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Project Design and Management
By
Kebede Lemu B.
May, 2021
What is Project?
• A project is a temporary process, which
has a clearly defined start and end time, a
set of tasks, and a budget, that is
developed to accomplish a well-defined
goal or objective.
• A project is a group of inter-related
activities, constrained by time, cost, and
scope, designed to deliver a unique
purpose.
Cont.…
• An undertaking that encompasses a set of tasks
or activities having a definable starting point
and well defined objectives.
• Usually each task has a planned completion
data (due date) and assigned resources.
• A clear set of activities with related inputs and
outputs aimed to achieve objectives and goals
linked to anticipated (desired) effects and
impacts in a target population (sometimes
called ―beneficiaries).
Cont.….
 According to all these definitions,
 A project has a beginning and an end.
 A project has limited resources.
 A project follows a planned, organized
method to meet its objectives with
specific goals of quality and performance.
 Every project is unique
 A project has a manager responsible for
its outcomes.
Project Plan
• A project plan is a formal, approved
document that is used to manage and control a
project.
• Project planning defines the project activities
and end products that will be performed and
describes how the activities will be
accomplished.
• The purpose of project planning is to define
each major task, estimate the time and
resources required, and provide a framework
for management review and control.
Cont.…
The project planning activities and goals
include defining:
The specific work to be performed and goals
that define and bind the project.
Estimates to be documented for planning,
tracking, and controlling the project.
Commitments that are planned, documented,
and agreed to by affected groups.
Project alternatives, assumptions, and
constraints.
The planning process consists of the following basic tasks:
estimate the size of the project,
identify and assess risks, and negotiate commitments
Define the technical approach used to solve the problem.
Define and sequence the tasks to be performed and
identify all deliverables associated with the project.
Define the dependency relations between tasks.
Estimate the resources required to perform each task.
Schedule all tasks to be performed.
Define a budget for performing the tasks.
Define the organization used to execute the project.
Identify the known risks in executing the project.
Define the process used for ensuring quality.
Define the process used for specifying and controlling
requirements
Cont…
• There is a phrase ‘If you fail to plan, you plan to
fail.’
• Think of examples of when things have gone
wrong because planning was not carried out
adequately.
• Why did things go wrong? What was not taken
account of?
• Planning helps to:
– Think ahead and prepare for the future
– ensure the right direction
– identify issues that will need to be addressed
– consider whether a project is possible
Cont…
• make the best use of resources
• motivate staff
• ensure smooth running of projects
• clarify goals and develop vision
• establish the reason for doing something
• obtain funds and other resources
• allocate resources and responsibilities
• guide implementation of projects
• achieve the best results.
Cont.…
• There are many barriers to planning. These
include:
 Lack of time, or not making time to plan
 Not knowing how to plan
 Difficulty in getting the right people
together
 Finding it difficult to plan because the
future is so uncertain
 Wanting to do things immediately because
the need is urgent, rather than think about
them.
Project Management
Project Management is the process of
achieving project objectives (schedule, budget
and performance) through a set of activities
that start and end at certain points in time and
produce quantifiable and qualifiable
deliverables.
Project Management is a set of principles,
methods and techniques for effective planning
of objective-oriented work, thereby
establishing a sound basis for effective
scheduling, controlling and re-planning in the
management of projects.
Cont.…
• Project management is the process of
combining systems, techniques, and
knowledge to complete a project within
established goals of time, budget and scope.
• Project management is a process of leading
a team of capable people in planning and
implementing a series of related activities
that need to be accomplished on a specific
date with a limited budget.
Cont…
• Project management is the application of
knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to
project activities in order to meet or exceed
stakeholders‘ needs and expectations.
• Successful project management is the art of
bringing together the tasks, resources and
people necessary to accomplish the business
goals and objectives within the specified time
constraints and within the monetary
allowance.
Cont.…
• The project management tools and
principles provide the means for;
–project breakdown into tasks and sub-tasks
–finding interdependencies between the tasks
–allocating resources, human and material
and smoothing resources
–estimation for total project duration and
budget
–monitoring more efficiently project progress
Key steps of Project Management
Assessing Needs
Planning the Project
Learning from the Project
and evolving
Implementing and Monitoring the
Project
Evaluating the
Project
Project Management Knowledge Areas
• Project Integration Management: Ensures that the
project is properly planned, executed, and controlled.
• Project Scope Management Includes authorizing the
job, developing a scope statement that will define the
boundaries of the project, subdividing the work into
manageable components with deliverables.
• Project Time Management Specifically refers to
developing a schedule that can be met, then controlling
work to ensure that this happens!
• Project Cost Management Involves estimating the
cost of resources, including people, equipment,
materials, and such things as travel and others.
• Project Quality Management Includes both quality
assurance (planning to meet quality requirements) and
quality control (steps taken to monitor results to see if
they conform to requirements).
Cont
• Project Human Resources Management Involves
identifying the people needed to do the job; defining their
roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships; and
then managing them.
• Project Communications Management Involves
planning, executing, and controlling the acquisition and
dissemination of all information relevant to the needs of
all project stakeholders. This information might include
project status, accomplishments, and events that may
affect other stakeholders or projects.
• Project Risk Management Is the systematic process of
identifying, quantifying, analyzing, and responding to
project risk.
• Project Procurement Management Procurement of
necessary goods and services for the project is the
logistics aspect of managing a job. This include issuing
requests for bids, selecting vendors, administering
contracts.
Cont…
Project Management Knowledge Areas Functions
• The four core knowledge areas (scope, time,
cost, and quality) lead to specific project
objectives.
• The four facilitating knowledge areas (human
resources, communication, risk, and procurement
management) are the means through which the
project objectives are achieved.
• The one knowledge area (project integration
management) affects and is affected by all of the
other knowledge areas.
Project Manager
• The project manager is responsible for managing the
project‘s scope, schedule, and cost to support the
owner‘s expectations for the successful completion of
the project.
• Typical duties include;
I. Monitoring schedule and costs versus project
progress to identify problems that could
potentially extend the schedule or overrun costs.
II. Taking, directing, or recommending corrective
action when scope, schedule, or cost variances
threaten the project.
Cont.…
A project manager must have a range of skills including:
Leadership
Influencing
Negotiation
Conflict Management
Planning
Contract management
Estimating
Problem solving
Creative thinking
Time Management
Effective Communication (verbal and written)
Cont.….
• Project Owner/Sponsor: The project owner
or sponsor should be a director or higher-level
member of the department who is the largest
stakeholder in the project or who will receive
the greatest benefit by the project‘s successful
completion.
• The owner assumes the overall responsibility
for the entire project.
• The project owner will appoint a project
manager to manage and control the project.
Cont.…
• The project owner is responsible for the
following:
– Maintaining enough involvement with the project
to ensure that the desired outcome is attained.
– Granting a sufficient level of authority to the
project manager required for the project‘s success.
– Providing or negotiating support when the project
manager is unable to resolve problems at a lower
level.
– Providing ongoing performance feedback to the
project manager as well as providing input to the
project manager‘s performance review.
Cont…
• Identification: To identify what a project will focus
on, we need to find out who should benefit and
what their needs are. A needs assessment‖ will give
an overview of community problems. A capacity
assessment‖ will help identify which problem the
project should address.
• Design: This involves carrying out further research
into the people affected by a problem and how they
are affected by it. We also need to consider the risks
to the project and how we will measure the
project‘s performance.
• Implementation: During the implementation, it is
important to monitor and review the progress of the
project and any outside changes that affect it. The
project plans should be adjusted where necessary.
Cont…
• Evaluation: Evaluation should be carried out at or
after project completion. Evaluation could be
carried out a few months or years after the
project has finished in order to assess its long-
term impact and sustainability
• Lesson Learning: While the project cycle is a
useful way of outlining the stages of a project, it
has one drawback: it makes it look as though one
tool follows another.
