
  • 136. Cont…… The following are some of health and resilience interventions; Promoting nutritional food through gardens and leading to increased food security and a more balanced diet. Promoting hygiene and sanitation sensitization activities.  Supporting pregnant and lactating mothers through hygiene and sanitation sensitization. Supporting emergency responses in the health sector.
  • 137. Cont….. • Disasters can also disrupt existing social safety nets and cause displacement. • This can bring a whole new set of protection risks including child trafficking. • It is recognized by humanitarian and development actors that protection must be at the center of humanitarian action • It is recognized that all humanitarian and development actors must incorporate protection in their programming.
  • 138. Cont….. • Ensuring all vulnerable groups are protected in everything you do is fundamental, and volunteers and staff play an active role in this. • Every child regardless of age, disability, ethnicity, religion, sex or sexual orientation, has a right to equal protection from harm. • In order to ensure they are truly protected during the resilience activities, try to think ahead about the outcomes of certain scenarios.
  • 139. Volunteering and Resilience • Working together, community, national and international volunteers are playing vital roles in building resilience before and after disasters and by supporting disaster response and recovery. • Each volunteer contributes their unique skills, knowledge and experience to resilience building interventions. • Community volunteers often act as role models within the community encouraging community members to participate in resilience interventions.
  • 140. Cont….. • Both community and specialist volunteers can support communities to self-organize to implement community based resilience initiatives. • They often act as a bridge between different groups within communities and the services they depend on and access local and national government support. • Volunteers may introduce innovative solutions to communities or recognize existing innovation within communities and can be brokers of technical and financial support from other stakeholders to communities.
  • 142. Chapter 6 6.1. Resilience and Risk in Pastoralist areas 6.1.1. Recent Trends in Diversified and Alternative Livelihoods Among Pastoralists in Eastern Africa  This chapter deals with recent trends and issues surrounding livelihoods diversification and alternative livelihoods in the drylands of eastern Africa.  It also emphasizes households and communities that are combining pastoralism with other livelihood activities or have moved out of pastoralism and are involved in an alternative livelihood
  • 143. Cont…. • There is no single “magic arrow” or technology for enhancing resilience in drylands. • Rather, there are multiple, incremental options, including livelihood diversification, that, when adapted to local contexts and circumstances, can increase probabilities for improved livelihoods and resilience. • Urbanization, commercialization, new forms of violence, novel technologies (especially mobile phones), and population growth are recent phenomena that shape current diversification patterns.
  • 144. Cont….. • (1) negative or maladapted diversification choices, including activities with high social and environmental costs (i.e., charcoal making and risky dryland farming); and • (2) positive or adapted choices with minimal environmental or social costs (i.e., salaried employment). • In particular, women diversify into petty trading, casual waged labor, food/drink sales, and, recently, labor migration to towns where they face risks of physical abuse and discrimination.
  • 145. Cont….. • Empirical materials also highlight several common factors that drive different patterns and options for diversification, including; –cumulative effects of drought-induced livestock loss, –violence, –loss of land and reduced land productivity, – animal disease, and depletion of herds to buy food.
  • 146. Cont….. • Opportunity or “pull” factors that impact diversification include; – better employment and business prospects, – education, –security, and health.  Increased urbanization and associated business developments in the larger towns attract wealthier herders who seek investments.
  • 147. Cont….. • Building resilience opportunities in the drylands, including: –Land tenure and land use policies –Education and skills training –Support for women-owned enterprises, employment programs for youth. –Value-added activities around livestock production and trade (e.g., fodder production, meat processing, and local fattening enterprises for trade)
  • 148. Cont….. –Support to local communities for natural product extraction, processing, and marketing –Nutritional extension and support for settled/ex-pastoralist communities. –Urban and peri-urban planning and infrastructure in drylands, especially sanitation and water.
  • 149. Cont….. • Livelihood diversification among pastoralists in eastern Africa has been common for the past 50 or more years, but has been especially prominent since the regional droughts of 1979–80 and 1984. – The increased complexity and prevalence of commercial livestock markets, – the growth of local and regional towns, and – increased incidences of drought and – conflict are factors that drive and shape current livelihood diversification and alternative livelihoods.
