Land Resource Inventorization of Gujarat State: A Road Map

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Land Resource Inventory of Gujarat.Land is the basic unit of all agricultural production
It is a scarce and in-expansible resource
Soil and water are the most valuable natural resources
Basic needs of food, feed and fibre for human beings
To be used very judiciously to meet the needs of growing population
For sustained quality of human life
For the foundation of agricultural development

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Land Resource Inventorization of Gujarat State: A Road Map

  1. 1. Land Resource Inventorization of Gujarat State: A Road Map Dr. R P Sharma Scientist NBSS&LUP, Regional Centre, UDAIPUR
  2. 2. Task Force on Land and Soil Resources Constituted by Planning commission in Sept 1971  Task force submitted report in July 1972  TaskI-Small scale 1:1M soil map of India  TaskII- Inventory of soil & land use conditions and treatment needs  TaskIII- Detail soil surveys TaskIV-Land resource maps Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-3130012  TaskIV-Land resource maps  TaskV- Aerial photo interpretations, Research and trainings
  3. 3. Interim report of National commission on Agriculture-1976  Preparation of soil maps of India on 1:1M sacle within 10 years  All development programmes in agriculture to be dependent on scientific knowledge of basic soil resources  Great necessity for preparing scientific inventory of soil resources of the country to form a basis for crop Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-3130013 resources of the country to form a basis for crop planning, intensive agriculture and number of non-farm activities  The programme of soil survey should include hydrological and erodibility groupings of recognized soils
  4. 4. Chronology of soil maps developed Maps Scale Author year 1. Soils of India 1:1 million NBSS&LUP 2002 2. Soils of India 1:7 million Govindrajan 1971 3. Soils of Different States 1:250,000 Murthy and Pandey 1983 4.Vertisol (black soils) map of India 1:2 million Sehgal et al. 1987 Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-3130014 map of India 5. Soil Degradation map 1:4 million Sehgal et al. 1993 6.Agro-ecological region map 1:4 million Agro-ecological sub- region map 1:4 million Soil map on red and lateritic soils of India 1:4 million
  5. 5. Area & distribution of Soil groups in India TGA of India 329 m ha (304* m ha) No. of Topobases (1:250,000 scale) 394 No. of Satellite images 176 No. of field parties (NBSS&LUP and State agencies) 150 Soil Orders Area 000ha % of TGA Vertisols 27960 8.52 Aridisols 14060 4.28 Ultisols 8250 2.51 Mollisols 1320 0.40 Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-3130015 agencies) Man power 1500 Period 1986-1996 No. of sample strips (1 strip = 5000 ha) 1860 No. of profiles 75400 No. of soil samples 99250 No. of soil associations (subgroups) mapped 1649 No. of soil orders 7 Alfisols 44448 13.55 Inceptisols 130372 39.74 Entisols 92131 28.08 Others Rocky land, rock outcrops Glaciers 9503 2.92
  6. 6. Introduction  Land is the basic unit of all agricultural production  It is a scarce and in-expansible resource  Soil and water are the most valuable natural resources  Basic needs of food, feed and fibre for human beings  To be used very judiciously to meet the needs of growing population NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 population  For sustained quality of human life  For the foundation of agricultural development Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-3130016
  7. 7. What we can do? Combine technologies, policies and activities aimed at integrating socioeconomic principles with environmental concerns  maintain or enhance production (productivity)  reduce the level of production risk (security) NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001  reduce the level of production risk (security)  protect the potential of natural resources (protection) and prevent degradation of soil quality  be economically viable (viability)  socially acceptable Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-3130017
  8. 8. Topography Interaction INHERENT SOIL QUALITY resulting from natural soil forming processes and factors Climate Parent Materials Time Living Organisms DYNAMIC SOIL QUALITY from changes due to human use and management Interaction Fertilizer use Drainage Cropping History and Rotation Cover Crops Tillage Land UseType Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-3130018
  9. 9. Soil & Water Resources Satisfy human Needs Use according to their capacity to satisfy the needs Pressure on NR land degradation & environmental pollution NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 Food Feed Fibre Efficient management of resources through Detailed soil studies pollution Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-313001 9