• In fact, many of the planning tools can be used at
any stage of the project. They should be
repeated throughout the project‘s life to ensure
that any changes that might affect project.
Cont.…
• Basically, the purpose of project management is
to integrate;
– Purpose
– People and
– Processes
• A Project manager‘s job is to see that the project
team (People) is clear about the purpose of the
project, If everyone is clear on the purpose
and vision of the project, then the next
important task of a project manager is to make
sure that everyone on the project team is working
toward these goals (process).
Need Assessment
• The first step in the project cycle is to identify
an issue that a project could address. This
usually involves a ‘needs assessment’ which
finds out what community needs are.
• A needs assessment is a method of finding out
the nature and extent of problems and how
they can be solved.
• In general, a needs assessment is a systematic
approach to identifying social problems,
determining their extent, and accurately
defining the target population to be served
and the nature of their needs.
Cont…
• We might already have a good idea of local
needs.
• They might be quite obvious, or we might
have become aware of them during a past
project.
• On the other hand, we might have no idea what
a community’s needs are.
• It is important to carry out a needs assessment
before planning development work, whether
we think we know what the needs are or not.
Cont.…
• The project should come out of what people say
they want and not from assumptions that we
make.
• Sometimes the needs are not immediately clear or
cannot be easily understood.
• By talking to different people, we will be able to
understand how problems affect people
differently.
• Make sure that the people we talk to include
women, men, girls, boys, the elderly, people with
disabilities etc.
• For example, poor access to clean water may
affect women more than men because women
have to walk a long way to fetch water.
Cont.…
• Circumstances change:
– There may be new people in the community.
– There may be new needs.
– Old needs might have been addressed.
– Problems might be affecting people differently.
• Needs assessment gives people an opportunity to
prioritize their needs, which leads to a more
sustainable development project.
Why Conduct a Needs Assessment?
The main aims of a needs assessment could be:
• To assess the extent and causes of community
social problems
• To identify the major beneficiaries and target
populations of a project
• To prioritize problems based on their
significance in the community
• To assess the capacities of the community in the
project
• Identification of a solution for a complex problem
or issue.
Cont…
The needs assessments is a systematic process including
several subsequent processes:
• Collecting data by means of clearly defined methods
and instruments (questionnaires, interviews, focus-
groups, document research etc.)
• Identifying priorities and establishing criteria for
finding a solution to a problem;
• Preparing a project plan based on their priorities
When conducting needs assessment, we need to collect
information on:
• Population, health, infrastructure,
• social and economic issues, resources,
• education and knowledge
Cont.…
There are many tools that enable communities
to identify their needs (How?)
1. Listening: By listening for the issues about
which people have the strongest feelings, it is
possible to identify the issues that they most
want addressed and projects which they are most
likely to participate in.
• A team of people (development workers or
village members) ask a community or group
questions to find out what people are worried,
sad, happy, fearful, hopeful or angry about.
• The questions should be open-ended.
Cont…
2. Interviewing: This tool helps us to gain greater
understanding of the issues.
• It involves talking to key people in the
community (those who are seen as the heart of
the community) in order to discuss their
knowledge, experience and understanding of the
issues.
• Key people include health workers, traders,
religious leaders, village chiefs, pastors and
teachers.
• When choosing people to interview, make sure
their views and opinions are likely to represent
those of others in the community.
Cont…
• Take care not only to interview the
powerful, but also to interview those
whose views are not usually heard.
• Use open-ended questions such as:
–What are the main problems you face
in your area of work?
–What are the main pressures that
people in the community face?
–What simple things could be done to
improve the situation?
Cont.…
3. Focus Groups: This tool is used with a
group of 10 –20 people.
• It helps them to understand and voice some
of the problems they face and the needs they
have.
• A focus group enables people with different
views to discuss their differences, challenge
assumptions and come to a collective
understanding of the needs of the community.
Cont…
• Questions to stimulate discussion could
include the following:
–What are the main pressures that
people in the community are facing?
–What simple things could be done to
improve the situation?
–If you could change one thing in this
community, what would it be? Why?
Cont..
Through the assessment, the
following is achieved:
• Identification of structural and root
causes of a problem
• Understanding of the situation in its
geographic and cultural context
• Identification of opportunities,
vulnerabilities, capacities, resources
Agreeing Priority Needs
• Once the needs have been identified, community
members should be given the opportunity to say
which needs they feel are a priority.
• Ask them to group their needs into general issues
such as water, health, land and food.
• Once the needs have been grouped, community
members can decide which of the issues should be
given priority.
• Write all of the issues onto separate pieces of
paper and place them in order in a line from the
most important to the least important until all
agree.
Capacity Assessment
• Communities should be encouraged to use their
own capacities and resources to address the
problems they face.
• It is therefore important to carry out a capacity
assessment after needs assessment to identify
strengths that the community could use to address
the problems they identified earlier.
• The project, if needed, should focus on
strengthening the community’s capacities to
address their problems.
• By doing this, we are facilitating the community
to address their problems rather than addressing
their problems for them.
• Capacity assessment involves six types of
assets:
• HUMAN: These enable people to make use of
their other resources. They include skills,
knowledge, ability to work and good health.
• SOCIAL These are based on relationships and
include organizations and groups within the
community, political structures and informal
networks.
• NATURAL These form the local environment
and include land, trees, water, air, climate and
minerals.
Cont…
• PHYSICAL These are man-made, such as
building, transport, water supply and sanitation
services, energy sources and telecommunications.
• ECONOMIC: These are things that people can
use to sustain their livelihoods, such as money
and savings, grain stores, livestock, tools and
equipment.
• SPIRITUAL: These include faith, scripture,
guidance and prayer.
• Using participatory techniques, such as those used
for the needs assessment, ask community
members to identify their capacities.
Concept Note:
• Once a need has been identified which a project
can address, write a concept note.
• A concept note outlines the project idea. It does
not have to contain a lot of detail and may only be
about two pages in length.
• The reason for writing a concept note before a full
proposal is so that our organization’s leadership
or a donor can gain an idea of what we hope to
do.
• They can ensure it fits with strategy, check its
relevance and quality and give feedback before a
lot of time, effort and resources are spent planning
the project.
Cont…
In short concept note includes;
• Background information
• Why the project is necessary
• Who will benefit from the project
• How they will benefit
• an estimate of both the total budget and
the resources needed for design.
Project Design
• Once a priority community need has been identified,
we can start to think about how it can be addressed.
• Project design consists of;
stakeholder analysis,
research,
problem analysis,
log frame,
risk analysis,
action planning, and
budgeting.
Note that the analyses – stakeholder, problem and risk –
can be carried out before the design stage. Stakeholder
and risk analyses should be carried out on a regular
basis throughout the project cycle.
Stakeholder analysis
• Stakeholder analysis is a useful tool for identifying
stakeholders and describing the nature of their stake,
roles and interests.
• Stakeholder analysis helps to:
 improve the project‘s understanding of the needs
of those affected by a problem.
 reveal how little we know as outsiders, which
encourages those who do know to participate
 identify potential winners and losers as a result of
the project.
 reduce, or hopefully remove, potential negative
project impacts identify those who have the rights,
interests, resources, skills and abilities to take part
in, or influence the course of, the project.
Cont…
 identify who should be encouraged to take part in the
project planning and implementation.
 identify useful alliances which can be built upon.
 identify and reduce risks which might involve
identifying possible conflicts of interest and
expectation among stakeholders so that conflict is
avoided.
 There are a number of ways of doing stakeholder
analysis.
Ideally, stakeholder analysis should be carried out
with representatives of stakeholder groups as
possible.
Stakeholder table
Cont…
Stakeholders Interests Likely impact of the Project
(+/-)
Priority (1, 2, 3…)
Primary
Secondary
cont…
 Stakeholders‘ are:
people affected by the impact of an activity
people who can influence the impact of an
activity.