  • 150. Cont…… • Little, Smith et al. (2001), for example, argue that a herder’s decision to diversify is influenced by three sets of variables: • (1) conditional variables (e.g., rangeland availability, population density, per capita livestock holdings, climate, and other factors); • (2) opportunity variables (human capital [education], distance to markets and towns, and related factors); and
  • 151. Cont….. • (3) local response variables (gender, wealth, and age). • Importantly, not all pastoralist regions afford the same opportunities for livelihood diversification depending on; – differences in market and town access, – climate, and other factors, nor do different groups of pastoralists (rich/poor, male/female, and young/old) share the same interests in diversification.
  • 152. Cont….. • Catley and Aklilu (2012) classifies households who: • (1) “moving up” and capable of earning considerable cash from livestock-based activities; (remain strongly invested in pastoralism). • (2) “stepping out” and engaging in non- pastoral activities but maintaining a degree of reliance on livestock; and • (3) “moving out” and leaving pastoralism all together.
  • 153. Cont…. • The “stepping out” stage reflects pastoralist diversification where non- pastoralist activities are used to supplement the pastoral/livestock component, • while the “moving out” strategy represents alternative livelihoods where individuals and families have left pastoralism.
  • 154. Historical Patterns • In the 19th and early 20th centuries, pastoralists who lost animals due to drought or other shocks often joined agricultural communities or pursued hunting and gathering activities until they could rebuild their herds. • In some cases, impoverished pastoralists would join these communities permanently, but in most cases they would transition back into mobile pastoralism once their herds recovered (Little 1992).
  • 155. Cont…. • Availability of non-pastoral livelihood options have always been influenced by the presence or absence of urban centers. • Towns afford trading and business opportunities and the chance to engage in the cash economy and supplement pastoral livelihoods. • Colonialism created a network of administrative centers in the twentieth century that also served as markets and provided opportunities for petty trade and casual wage employment.
  • 156. Cont….. • More importantly, colonial policies and actions, including those of the Abyssinian Imperial government in Ethiopia; – did much to discourage mobile pastoralism, – often imposing boundaries to restrict movements, – resettling pastoralists to make room for European settlement and farming, – alienating prime dry season grazing for irrigation schemes, – taxing livestock, and – resettling pastoralists for security purposes.
  • 157. Cont…… • Collectively, these interventions forced herders to diversify to survive. • A growth in irrigation and settlement schemes as alternative livelihoods, as well as the introduction of modern weapons in the area, further impacted pastoralism.
  • 158. Cont…. • They decreased the amount of secure, usable rangelands and increased the need to diversify into non-pastoral activities. • The frequency of climate and conflict- induced events accelerated in the 1980s and 1990s, further diminishing herds, reducing usable lands, and making pastoralist diversification even more essential.
  • 159. Cont….. • The collapse of the Somali state and of the Derg military regime in 1991 increased the flow of destructive weapons and violence, thereby encouraging additional population movements to towns as safe havens. • Migration to towns grew as well, with a small minority of educated pastoralists seeking salaried employment with; – non-governmental organizations (NGOs), – government, and – private companies.
  • 160. Contemporary Patterns • What has changed in the past 15–20 years is; – the scale, –range, and –persistence of diversification strategies, –as well as the pressures that pastoralist communities currently confront. • Movements to towns by pastoralists and transitions to agro-pastoralism have become more permanent than in the past, although many ex-pastoralists continue to maintain ties to the pastoral sector and invest in livestock.
  • 161. Cont…. • On a regional basis, many of those who move out of pastoralism remain linked to livestock activities through employment as; – town-based livestock and milk traders, – transporters, and/or –petty traders which operate at livestock markets.
  • 162. Cont…. • The growth in domestic, regional/cross-border, and international livestock trade (i.e., mainly to the Middle East) represents another significant recent change that affects pastoralist diversification strategies. • These different trades have been dependent on pastoralist suppliers for decades, but as urban centers grew and international demand from the Middle East for livestock and animal products increased, their scale and complexity changed.
  • 163. Cont….. • Another recent change is the new types of conflict in pastoralist areas. • It increases security concerns in rangelands and disrupts trade and markets.
  • 164. Factors That Explain Current Patterns of Livelihood Diversification and Resilience • The are several common factors that drive patterns and options for diversification. • Similar to other research on pastoralist diversification in eastern Africa, they emphasize the dominance of push (necessity) over pull (attraction) factors in explaining pastoralist diversification, with; – herd loss and – general poverty and – food insecurity being the main reasons pastoralists diversify in the first place.