  10. 10. SURVEY INTENSITY, MAPPING SCALE AND KIND OF MAPS KIND OF SURVEY RANGE OF SCALES OBSERVATIONS Very High Intensity (very detailed) Larger than 1:10 000 Soil maps showing special features or phases of soil series and occasionally soil complexes; detailed topographic maps with spot heights; cadastral maps; groundwater maps; present crops and vegetation etc. High Intensity (detailed) 1:10 000 to 1:25 000 Soil maps showing phases of soil series and soil complexes; detailed topographic maps, groundwater maps, present land use, etc. Medium Intensity 1:25 000 to 1:100 000 Soil maps showing series or associations of series; land NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 Medium Intensity (semi-detailed) 1:25 000 to 1:100 000 Soil maps showing series or associations of series; land system maps, physiographic units, topographic contour maps, present land use maps, etc. Low Intensity (reconnaissance) 1:100 000 to 1:250 000 Soil maps with associations and phases of Great Groups or Subgroups; land system maps, physiographic or contour maps, present land use, climatic zones, etc. Exploratory 1:250 000 to 1:1 000 000 Land units of various kinds. Syntheses Smaller than 1:1 000 000 Climatic maps, soil taxonomic maps, vegetation and land use, physiographic and geomorphological maps, agro-ecological zones, etc. Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300110
  11. 11. What is LRI  An evaluation of the suitability of land for alternative kinds of use requires a survey to define and map the land units together with the collection of descriptive data of land characteristics and resources.  Data collection is a time-consuming and costly activity, therefore, prior to field activities, members of a project NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 therefore, prior to field activities, members of a project team representing the different disciplines should meet to decide the responsibilities and cooperation needed in collecting and interpreting different kinds of data Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300111
  12. 12. Procedures for land resource inventory  General characterization of the project area  Topographic data  Soil survey data  Climatic and meteorological data  Water resources data NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001  Water resources data  Drainage data  Present land use, vegetation and wildlife  Environmental health  Social and economic data Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300112
  13. 13. Rationalized Approach for data collection Why are they needed? By posing a few simple questions i.e. What or which data are required? NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 Is the cost of their collection worthwhile? Why are they needed? Where or how can they be collected? Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300113
  14. 14. Two major categories of data and information Sources:  Govt. depts: agriculture, lands, irrigation, meteorology, water resources, survey, geological 1. Data obtainable from existing sources can save valuable time in unnecessary survey or field NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 resources, survey, geological and hydro-geological survey, land reform, forestry, livestock, conservation, wildlife  Universities  Research stations, international and national unnecessary survey or field studies 2. Data that must be collected during the course of the evaluation through surveys or investigations (including laboratory analysis of water and soil samples) Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300114
  15. 15. General characterization of the project area -location and accessibility; - potential water supplies within or outside the project area; - main climatic characteristics; - relief (landforms) and major soil features; - population and population growth rate; - standard of living and social values; NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 - standard of living and social values; - basis of present economy; - economic infrastructure (e.g. roads, services, markets); - government subsidies; - size of farms or other land holdings; - land tenure systems; - traditional water rights; - political system and policies. Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300115
  16. 16. Stereoscopic examination of paired air photographs Features readily identified 1. landforms (flood plains, terraces, residual uplands, dunes, etc.); 2. surface drainage patterns and systems; 3. erosional forms and eroded areas; 4. land use patterns and land use boundaries, roads, railways, habitations, etc.; NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 habitations, etc.; 5. types of natural vegetation; 6. wet areas, including lakes, lagoons and swamps 7. surface evidence of salt-affected soils; 8. rock outcrops; 9. tones (colour changes in colour photography) and patterns which may reflect soil differences Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300116
  17. 17. Topographic data  Slope: Slope may affect the following factors: intended methods of irrigation, erodibility and erosivity, cropping pattern, mechanization problems, exposure to wind, etc.  Microrelief: minor surface undulations and irregularities of the land surface, with differences in height between crest  Macrorelief: Permanent topographic features where slopes NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001  Macrorelief: Permanent topographic features where slopes change frequently in gradient and direction may influence the choice of irrigation method, field sizes and shape, and land development costs  Position in relation to command area and accessibility:The elevation and distance of the water source often affects the 'irrigable' land area in gravity schemes Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300117