Stakeholders can be individuals,
groups, a community or an
institution.
Stakeholder groups are made up of people who
share a common interest, such as an NGO,
church leaders and the community.
Cont..
• Stakeholders can be divided into two main
types:
• Primary Stakeholders: who benefit
from, or are adversely affected by, an
activity.
• Primary stakeholders are usually vulnerable.
They are the reason why a project is carried
out – the end users.
• Secondary Stakeholders: include all
other people and institutions with an
interest in the resources or area being
considered.
Cont…
• If stakeholders are not identified at the
project planning stage, the project is at risk
of failure.
• This is because the project cannot take into
account the needs and aims of those who
will come into contact with it.
• Stakeholders include the winners and the losers
as a result of the project. While most
stakeholders will benefit from the project, there
may be others who will be negatively affected by
the action taken.
Cont…
• Conducting stakeholders‘ analysis at the
beginning of the project design is important to
gain an understanding of which organizations or
groups of people;
– have an interest in the issues,
– what that interest is,
– who shares the same goals you have,
– who can help the project and how,
– who can have a negative influence and be a barrier
for the project, and
• Stakeholders may change over the course of the
project and an updated stakeholders‘ analysis can
be required at a later stage of the project
implementation.
Cont…
1. Interest:Refers to the stakeholder‘s interest in the
project.
If the stakeholder is directly involved in activities
related to program or project activities, then its interest is
primary, if not then its interest is secondary.
2. Level of knowledge: Indicates the stakeholders‘
knowledge about the field and issues.
 Stakeholders who are internal to the system will be
more knowledgeable about the field.
3. Resources available: Identifies specific resources
held by or accessible to the stakeholder, such as human
capital, time, financial and legal resources, technology
and general information.
4. Resource mobilization capacity: Estimates how
easily groups can mobilize resources in pursuit of the
project‘s objectives.
Cont…
5. Proponent/opponent: Refers to a stakeholder that
supports the project‘s mission and can help to fulfill
its objectives. An opponent is a stakeholder that does
not support the project‘s goal and may hinder its
success.
• A project team should define stakeholders as
opponents or proponents based on their best
knowledge and research of the stakeholders.
6. Influence/Authority: Defines the level of authority
that the given stakeholder has to implement change
and make final decisions in the RH sector or for the
project.
7. Priority: Indicates the level of concern that the given
stakeholder holds for the project.
Research
All development work should be based on accurate,
reliable and sufficient information. Good
information is important in order to:
understand the context in which the project is
taking place
understand the causes and effects of the issue that
is being addressed
understand what others are doing in order to avoid
duplication and to work together if appropriate
ensure that the response takes into account all
factors and is the most appropriate and effective
for the situation
Cont…
understand how the context is changing
so the response can address potential
future needs or prevent problems from
arising
justify the course of action to our
organization, beneficiaries, donors and
others we are working with
learn from past successes and mistakes
provide good evidence for the response.
Cont…
Research enables us to find out the facts about
the need. This will help us to know how best
to address it.
Research involves talking to people or
accessing written information.
Thorough research we should look at social,
technical, economic, environmental and
political factors.
This might help to identify new stakeholders
and risks to the project.
Cont…
Consider:
the area’s history
geography, climate, environment, e.g. main
features, map, communication, area, seasonal
problems
population – numbers, age and sex profile
social systems and structures – religious divisions,
status of women, social institutions
religion and world view – religious beliefs, groups
and churches
politics – local political hierarchies; effects of
central government, e.g. stability, policies.
Cont…
 culture – norms and practices, other cultural groups in
the area, languages
 living conditions – types of housing, water and
sanitation
 economics – sources of income, crops, landholding,
average daily wage
 education – schools, literacy rates
 health – mortality rates, causes of death and illness,
local health services
 services and development programmes
Generally, The information collected can be used as a
baseline .
 Use a mixture of secondary and primary information to
ensure that what we are told is valid
Problem Analysis
• Problem analysis helps primary stakeholders to
identify the causes and effects of the problems
they face.
• It involves drawing a problem tree, from which
project objectives can be identified.
• Use the stakeholder analysis to identify those who
should help to construct the problem tree, making
sure there is a mix of people from the community
with local knowledge, technical knowledge and so
on.
• Problem analysis can be carried out with different
stakeholder groups in order to see how their
perspectives vary.
Cont…
• To help stakeholders think through all the
causes and effects, check that they have
considered social, environmental, political,
economic and technical factors.
• The problem tree should help to reinforce our
findings during the research phase of the
planning.
• It might also raise new issues that we had not
previously considered.
Cont…
• After the needs assessment is completed, the
collected information is analyzed and
interpreted to determine causes and
consequences of identified problems and link
them in a cause-effect relationship.
• The better the problem is understood, the
better a project can be designed to address it.
• A problem analysis technique is used to
interpret the data and identify causes and
effects.
The concept problem, causes and consequences
• A problem is a specific negative situation related
to a person or group‘s well-being.
• Causes are factors that exist in the households,
community, organizations, and countries that
have initiated or perpetuated the problem.
• There are two levels of causes: underlying
causes and root-causes.
– Underlying causes are those that are most visible and
recalled first in the process of problem analysis.
– Root-causes are identified by analyzing the problem
to its core.
• Consequences are social, environmental, political
or economic conditions that result from the
problem.
Cont..
• One way to think about logical steps in
identifying causes of a problem is to ask the
question why?
• In answering this question, a project design
team will be moving down the logical
structure towards the underlying cause.
• Most likely there will be more than one
underlying cause.
• When there is point at which it is difficult to find
new answers, it means that most of the
underlying and root causes have been identified
and it is time to begin designing the project.
Problem Tree
• PROBLEM TREES analyze a situation and
identify a core problem that you want to focus on.
• The tree has a stem that represents the core
problem, roots that represent the causes of the
problem, and branches that represent the effects.
• STEP 1: Agree on the main problem, usually the
one identified during project identification.
• STEP 2: Identify the causes of the main problem
by asking ‘But why?‘ until we can go no further.
• Some problems might have more than one cause.
Developing a problem tree (CAUSES)
But why? But why?
But why? But why? But why?
Lack of income
Nothing
to sell
Local
Factory
closed
Poor yields
Few jobs
Immigration
Cont…
• STEP 3: Identify the effects of the main problem by asking ‘So
what?‘ until we can go no further.
Developing a problem tree (effects)
So what? So what?
So what? So what?
Crop yields
decrease
Children miss
school
No money to buy
new seeds
Lack of
income
No money to
pay school
fees
Cont…
Problem Tree
Causes
Effects
Negative Statements
Objectives Tree
• To formulate an effective project strategic
objective/long-term outcome, a project
design team should use the SMART
approach.
• The most common explanation of SMART is
– specific,
– measurable,
– achievable,
– relevant and
– time-bound.
Cont….
To formulate a SMART objective or outcome, consider
the questions listed below.
• Specific: What exactly is the project going to do,
where, with or for whom?
• Measurable: Are the stated results measurable? Does
the organization have the capacity to measure them?
• Achievable: Can we get it done in the timeframe? In
this political climate? With this amount of money and
resources?
• Relevant: Is the objective/outcome important to
achieving the desired result? Is it in line with the
organizational strategy?
• Time-bound: When will this objective/outcome be
accomplished?
Cont…
SMART Means:
• Specific — to avoid differing
interpretations
• Measurable — to monitor and evaluate
progress
• Achievable — to have realistic targets
• Relevant — to lead to desired results
• Time-bound — to have a specific time
period to achieve the results.
Objectives Tree
• An objectives tree is similar to a problem tree,
except that it looks at objectives rather than
problems.
• The easiest way to develop an objectives tree
is to convert a problem tree.