  • 165. Cont….. –The cumulative effects of drought- induced livestock loss, –violence, –loss of land and reduced land productivity, –animal disease, and depletion of herds to buy food are poverty-related “push factors” that motivate pastoralists to pursue supplemental livelihood activities.
  • 166. Cont….. • Opportunity or “pull” factors related to towns that impact diversification include better employment and business prospects, education, security, and health. • Investment in formal education by pastoralists has greatly increased during the past 15 years, although it still remains low relative to agricultural and urban populations.
  • 167. Cont….. • Increased urbanization and associated business developments in the larger towns are also opportunity factors that attract wealthier herders who seek investments in business and others. • For the wealthiest herders, diversification into urban-based businesses is a risk- mitigating strategy in the event of a drought or an animal disease outbreak.
  • 168. Resilience and Risk in Borana Pastoral Areas of Southern Ethiopia • Adopting a wide range of livelihood choices and strategies has allowed pastoralists to respond to climate and socioeconomic shocks and stresses. • The diversity of livelihood options and strategies are dynamic, and changes depend on different shock or stress factors. • These strategies, in turn, have implications for the resilience of pastoral systems, especially in regard to climate and other shocks.
  • 169. Cont…… • The literature on pastoralism demonstrates that pastoral livelihood systems are increasingly under pressure because of multiple and reinforcing natural and anthropogenic disturbances (Fratkin 2013). • In response to these pressures, households over time have supplemented pastoralism with non- pastoral strategies to survive and adapt to different shock risks (especially drought), which has forced many households to pursue livelihood diversification as a long term strategy (Little, 2001).
  • 170. Cont….. • Catastrophic livestock losses caused by recent droughts in the Horn of Africa have generated tremendous interest among donors and national governments in support of livelihood diversification as a “drought resilience building” initiative. • However, all livelihood diversification and alternative livelihoods pursued by pastoralists themselves or driven externally by donors and government may not always contribute to resilience building.
  • 171. Cont….. • While some diversification enhances welfare and resilience, others can be erosive or maladaptive and do not build resilience but rather increase risk and vulnerability (Little 2009). • Analyses of patterns of livelihood diversification and alternative livelihoods over time are important to evaluate their impacts on resilience building (Gunderson and Holling 2002; Berkes et al. 2003).
  • 172. Cont…… • Several studies of livelihood and food security in pastoral regions assert that diversification is the norm among pastoralists (Fratkin 2013: Little, Smith et al. 2001; Barrett et al. 2001; Fernandez-Gimenez and Le Febre 2006). • However, diversification among pastoralists and the causes of it are multi-faceted and vary among pastoral groups based on cultural, economic, and ecological differences.
  • 173. Cont….. • Historically, Borana livelihoods are based on combinations of three core assets: cattle (economic capital), social resources (social capital), and grazing and water resources (natural capital). • In Borana society, the family forms the basic unit of human reproduction and cattle (economic) production, and clans serve as the main unit of social organization beyond the household.
  • 174. Cont… • The clan is a key social asset that is strongly embedded in the kinship system, ideology, and identity of Borana culture and its Gada political system. • Property rights over cattle for individuals within the family can come from inheritance or transfer of cattle from father to son (Loon handhuraa) and transfers to extended family members in response to losses because of conflict (hirba exchanges) and drought (buusaa-gonofaa exchanges).
  • 175. Cont.….. • In terms of social capital, cattle wealth is an important social resource used for building social and political capital within the Gada system. • Borana herders describe their relationship with cattle by simply saying, “If you do not have cattle, you are not a Borana,” equating having no cattle with a loss of social identity.
  • 176. Cont.…. • Borana herders strongly believe that changes in number of cattle owned influences not only household food security, but also social and cultural activities (such as marriage, resource redistribution, and collective actions).
  • 177. Cont.…. • Regardless of ecological variability, Borana pastoralism is described as the most successful system in East Africa (Cossins and Upton 1987), attributed to the use of several interrelated and interdependent adaptive strategies. • This includes: • (1) skillful uses of multiple natural resources and management of livestock; • (2) strong local natural resource governance and institutions; • (3) vast productive territorial system; and • (4) an extraordinarily productive and physiologically superior cattle breed, called Boran.