  18. 18. Soil survey data: PHYSICAL Effective soil depth Root room, water and nutrient retention; land levelling; drainage; aligning and design of irrigation and drainage channels Grain size distribution (texture) For establishing homogeneity of land units and for deriving many characteristics Soil structure and porosity Bulk density. Pore space volume and distribution. Root environment, nutrient, water and soil management. Drainage and permeability especially of sodic soils. Leaching of excess salts. Tilth and workability for seedbed and land preparation. Ability to puddle rice land. Erodibility NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 Infiltration rate Rainfall and irrigation intake or run-off. Selection of irrigation method. Furrow lengths or basin size. Sprinkler nozzle selection. Erodibility Hydraulic conductivity or permeability Soil drainage, removal of excess water and salts Available water capacity (field capacity and permanent wilting point) Soil water balance, residual water between and following irrigations. Choice of irrigation method and schedules Plastic and liquid limits Indicative of mineralogy and physical behaviour Soil strength, linear extensibility Mechanical strength for construction works; swelling and shrinking; root penetration Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300118
  19. 19. Soil survey data: CHEMICAL  Soil reaction (pH) :To identify very alkaline, sodic and acid sulphate soils; nutrient deficiencies and toxicities.  Carbon and nitrogen : Organic matter content and management.  Gypsum and calcium carbonate : Hardpans, gypsiferous layers liable to subside, gypsum requirements for sodic soils.  Electrical conductivity of saturation extract (ECe) :Salinity hazard.  Soluble salts (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4, CO3 and HCO3) : Interpretation of salinity hazard.  Cation exchange capacity (CEC), total exchangeable bases (TEB) and NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001  Cation exchange capacity (CEC), total exchangeable bases (TEB) and base saturation % : Nutrient retention and chemical fertility status.  Exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) or adjusted sodium adsorbtion ratio of saturation extract (adj. SAR) : Sodicity or alkalinity problems.  Exchangeable cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg) : Base saturation, ESP, potassium status.  Available phosphorus  P, K, Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, Zn, B, Fe,Al,As, Ni, Cr : Macro and micronutrient content.Toxic elements. Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300119
  20. 20. Climatic and meteorological data commonly required in land evaluation for irrigated agriculture and their uses  Radiation - net shortwave solar radiation - net longwave radiation - sunshine hours actual sunshine hours (n) daylength or maximum (N) sunshine hours  Temperature (air & ground) Monthly means of: - daily maximum - daily minimum Pan evaporation Actual crop evapotranspiration (e.g. from soil-water measurements, computations)  Precipitation and rainfall Daily precipitation for as long a period as possible. Annual mean and S.D. Monthly mean and S.D., etc. Rainfall intensity and erosivity NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 - daily minimum - daily mean Wet and dry bulb temperatures a.m. and p.m.  Relative humidity Monthly means of: - daily a.m. vapour pressure - daily p.m. vapour pressure  Evapotranspiration Reference crop ETo - monthly, 10-day, weekly or daily values from climatic data Rainfall intensity and erosivity Effective precipitation Snow, dew  Wind speed and direction Weekly means of daily wind speed Daytime vs. nighttime ratios  Storm incidence Frequency and intensity Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300120
  21. 21. Present land use, vegetation and wildlife Existing vegetation and present land use may be important because of: 1. costs of clearing different kinds of vegetation 2. potential value of the vegetation, e.g. for forest and grazing; NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 3. presence of noxious weeds; 4. need to preserve vegetation for environmental, aesthetic reasons; 5. value of present agricultural production; 6. preferences for continuing present production on certain lands. Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300121
  22. 22. Social and economic data A. PRESENT FARMING PRACTICES 1. Crops and varieties planted in the area: List of present LUTs, include cultivars classed as high yielding, modern, improved local, or traditional; cropping calendar (pre- & post-harvest) 2. Farm practices: Planting methods, fertilizer, organic manures, insecticides, herbicides, weeding; hand, animal or tractor power; land preparation, mechanization, changes in practices 3. Existing irrigation and drainage:Types of irrigation systems; periods of water3. Existing irrigation and drainage:Types of irrigation systems; periods of water availability, persons or authorities controlling water allocation; drainage adequacy; water use 4. Input-output data: Costs of all inputs, yields and value of produce whether used for subsistence, barter or cash sales; crop disposal 5. Land tenure, farm sizes, land values, water rights: Land tenure, leased and shared cropped land, titles to land and water, fragmentation, social contexts, land sales, land prices Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300122