• To do this, turn each of the causes in the
problem tree into positive statements. For
example, ‘poor yields’ would become ‘yields
increased’.
Cont…
Means
Ends
Objective Tree
Positive Statements
Cont…
Problem tree andObjective Tree
75
Problem Tree Objective Tree
Relationship:
Causes-Effects Negative
statements
are
rewritten
into
positive
statements
Relationship: Means-
Ends
Branches: Effects Ends: Objectives
Trunk: Main
problem
Trunk:
Purpose/Objective/Out
come
Roots: Causes Means: Objectives
Logical Framework
• Now that the project has been identified
and detailed information has been
collected, we can start to plan exactly
how the project will function.
• A useful way of doing this may be to use
a logical framework (log frame).
• The process of completing the log frame
helps to think through all the factors that
should be considered for planning a
successful project.
Cont…
• The log frame is a tool used to help strengthen project design,
implementation and evaluation.
• Although it is constructed during the planning stage of a project,
the log frame is a living document, which should be
consulted/checked and altered throughout the project‘s life cycle.
• The log frame is a table of four rows and four columns, where
all the key parts of a project can be inserted as a clear set of
statements:
– the project goal,
– purpose,
– outputs and
– activities, with their
• indicators,
• evidence and
• assumptions.
Logical Framework Table
Intervention logic
(Summary)
Indicators
(How to
measure
change)
Verification
/Evidences
(where and
how to get
information)
Assumptions (What
else to be aware of) or
risks (which could
affect the project
implementation).
Goal (the higher order
objective, the longer term
impact, that the project will
contribute to).
Purpose:(specific and
immediate results of the
project.
Outputs (what the project
will deliver in order to achieve
the Purpose)
Activities:
(The activities that have to be
undertaken by project)
Cont..
Terminology
• Goal: refers to the overall problem we are
trying to address. It is sometimes referred to as
the wider development objective.
• Purpose: is the specific change that we want
the project to make to contribute to the
achievement of the goal. It is sometimes called
the Immediate Project Objective
• Outputs: are what we want to see as a result of
our activities, in order to fulfill the purpose.
• Activities: describe the tasks we will carry out.
Cont…
• Indicators answer the question ‗How do we know when we
have got there?‘
– They are signs which measure project performance against
objectives and play an important part in monitoring and
evaluation.
• Evidence refers to the source of the information needed to
measure performance, who will be responsible for collecting
it, and how often.
• Assumptions; refer to the conditions that could affect
progress, success or long-term sustainability of the project.
– There may be external factors which cannot be controlled
or which we choose not to control.
– It may be possible to reduce the project‘s vulnerability to
factors which cannot be controlled.
– These could include climatic change, price changes and
government policies.
The ‘If-Then’ test
• When we have filled in the objectives for each
level, we must make sure the statements are
logically linked to each other. To do this, use the
‘If-Then’ test:
For example:
• If we train members of the community to
maintain and repair handpumps (activities), then
sources of safe water will be improved (output).
• If sources of safe water are improved (output),
then access to safe water will be improved
(purpose).
• If access to safe water is improved (purpose),
then the incidence and impact of diarrhoeal
disease will decrease (goal).
Cont...
Log frames are useful because they:
help people to organise their thinking
help people to think logically
help identify weaknesses in project design
ensure key indicators are identified from the start
of the project so that monitoring and evaluation are
easier
ensure that people involved in the project use the
same terminology
help people to summarise a project plan on a few
sides of paper.
Action planning
• Once the log frame has been developed, think about
the details of how the project will take shape in terms
of timing, resources, budgeting and personnel.
• Like the log frame, the action plan should be viewed
as a flexible document in which changes can be made
later.
• The activity planning worksheet is used to help us
consider:
A. who will do what
B. when this will happen
C. what types of inputs, besides people, will be
needed.
Cont.…
• A separate sheet should be used for each
output.
• The activities related to the output are set out,
together with the resources needed, the total
cost of these and the name of the person or
people who will be responsible for that
activity.
Activity schedule
• The activity schedule enables us to consider
when our activities will happen and for how
long.
• This will help us to think about when would be
appropriate to carry out the different activities.
• Timing will depend on things such as:
–■ seasonal weather patterns
–■ availability of trainers
–■ availability of materials.
Cont.…
• The activity schedule helps us to look at
the sequencing of activities because some
activities will depend on others being
completed first.
• The activity schedule should be viewed
as a flexible document and can be altered
if new circumstances arise.
• Put the initials of the member of the team
who is responsible for the activity.
Budgets
• Whether we are seeking donor funding or using
funds we already have, it is important to write a
budget for the project.
• A budget is necessary for transparent financial
management.
• The donor needs to see a budget before approving
the funds.
• This means that we must budget very carefully.
• If we do not consider all the things we will need
to spend money on, we will unable to carry out
some of the activities, and the project may fail.
• If we budget too much for some things, the donor
may question it and be unwilling to fund the
project.
Detailed budget
• A detailed budget is usually for internal use
only. Donors require only a summary.
• However, a detailed budget is useful for:
– Good Financial Management and
Accountability: It shows that we are not spending
money unnecessarily.
– Monitoring our Activities: We will know if we
have completed each activity if the money has
been spent.
– Learning: By keeping a record of our budget (and
later, what we actually spend), we will know what
is realistic for future projects.
Project Budget
• Donors will require a completed project
budget. This is a summary of the detailed
budget.
• Often donors will say what categories to
include in the project budget.
• All of the costs in the detailed budget should
now have been included in the project budget.
• Project budget may be running costs
(Staff/salaries, administration, activity,
transport, staff training) and capital costs
(Vehicles/project equipment, office
equipment).
Project Implementation and Evaluation
• During the implementation phase, there are
things we must do;
1. Update the stakeholder analysis to check that
there are no new stakeholders who might
influence project success or who should be invited
to participate.
• Also, the circumstances of stakeholders identified
at the beginning of the project may change.
• For example, some might have been pushed
further into poverty and we might want to include
them as primary beneficiaries.
• On the other hand, some secondary stakeholders
might change their viewpoint and become a threat
to the project.
Cont.…
2. Reassess the risks to the project.
3. Monitor and review the progress the
project is making towards its objectives.
4. learning from monitoring and reviewing
back into the project design.
5. Go back to the log frame and make
adjustments or improvements where
appropriate.
Cont.…
• Why should we do monitoring, reviewing and
evaluation?
• There are two main reasons for measuring our
performance:
• Accountability: We need to show those who give
us resources and those who benefit from our work
that we are using the resources wisely.
• Lesson Learning: By measuring, analyzing and
reflecting on our performance, we can learn
lessons that will enable us to either change our
project plans or change our approach to other
projects.
Cont…
To measure performance, we need to address:
• Relevance: Does the project address needs?
• Efficiency: Are we using the available
resources wisely?
• Effectiveness; Are the desired outputs being
achieved?
• Impact: Has the wider goal been achieved?
What changes have occurred that help
beneficiaries?
• Sustainability: Will the impact be
sustainable?
Cont..
The difference between monitoring, reviewing
and evaluation;
• Many people think of monitoring, reviewing
and evaluation as the same thing, but they are
different.
• The main difference is that they are carried out
at different stages of the project:
• Monitoring: is done continuously to make
sure the project is on track, for example, every
month.
Cont.…
• Reviewing: is done occasionally to see whether
each level of objectives leads to the next one and
whether any changes need to be made to the
project plans, for example, every six months.
• Evaluation: is usually done at the end of the
project to assess its impact.
• Where possible, primary stakeholders should
take part in monitoring, reviewing and evaluation.
• This is to ensure that they have strong ownership
of the project so that benefits are achieved and
sustained.
Celebrating success and Lesson Learning
• When the project is completed, it is worth
considering how to celebrate its success.
• Give stakeholders and project staff an opportunity
to look back and compare what things are like
now with what they were like before.