  • 178. Cont.…. • Traditional Borana households depend on cattle production as means of livelihood and income, although small stock and camel are used as supplementary to cattle. • However, during the last 30–40 years, biophysical, socio-economic, policy, and cultural changes have made the system untenable for cattle production, which has compelled herders to diversify their sources of income and adopt alternative livelihood strategies.
  • 179. Cont.…. • Livelihood diversification activities within pastoralism range from changes in animal breed and species composition, to adoption of poultry production and intensification of livestock production. • Intensification of livestock production through pasture production, use of reserve enclosures, and use of commercial feed are other strategies adopted by herders. • While the tactic of pasture production is used as an adaptive strategy, the latter two techniques are employed during drought to enhance the survival of breeding stock.
  • 180. Cont.….. • The use of commercial feed is another aspect of intensification of Borana livestock production. • Historically, Borana livestock production depended entirely on natural grazing resources. • However, during the last decade, the use of commercial feed, such as crop-straw and wheat bran (a by-product from food industries), has grown. • The use and supply of commercial feed is linked with drought events and often introduced by aid agencies to prevent loss of breeding stock.
  • 181. Cont.…. • Traditionally, Borana pastoralists enclosed grazing patches within a residential territory as a dry season reserve for calves. • It is known as seera yaabii (kaloo), which literally means “custom of grazing reserve for calves.” •
  • 182. Cont.….. • Historically, camels have not been part of Borana production systems. However, the species has been increasingly adopted during the last 30–40 years. • Borana herders have shown an increasing tendency towards keeping small stock in response to increased environmental change and drought risk. • In Borana culture, a camel was without social and economic value except as a pack animal for hauling water.
  • 183. Cont….. • Camels have a better coping capacity to drought and water shortage and thus are able to maintain milk production when all other species, particularly cattle, are unable to do so. • This reduces household vulnerability to food insecurity during droughts.
  • 184. Cont.….. • Borana households do not solely depend on livestock to meet their food and welfare needs. • Their pattern of livelihood change is very similar to pastoral livelihood diversification elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa (see Homewood et al. 2009; Little, Smith et al. 2001). • In addition to using livestock as sources of subsistence and income, households also depend on non-pastoral livelihood activities.
  • 185. Cont.….. • This includes; •crop cultivation for subsistence, •wage employment, •petty trade, •remittance, •charcoal and firewood sale, •food and drink sale, •investment, and sale of livestock feed.
  • 186. Determinants of Livelihood Diversification 1. Landscape Heterogeneity: Topography, Soil, and Rainfall Variability The Borana ecosystem is highly heterogeneous in terms of topography, vegetation, soils, and climate. Soil property and rainfall are key determinants of farming because of their influences on the length of the growing season.
  • 187. Cont…. 2. Sedentarization and Urbanization Livelihood diversification among pastoralists is often associated with Sedentarization and urbanization (Fratkin 2013). The cause-effect relation between Sedentarization and livelihood diversification in Borana is very complex because, poor and rich households have different motivations and “push” or “pull” factors influencing their decisions. Poor households are pushed away from pastoralism because of few or no livestock and forced to settle and seek an alternative livelihood.
  • 188. Cont…. • They pursue in towns, including petty trade and unskilled casual labor. • Sedentarization and urbanization, in turn, increase opportunities for diversification activities for the poor, who would have few alternatives if they remained in the rangelands (Little, Smith et al. 2001). • The increase of some low-income livelihood activities, including charcoal and firewood selling, is associated with urban and peri-urban expansion of existing or new settlements.
  • 189. Cont…. 3. Population Growth and Density  Human population density is another factor underlying livelihood diversification and intensification of livestock production (Fratkin 2013). 4. The decline in the system of common property rights and weakening of customary institutions and governance of natural resources. • It impacted livelihood diversification.
  • 190. Cont…. 5. Education, Formal Employment, and Remittance  Education is a well-established prerequisite for skilled labor employment, which increases opportunities for sending remittances to family members.  Access to formal education can increase employment opportunities for Borana family members and have direct impact on livelihoods.
  • 191. Cont…. • In spite of the positive effect of education on livelihood diversification and food security, some elders express concerns that education is posing a risk to pastoralism. • According to some elders, the negative effect of education on pastoral livelihoods is associated with changes in socio-cultural values, including rules of marriage and attitudes toward pastoralism.
  • 192. Cont.…. • In sum, Borana herders diversify their livelihood options within and outside pastoralism.
  • 193.
  • 194. Chapter 7 Individual Assignment (Article Review)