  23. 23. A. PRESENT FARMING Conti…… 6. Credit and loans: Amounts borrowed, who borrowed from whom, credit for personal or farming use, in cash or kind, duration of loan, terms of repayment or interest rate, level of indebtedness, future access to loans 7. Household size and income: Farm family size and age distribution, employment on and off the farm; sources of income; changes in income 8. Farm labour and employment, farm power: Family labour, hired labour, labour costs; influence of labour, power and water on land preparation, NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 labour costs; influence of labour, power and water on land preparation, seasonal practices; peak labour requirements changes 9. Production and marketing problems: Obtaining seed, fertilizer or chemicals, credit, water (domestic, irrigation); pests and diseases, weeds, harvesting, threshing, drying, storage, selling, processing, others; markets Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300123
  24. 24. B. INFRASTRUCTURAL 1. Transportation: Roads and waterways; availability of buses, trucks, carts, boats, and other modes of transportation; railroads, quality of roads - paved or not; year-round use, etc. 2. Storage, processing and marketing facilities:Types that serve the villages in project area; driers, milling capacity, local weights and measures, milling outputs etc. 3. Banks and other credit facilities 4. Other government facilities for production: Research and NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 4. Other government facilities for production: Research and experimental stations; demonstration trials; extension services 5. Schools, clinics, postal services and others 6. Communications media: Press, radio, and other forms of mass media, extent of news of direct relevance to farmers, markets news service 7. Electricity 8. Domestic water supplies Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300124
  25. 25. C. THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT 1. Prices: Prices of major produce, differences between cultivars, seasonal and annual variations; prices at nearest dealer or cooperative for fertilizer and other major inputs; data on price differentials between local and major markets 2. Wages:Wage rates; systems of wage 6. Land prices:Average, for major land types; changes over time 7. Irrigation costs: Government irrigation fees and normal collection rates; normal cost of private irrigation systems, if any 8. Seed or planting material: Availability, source, quality, and prices NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 2. Wages:Wage rates; systems of wage payment; changes over time 3. Interest: Rates usually paid on loans from different sources; changes over time 4. Rent: Rates per season, year, and others; in cash or kind; fixed or shared; changes over time 5. Taxes: Types and totals source, quality, and prices 9. Power:Typical farm power requirement and investment for land preparation, also rental rates for tractor and animal services 10. Incomes Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300125
  26. 26. D. DEMOGRAPHIC AND LAND USE 1. Village populations:Total, and percentage changes in last 10 years; main sources of livelihood, farming and non-farming 2. Other census data: Religion, ethnic group, castes, and others 3. Village settlement pattern: Along road, with house gardens, cluster, isolated, etc. NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300126
  27. 27. E. INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS 1. Farmers' organizations: Cooperatives, farmer associations and similar bodies; other types of joint or group activities, changes over time 2. Brief description of the way new crops, varieties and methods of management were introduced into the area 3. Extension services: Number of agencies that provide services; quantity and quality of services; main complaints of farmers 4. Special government programmes: Land reform, land consolidation, crash NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 4. Special government programmes: Land reform, land consolidation, crash programmes, and others 5. Leadership in agriculturally relevant activities 6. Attitudes and values affecting development: Change in the size and cost of ceremonies; evaluation as to whether farming is a preferred occupation and similar assessments Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300127
  28. 28. F. THE NATIONAL POLICY FRAMEWORK 1. Aims of national policy for crops and irrigation 2. Policy measures: Price policies, input and output; restrictions on input and output marketing, if any; package programmes, etc.; income and employment policies - income redistribution, access to land resources, etc. 3. Importance of new crops and irrigation in the context of national goals NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300128