• Celebration is a way of recognizing all that people
have contributed to the project.
• Hopefully, beneficiaries will have been
empowered by participating in the project from
start to finish.
• Holding a celebration can inspire them to take on
further community development projects in the
future.
Cont…
• For example: If a building was constructed as
part of the project, consider inviting all the
stakeholders and others to a formal opening
ceremony.
• Lesson Learning: It is important to reflect on
problems and learn from them in order to
improve projects in the future.
• It is also important to share our learning with
others, such as the community, local
authorities, donors and other agencies.
• The way to share learning will vary, depending
on whom it is being shared with.
Cont..
• For example:
–hold a meeting to share learning with
the community
–write a newspaper article to share
learning with people in the local area
–write a case study of the project for a
newsletter to share learning with other
agencies
–present a paper at a conference.
Project Design and Management

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Project Design and Management

  • 1. Project Design and Management By Kebede Lemu B. May, 2021
  • 2. What is Project? • A project is a temporary process, which has a clearly defined start and end time, a set of tasks, and a budget, that is developed to accomplish a well-defined goal or objective. • A project is a group of inter-related activities, constrained by time, cost, and scope, designed to deliver a unique purpose.
  • 3. Cont.… • An undertaking that encompasses a set of tasks or activities having a definable starting point and well defined objectives. • Usually each task has a planned completion data (due date) and assigned resources. • A clear set of activities with related inputs and outputs aimed to achieve objectives and goals linked to anticipated (desired) effects and impacts in a target population (sometimes called ―beneficiaries).
  • 4. Cont.….  According to all these definitions,  A project has a beginning and an end.  A project has limited resources.  A project follows a planned, organized method to meet its objectives with specific goals of quality and performance.  Every project is unique  A project has a manager responsible for its outcomes.
  • 5. Project Plan • A project plan is a formal, approved document that is used to manage and control a project. • Project planning defines the project activities and end products that will be performed and describes how the activities will be accomplished. • The purpose of project planning is to define each major task, estimate the time and resources required, and provide a framework for management review and control.
  • 6. Cont.… The project planning activities and goals include defining: The specific work to be performed and goals that define and bind the project. Estimates to be documented for planning, tracking, and controlling the project. Commitments that are planned, documented, and agreed to by affected groups. Project alternatives, assumptions, and constraints.
  • 7. The planning process consists of the following basic tasks: estimate the size of the project, identify and assess risks, and negotiate commitments Define the technical approach used to solve the problem. Define and sequence the tasks to be performed and identify all deliverables associated with the project. Define the dependency relations between tasks. Estimate the resources required to perform each task. Schedule all tasks to be performed. Define a budget for performing the tasks. Define the organization used to execute the project. Identify the known risks in executing the project. Define the process used for ensuring quality. Define the process used for specifying and controlling requirements
  • 8. Cont… • There is a phrase ‘If you fail to plan, you plan to fail.’ • Think of examples of when things have gone wrong because planning was not carried out adequately. • Why did things go wrong? What was not taken account of? • Planning helps to: – Think ahead and prepare for the future – ensure the right direction – identify issues that will need to be addressed – consider whether a project is possible
  • 9. Cont… • make the best use of resources • motivate staff • ensure smooth running of projects • clarify goals and develop vision • establish the reason for doing something • obtain funds and other resources • allocate resources and responsibilities • guide implementation of projects • achieve the best results.
  • 10. Cont.… • There are many barriers to planning. These include:  Lack of time, or not making time to plan  Not knowing how to plan  Difficulty in getting the right people together  Finding it difficult to plan because the future is so uncertain  Wanting to do things immediately because the need is urgent, rather than think about them.
  • 11. Project Management Project Management is the process of achieving project objectives (schedule, budget and performance) through a set of activities that start and end at certain points in time and produce quantifiable and qualifiable deliverables. Project Management is a set of principles, methods and techniques for effective planning of objective-oriented work, thereby establishing a sound basis for effective scheduling, controlling and re-planning in the management of projects.
  • 12. Cont.… • Project management is the process of combining systems, techniques, and knowledge to complete a project within established goals of time, budget and scope. • Project management is a process of leading a team of capable people in planning and implementing a series of related activities that need to be accomplished on a specific date with a limited budget.
  • 13. Cont… • Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholders‘ needs and expectations. • Successful project management is the art of bringing together the tasks, resources and people necessary to accomplish the business goals and objectives within the specified time constraints and within the monetary allowance.
  • 14. Cont.… • The project management tools and principles provide the means for; –project breakdown into tasks and sub-tasks –finding interdependencies between the tasks –allocating resources, human and material and smoothing resources –estimation for total project duration and budget –monitoring more efficiently project progress
  • 15. Key steps of Project Management Assessing Needs Planning the Project Learning from the Project and evolving Implementing and Monitoring the Project Evaluating the Project
  • 16. Project Management Knowledge Areas • Project Integration Management: Ensures that the project is properly planned, executed, and controlled. • Project Scope Management Includes authorizing the job, developing a scope statement that will define the boundaries of the project, subdividing the work into manageable components with deliverables. • Project Time Management Specifically refers to developing a schedule that can be met, then controlling work to ensure that this happens! • Project Cost Management Involves estimating the cost of resources, including people, equipment, materials, and such things as travel and others. • Project Quality Management Includes both quality assurance (planning to meet quality requirements) and quality control (steps taken to monitor results to see if they conform to requirements).
  • 17. Cont • Project Human Resources Management Involves identifying the people needed to do the job; defining their roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships; and then managing them. • Project Communications Management Involves planning, executing, and controlling the acquisition and dissemination of all information relevant to the needs of all project stakeholders. This information might include project status, accomplishments, and events that may affect other stakeholders or projects. • Project Risk Management Is the systematic process of identifying, quantifying, analyzing, and responding to project risk. • Project Procurement Management Procurement of necessary goods and services for the project is the logistics aspect of managing a job. This include issuing requests for bids, selecting vendors, administering contracts.
  • 18. Cont… Project Management Knowledge Areas Functions • The four core knowledge areas (scope, time, cost, and quality) lead to specific project objectives. • The four facilitating knowledge areas (human resources, communication, risk, and procurement management) are the means through which the project objectives are achieved. • The one knowledge area (project integration management) affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas.
  • 19. Project Manager • The project manager is responsible for managing the project‘s scope, schedule, and cost to support the owner‘s expectations for the successful completion of the project. • Typical duties include; I. Monitoring schedule and costs versus project progress to identify problems that could potentially extend the schedule or overrun costs. II. Taking, directing, or recommending corrective action when scope, schedule, or cost variances threaten the project.
  • 20. Cont.… A project manager must have a range of skills including: Leadership Influencing Negotiation Conflict Management Planning Contract management Estimating Problem solving Creative thinking Time Management Effective Communication (verbal and written)
  • 21. Cont.…. • Project Owner/Sponsor: The project owner or sponsor should be a director or higher-level member of the department who is the largest stakeholder in the project or who will receive the greatest benefit by the project‘s successful completion. • The owner assumes the overall responsibility for the entire project. • The project owner will appoint a project manager to manage and control the project.
  • 22. Cont.… • The project owner is responsible for the following: – Maintaining enough involvement with the project to ensure that the desired outcome is attained. – Granting a sufficient level of authority to the project manager required for the project‘s success. – Providing or negotiating support when the project manager is unable to resolve problems at a lower level. – Providing ongoing performance feedback to the project manager as well as providing input to the project manager‘s performance review.
  • 23.
  • 24. Cont… • Identification: To identify what a project will focus on, we need to find out who should benefit and what their needs are. A needs assessment‖ will give an overview of community problems. A capacity assessment‖ will help identify which problem the project should address. • Design: This involves carrying out further research into the people affected by a problem and how they are affected by it. We also need to consider the risks to the project and how we will measure the project‘s performance. • Implementation: During the implementation, it is important to monitor and review the progress of the project and any outside changes that affect it. The project plans should be adjusted where necessary.
  • 25. Cont… • Evaluation: Evaluation should be carried out at or after project completion. Evaluation could be carried out a few months or years after the project has finished in order to assess its long- term impact and sustainability • Lesson Learning: While the project cycle is a useful way of outlining the stages of a project, it has one drawback: it makes it look as though one tool follows another. • In fact, many of the planning tools can be used at any stage of the project. They should be repeated throughout the project‘s life to ensure that any changes that might affect project.
  • 26. Cont.… • Basically, the purpose of project management is to integrate; – Purpose – People and – Processes • A Project manager‘s job is to see that the project team (People) is clear about the purpose of the project, If everyone is clear on the purpose and vision of the project, then the next important task of a project manager is to make sure that everyone on the project team is working toward these goals (process).
  • 27. Need Assessment • The first step in the project cycle is to identify an issue that a project could address. This usually involves a ‘needs assessment’ which finds out what community needs are. • A needs assessment is a method of finding out the nature and extent of problems and how they can be solved. • In general, a needs assessment is a systematic approach to identifying social problems, determining their extent, and accurately defining the target population to be served and the nature of their needs.
  • 28. Cont… • We might already have a good idea of local needs. • They might be quite obvious, or we might have become aware of them during a past project. • On the other hand, we might have no idea what a community’s needs are. • It is important to carry out a needs assessment before planning development work, whether we think we know what the needs are or not.
  • 29. Cont.… • The project should come out of what people say they want and not from assumptions that we make. • Sometimes the needs are not immediately clear or cannot be easily understood. • By talking to different people, we will be able to understand how problems affect people differently. • Make sure that the people we talk to include women, men, girls, boys, the elderly, people with disabilities etc. • For example, poor access to clean water may affect women more than men because women have to walk a long way to fetch water.
  • 30. Cont.… • Circumstances change: – There may be new people in the community. – There may be new needs. – Old needs might have been addressed. – Problems might be affecting people differently. • Needs assessment gives people an opportunity to prioritize their needs, which leads to a more sustainable development project.
  • 31. Why Conduct a Needs Assessment? The main aims of a needs assessment could be: • To assess the extent and causes of community social problems • To identify the major beneficiaries and target populations of a project • To prioritize problems based on their significance in the community • To assess the capacities of the community in the project • Identification of a solution for a complex problem or issue.
  • 32. Cont… The needs assessments is a systematic process including several subsequent processes: • Collecting data by means of clearly defined methods and instruments (questionnaires, interviews, focus- groups, document research etc.) • Identifying priorities and establishing criteria for finding a solution to a problem; • Preparing a project plan based on their priorities When conducting needs assessment, we need to collect information on: • Population, health, infrastructure, • social and economic issues, resources, • education and knowledge
  • 33. Cont.… There are many tools that enable communities to identify their needs (How?) 1. Listening: By listening for the issues about which people have the strongest feelings, it is possible to identify the issues that they most want addressed and projects which they are most likely to participate in. • A team of people (development workers or village members) ask a community or group questions to find out what people are worried, sad, happy, fearful, hopeful or angry about. • The questions should be open-ended.
  • 34. Cont… 2. Interviewing: This tool helps us to gain greater understanding of the issues. • It involves talking to key people in the community (those who are seen as the heart of the community) in order to discuss their knowledge, experience and understanding of the issues. • Key people include health workers, traders, religious leaders, village chiefs, pastors and teachers. • When choosing people to interview, make sure their views and opinions are likely to represent those of others in the community.
  • 35. Cont… • Take care not only to interview the powerful, but also to interview those whose views are not usually heard. • Use open-ended questions such as: –What are the main problems you face in your area of work? –What are the main pressures that people in the community face? –What simple things could be done to improve the situation?
  • 36. Cont.… 3. Focus Groups: This tool is used with a group of 10 –20 people. • It helps them to understand and voice some of the problems they face and the needs they have. • A focus group enables people with different views to discuss their differences, challenge assumptions and come to a collective understanding of the needs of the community.
  • 37. Cont… • Questions to stimulate discussion could include the following: –What are the main pressures that people in the community are facing? –What simple things could be done to improve the situation? –If you could change one thing in this community, what would it be? Why?
  • 38. Cont.. Through the assessment, the following is achieved: • Identification of structural and root causes of a problem • Understanding of the situation in its geographic and cultural context • Identification of opportunities, vulnerabilities, capacities, resources
  • 39. Agreeing Priority Needs • Once the needs have been identified, community members should be given the opportunity to say which needs they feel are a priority. • Ask them to group their needs into general issues such as water, health, land and food. • Once the needs have been grouped, community members can decide which of the issues should be given priority. • Write all of the issues onto separate pieces of paper and place them in order in a line from the most important to the least important until all agree.
  • 40. Capacity Assessment • Communities should be encouraged to use their own capacities and resources to address the problems they face. • It is therefore important to carry out a capacity assessment after needs assessment to identify strengths that the community could use to address the problems they identified earlier. • The project, if needed, should focus on strengthening the community’s capacities to address their problems. • By doing this, we are facilitating the community to address their problems rather than addressing their problems for them.
  • 41. • Capacity assessment involves six types of assets: • HUMAN: These enable people to make use of their other resources. They include skills, knowledge, ability to work and good health. • SOCIAL These are based on relationships and include organizations and groups within the community, political structures and informal networks. • NATURAL These form the local environment and include land, trees, water, air, climate and minerals.
  • 42. Cont… • PHYSICAL These are man-made, such as building, transport, water supply and sanitation services, energy sources and telecommunications. • ECONOMIC: These are things that people can use to sustain their livelihoods, such as money and savings, grain stores, livestock, tools and equipment. • SPIRITUAL: These include faith, scripture, guidance and prayer. • Using participatory techniques, such as those used for the needs assessment, ask community members to identify their capacities.
  • 43. Concept Note: • Once a need has been identified which a project can address, write a concept note. • A concept note outlines the project idea. It does not have to contain a lot of detail and may only be about two pages in length. • The reason for writing a concept note before a full proposal is so that our organization’s leadership or a donor can gain an idea of what we hope to do. • They can ensure it fits with strategy, check its relevance and quality and give feedback before a lot of time, effort and resources are spent planning the project.
  • 44. Cont… In short concept note includes; • Background information • Why the project is necessary • Who will benefit from the project • How they will benefit • an estimate of both the total budget and the resources needed for design.
  • 45. Project Design • Once a priority community need has been identified, we can start to think about how it can be addressed. • Project design consists of; stakeholder analysis, research, problem analysis, log frame, risk analysis, action planning, and budgeting. Note that the analyses – stakeholder, problem and risk – can be carried out before the design stage. Stakeholder and risk analyses should be carried out on a regular basis throughout the project cycle.
  • 46. Stakeholder analysis • Stakeholder analysis is a useful tool for identifying stakeholders and describing the nature of their stake, roles and interests. • Stakeholder analysis helps to:  improve the project‘s understanding of the needs of those affected by a problem.  reveal how little we know as outsiders, which encourages those who do know to participate  identify potential winners and losers as a result of the project.  reduce, or hopefully remove, potential negative project impacts identify those who have the rights, interests, resources, skills and abilities to take part in, or influence the course of, the project.
  • 47. Cont…  identify who should be encouraged to take part in the project planning and implementation.  identify useful alliances which can be built upon.  identify and reduce risks which might involve identifying possible conflicts of interest and expectation among stakeholders so that conflict is avoided.  There are a number of ways of doing stakeholder analysis. Ideally, stakeholder analysis should be carried out with representatives of stakeholder groups as possible. Stakeholder table
  • 48. Cont… Stakeholders Interests Likely impact of the Project (+/-) Priority (1, 2, 3…) Primary Secondary
  • 49. cont…  Stakeholders‘ are: people affected by the impact of an activity people who can influence the impact of an activity. Stakeholders can be individuals, groups, a community or an institution. Stakeholder groups are made up of people who share a common interest, such as an NGO, church leaders and the community.
  • 50. Cont.. • Stakeholders can be divided into two main types: • Primary Stakeholders: who benefit from, or are adversely affected by, an activity. • Primary stakeholders are usually vulnerable. They are the reason why a project is carried out – the end users. • Secondary Stakeholders: include all other people and institutions with an interest in the resources or area being considered.
  • 51. Cont… • If stakeholders are not identified at the project planning stage, the project is at risk of failure. • This is because the project cannot take into account the needs and aims of those who will come into contact with it. • Stakeholders include the winners and the losers as a result of the project. While most stakeholders will benefit from the project, there may be others who will be negatively affected by the action taken.
  • 52. Cont… • Conducting stakeholders‘ analysis at the beginning of the project design is important to gain an understanding of which organizations or groups of people; – have an interest in the issues, – what that interest is, – who shares the same goals you have, – who can help the project and how, – who can have a negative influence and be a barrier for the project, and • Stakeholders may change over the course of the project and an updated stakeholders‘ analysis can be required at a later stage of the project implementation.
  • 53. Cont… 1. Interest:Refers to the stakeholder‘s interest in the project. If the stakeholder is directly involved in activities related to program or project activities, then its interest is primary, if not then its interest is secondary. 2. Level of knowledge: Indicates the stakeholders‘ knowledge about the field and issues.  Stakeholders who are internal to the system will be more knowledgeable about the field. 3. Resources available: Identifies specific resources held by or accessible to the stakeholder, such as human capital, time, financial and legal resources, technology and general information. 4. Resource mobilization capacity: Estimates how easily groups can mobilize resources in pursuit of the project‘s objectives.
  • 54. Cont… 5. Proponent/opponent: Refers to a stakeholder that supports the project‘s mission and can help to fulfill its objectives. An opponent is a stakeholder that does not support the project‘s goal and may hinder its success. • A project team should define stakeholders as opponents or proponents based on their best knowledge and research of the stakeholders. 6. Influence/Authority: Defines the level of authority that the given stakeholder has to implement change and make final decisions in the RH sector or for the project. 7. Priority: Indicates the level of concern that the given stakeholder holds for the project.
  • 55. Research All development work should be based on accurate, reliable and sufficient information. Good information is important in order to: understand the context in which the project is taking place understand the causes and effects of the issue that is being addressed understand what others are doing in order to avoid duplication and to work together if appropriate ensure that the response takes into account all factors and is the most appropriate and effective for the situation
  • 56. Cont… understand how the context is changing so the response can address potential future needs or prevent problems from arising justify the course of action to our organization, beneficiaries, donors and others we are working with learn from past successes and mistakes provide good evidence for the response.
  • 57. Cont… Research enables us to find out the facts about the need. This will help us to know how best to address it. Research involves talking to people or accessing written information. Thorough research we should look at social, technical, economic, environmental and political factors. This might help to identify new stakeholders and risks to the project.
  • 58. Cont… Consider: the area’s history geography, climate, environment, e.g. main features, map, communication, area, seasonal problems population – numbers, age and sex profile social systems and structures – religious divisions, status of women, social institutions religion and world view – religious beliefs, groups and churches politics – local political hierarchies; effects of central government, e.g. stability, policies.
  • 59. Cont…  culture – norms and practices, other cultural groups in the area, languages  living conditions – types of housing, water and sanitation  economics – sources of income, crops, landholding, average daily wage  education – schools, literacy rates  health – mortality rates, causes of death and illness, local health services  services and development programmes Generally, The information collected can be used as a baseline .  Use a mixture of secondary and primary information to ensure that what we are told is valid
  • 60. Problem Analysis • Problem analysis helps primary stakeholders to identify the causes and effects of the problems they face. • It involves drawing a problem tree, from which project objectives can be identified. • Use the stakeholder analysis to identify those who should help to construct the problem tree, making sure there is a mix of people from the community with local knowledge, technical knowledge and so on. • Problem analysis can be carried out with different stakeholder groups in order to see how their perspectives vary.
  • 61. Cont… • To help stakeholders think through all the causes and effects, check that they have considered social, environmental, political, economic and technical factors. • The problem tree should help to reinforce our findings during the research phase of the planning. • It might also raise new issues that we had not previously considered.
  • 62. Cont… • After the needs assessment is completed, the collected information is analyzed and interpreted to determine causes and consequences of identified problems and link them in a cause-effect relationship. • The better the problem is understood, the better a project can be designed to address it. • A problem analysis technique is used to interpret the data and identify causes and effects.
  • 63. The concept problem, causes and consequences • A problem is a specific negative situation related to a person or group‘s well-being. • Causes are factors that exist in the households, community, organizations, and countries that have initiated or perpetuated the problem. • There are two levels of causes: underlying causes and root-causes. – Underlying causes are those that are most visible and recalled first in the process of problem analysis. – Root-causes are identified by analyzing the problem to its core. • Consequences are social, environmental, political or economic conditions that result from the problem.
  • 64. Cont.. • One way to think about logical steps in identifying causes of a problem is to ask the question why? • In answering this question, a project design team will be moving down the logical structure towards the underlying cause. • Most likely there will be more than one underlying cause. • When there is point at which it is difficult to find new answers, it means that most of the underlying and root causes have been identified and it is time to begin designing the project.
  • 65. Problem Tree • PROBLEM TREES analyze a situation and identify a core problem that you want to focus on. • The tree has a stem that represents the core problem, roots that represent the causes of the problem, and branches that represent the effects. • STEP 1: Agree on the main problem, usually the one identified during project identification. • STEP 2: Identify the causes of the main problem by asking ‘But why?‘ until we can go no further. • Some problems might have more than one cause.
  • 66. Developing a problem tree (CAUSES) But why? But why? But why? But why? But why? Lack of income Nothing to sell Local Factory closed Poor yields Few jobs Immigration
  • 67. Cont… • STEP 3: Identify the effects of the main problem by asking ‘So what?‘ until we can go no further. Developing a problem tree (effects) So what? So what? So what? So what? Crop yields decrease Children miss school No money to buy new seeds Lack of income No money to pay school fees
  • 69. Objectives Tree • To formulate an effective project strategic objective/long-term outcome, a project design team should use the SMART approach. • The most common explanation of SMART is – specific, – measurable, – achievable, – relevant and – time-bound.
  • 70. Cont…. To formulate a SMART objective or outcome, consider the questions listed below. • Specific: What exactly is the project going to do, where, with or for whom? • Measurable: Are the stated results measurable? Does the organization have the capacity to measure them? • Achievable: Can we get it done in the timeframe? In this political climate? With this amount of money and resources? • Relevant: Is the objective/outcome important to achieving the desired result? Is it in line with the organizational strategy? • Time-bound: When will this objective/outcome be accomplished?
  • 71. Cont… SMART Means: • Specific — to avoid differing interpretations • Measurable — to monitor and evaluate progress • Achievable — to have realistic targets • Relevant — to lead to desired results • Time-bound — to have a specific time period to achieve the results.
  • 72. Objectives Tree • An objectives tree is similar to a problem tree, except that it looks at objectives rather than problems. • The easiest way to develop an objectives tree is to convert a problem tree. • To do this, turn each of the causes in the problem tree into positive statements. For example, ‘poor yields’ would become ‘yields increased’.
  • 75. Problem tree andObjective Tree 75 Problem Tree Objective Tree Relationship: Causes-Effects Negative statements are rewritten into positive statements Relationship: Means- Ends Branches: Effects Ends: Objectives Trunk: Main problem Trunk: Purpose/Objective/Out come Roots: Causes Means: Objectives
  • 76. Logical Framework • Now that the project has been identified and detailed information has been collected, we can start to plan exactly how the project will function. • A useful way of doing this may be to use a logical framework (log frame). • The process of completing the log frame helps to think through all the factors that should be considered for planning a successful project.
  • 77. Cont… • The log frame is a tool used to help strengthen project design, implementation and evaluation. • Although it is constructed during the planning stage of a project, the log frame is a living document, which should be consulted/checked and altered throughout the project‘s life cycle. • The log frame is a table of four rows and four columns, where all the key parts of a project can be inserted as a clear set of statements: – the project goal, – purpose, – outputs and – activities, with their • indicators, • evidence and • assumptions.
  • 78. Logical Framework Table Intervention logic (Summary) Indicators (How to measure change) Verification /Evidences (where and how to get information) Assumptions (What else to be aware of) or risks (which could affect the project implementation). Goal (the higher order objective, the longer term impact, that the project will contribute to). Purpose:(specific and immediate results of the project. Outputs (what the project will deliver in order to achieve the Purpose) Activities: (The activities that have to be undertaken by project)
  • 79. Cont.. Terminology • Goal: refers to the overall problem we are trying to address. It is sometimes referred to as the wider development objective. • Purpose: is the specific change that we want the project to make to contribute to the achievement of the goal. It is sometimes called the Immediate Project Objective • Outputs: are what we want to see as a result of our activities, in order to fulfill the purpose. • Activities: describe the tasks we will carry out.
  • 80. Cont… • Indicators answer the question ‗How do we know when we have got there?‘ – They are signs which measure project performance against objectives and play an important part in monitoring and evaluation. • Evidence refers to the source of the information needed to measure performance, who will be responsible for collecting it, and how often. • Assumptions; refer to the conditions that could affect progress, success or long-term sustainability of the project. – There may be external factors which cannot be controlled or which we choose not to control. – It may be possible to reduce the project‘s vulnerability to factors which cannot be controlled. – These could include climatic change, price changes and government policies.
  • 81. The ‘If-Then’ test • When we have filled in the objectives for each level, we must make sure the statements are logically linked to each other. To do this, use the ‘If-Then’ test: For example: • If we train members of the community to maintain and repair handpumps (activities), then sources of safe water will be improved (output). • If sources of safe water are improved (output), then access to safe water will be improved (purpose). • If access to safe water is improved (purpose), then the incidence and impact of diarrhoeal disease will decrease (goal).
  • 82. Cont... Log frames are useful because they: help people to organise their thinking help people to think logically help identify weaknesses in project design ensure key indicators are identified from the start of the project so that monitoring and evaluation are easier ensure that people involved in the project use the same terminology help people to summarise a project plan on a few sides of paper.
  • 83. Action planning • Once the log frame has been developed, think about the details of how the project will take shape in terms of timing, resources, budgeting and personnel. • Like the log frame, the action plan should be viewed as a flexible document in which changes can be made later. • The activity planning worksheet is used to help us consider: A. who will do what B. when this will happen C. what types of inputs, besides people, will be needed.
  • 84. Cont.… • A separate sheet should be used for each output. • The activities related to the output are set out, together with the resources needed, the total cost of these and the name of the person or people who will be responsible for that activity.
  • 85. Activity schedule • The activity schedule enables us to consider when our activities will happen and for how long. • This will help us to think about when would be appropriate to carry out the different activities. • Timing will depend on things such as: –■ seasonal weather patterns –■ availability of trainers –■ availability of materials.
  • 86. Cont.… • The activity schedule helps us to look at the sequencing of activities because some activities will depend on others being completed first. • The activity schedule should be viewed as a flexible document and can be altered if new circumstances arise. • Put the initials of the member of the team who is responsible for the activity.
  • 87. Budgets • Whether we are seeking donor funding or using funds we already have, it is important to write a budget for the project. • A budget is necessary for transparent financial management. • The donor needs to see a budget before approving the funds. • This means that we must budget very carefully. • If we do not consider all the things we will need to spend money on, we will unable to carry out some of the activities, and the project may fail. • If we budget too much for some things, the donor may question it and be unwilling to fund the project.
  • 88. Detailed budget • A detailed budget is usually for internal use only. Donors require only a summary. • However, a detailed budget is useful for: – Good Financial Management and Accountability: It shows that we are not spending money unnecessarily. – Monitoring our Activities: We will know if we have completed each activity if the money has been spent. – Learning: By keeping a record of our budget (and later, what we actually spend), we will know what is realistic for future projects.
  • 89. Project Budget • Donors will require a completed project budget. This is a summary of the detailed budget. • Often donors will say what categories to include in the project budget. • All of the costs in the detailed budget should now have been included in the project budget. • Project budget may be running costs (Staff/salaries, administration, activity, transport, staff training) and capital costs (Vehicles/project equipment, office equipment).
  • 90. Project Implementation and Evaluation • During the implementation phase, there are things we must do; 1. Update the stakeholder analysis to check that there are no new stakeholders who might influence project success or who should be invited to participate. • Also, the circumstances of stakeholders identified at the beginning of the project may change. • For example, some might have been pushed further into poverty and we might want to include them as primary beneficiaries. • On the other hand, some secondary stakeholders might change their viewpoint and become a threat to the project.
  • 91. Cont.… 2. Reassess the risks to the project. 3. Monitor and review the progress the project is making towards its objectives. 4. learning from monitoring and reviewing back into the project design. 5. Go back to the log frame and make adjustments or improvements where appropriate.
  • 92. Cont.… • Why should we do monitoring, reviewing and evaluation? • There are two main reasons for measuring our performance: • Accountability: We need to show those who give us resources and those who benefit from our work that we are using the resources wisely. • Lesson Learning: By measuring, analyzing and reflecting on our performance, we can learn lessons that will enable us to either change our project plans or change our approach to other projects.
  • 93. Cont… To measure performance, we need to address: • Relevance: Does the project address needs? • Efficiency: Are we using the available resources wisely? • Effectiveness; Are the desired outputs being achieved? • Impact: Has the wider goal been achieved? What changes have occurred that help beneficiaries? • Sustainability: Will the impact be sustainable?
  • 94. Cont.. The difference between monitoring, reviewing and evaluation; • Many people think of monitoring, reviewing and evaluation as the same thing, but they are different. • The main difference is that they are carried out at different stages of the project: • Monitoring: is done continuously to make sure the project is on track, for example, every month.
  • 95. Cont.… • Reviewing: is done occasionally to see whether each level of objectives leads to the next one and whether any changes need to be made to the project plans, for example, every six months. • Evaluation: is usually done at the end of the project to assess its impact. • Where possible, primary stakeholders should take part in monitoring, reviewing and evaluation. • This is to ensure that they have strong ownership of the project so that benefits are achieved and sustained.
  • 96. Celebrating success and Lesson Learning • When the project is completed, it is worth considering how to celebrate its success. • Give stakeholders and project staff an opportunity to look back and compare what things are like now with what they were like before. • Celebration is a way of recognizing all that people have contributed to the project. • Hopefully, beneficiaries will have been empowered by participating in the project from start to finish. • Holding a celebration can inspire them to take on further community development projects in the future.
  • 97. Cont… • For example: If a building was constructed as part of the project, consider inviting all the stakeholders and others to a formal opening ceremony. • Lesson Learning: It is important to reflect on problems and learn from them in order to improve projects in the future. • It is also important to share our learning with others, such as the community, local authorities, donors and other agencies. • The way to share learning will vary, depending on whom it is being shared with.
  • 98. Cont.. • For example: –hold a meeting to share learning with the community –write a newspaper article to share learning with people in the local area –write a case study of the project for a newsletter to share learning with other agencies –present a paper at a conference.