  29. 29. What NBSS&LUP has done  Mapped soil resource data of Gujarat state on 1: 250,000 scale  The state covers an area of 19.6 m ha (6%TGA of India)  It is comprised with 33 districts and 248 Talukas  The soil mapping units, including rock outcrops, cover 86.4 NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001  The soil mapping units, including rock outcrops, cover 86.4 %  The Rann of Kachchh covers 11 % Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300129
  30. 30. The soils of Gujarat state belong to 5 Orders, 11 Suborders, 20 Greatgroups, Among these Soil Orders Inceptisols-51 % Entisols-13.8% Aridisols-10.6% Vertisols -8.9% Vertisols 10% Alfisols 1% Rock outcrops 2% Soil taxonomy of Gujarat NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 20 Greatgroups, 45 Subgroups, 124 Families 145 soil series Vertisols -8.9% Alfisols-0.6 % Rock outcrops-1.8% Inceptisols 59%Entisols 16% Aridisols 12% Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300130
  31. 31. Major Outputs of 1:250,000 maps  8.1 m ha (41.5 percent ofTGA) in Gujarat is affected by various soil degradation problems mainly by human- intervention  The most serious problem is water erosion, causing loss of top soil and/or terrain deformation, and has affected 5.2 m ha (2.3 percent of the TGA). NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 percent of the TGA).  Salinity alone and in combination with water/wind erosion and flooding has been found to affect 2.5 m ha (12.7 percent) area.  The area not fit for agriculture, including rock outcrops and Rann/salt flat, accounts for 1.8 and 11.0 percent of theTGA. Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-313001 31
  32. 32. Economy of Gujarat  Gujarat has a pride place in the Indian economy  It is one of those States of India where economy has always performed better than the national average  It has limited mineral base and water resource  Despite these limitations, the entrepreneurial nature of the people participation in development efforts has contributed significantly to rapid economic growth. NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 rapid economic growth.  Main sources of growth in Gujarat’s agriculture are: I. Cotton output soared from 3.05 million bales (of 170 kg each) in 2002-03 to 11.2 million bales in 2007-08,primarily driven by Bt cotton since 2002. II. The rapid growth of the high value segment, i.e., livestock, fruits & vegetables. III. The third main source of growth comes from wheat with average annual growth rate of 28%. Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300132
  33. 33. Major Crops Cotton, groundnut, wheat, Bajra, rice, maize, mustard, sesame, pigeon pea, green gram, gram, sugarcane Gujarat is the largest producer of castor, tobacco, Isabgul (Psyllium) Second largest producer of sesame seeds, cotton and groundnut NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 Second largest producer of sesame seeds, cotton and groundnut in the country Gujarat has highest productivity in, mustard, castor and cotton Second highest productivity in groundnut and Bajra Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300133
  34. 34. Horticulture  Major horticultural crops:  Fruits: Mango, Banana, Sapota, Lime, Guava,  Vegetables:Tomato, Potato, Onion,  Seed spices: Cumin, Garlic, Isabgul, Fennel  Gujarat has highest productivity: Guava, Potato, Onion, Cumin and Fennel NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 and Fennel Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300134
  35. 35. PLUS points for Gujarat  1600 Km long coastal belt  Diversified Crops and Cropping systems  Climatic diversities  Biodiversities  Good transport facilities -- PORTS & AIRPORTS NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001  Strong Agri Marketing system,Agro based Industries & Co- operatives  Enterprising Farmers having business instincts  Geographical Location Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300135
  36. 36. Constraints  Drought prone areas & arid areas forms more then 50 % of state  Soil erosion is increasing due to advancement of desert land, deforestation  Depletion of water table  Sea water ingress  Deterioration of soil and water conditions due to salinity ingress  Irregular rain pattern affecting productivity in agriculture NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001  Irregular rain pattern affecting productivity in agriculture  Agriculture affected due to recurrent droughts  Low productivity of local livestock breeds  Inadequate fodder resources  Poor R & D facilities for marine resources  Inadequate trained human resource for modern agricultural research and education Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300136
  37. 37. GOVT of Gujarat FUTURE PLANGOVT of Gujarat FUTURE PLAN  The taluka level plan will be based on  Soil health analysis  Rainfall pattern  Soil depth analysis (data source BISAG)  Market research - data of average price of various crops of last five years NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 Market research - data of average price of various crops of last five years Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300137
  38. 38. Existing LRI Programme in the State Land Resource Inventory of the NICRAVillage (Patameghpar) in Jamnagar District, Gujarat PI: Dr. R. P. Sharma, COPI: Dr.T. P.Verma NATIONAL BUREAU OF SOIL SURVEYAND LAND USE PLANNING, REGIONAL CENTRE: UNIVERSITY CAMPUS:UDAIPUR-313 001 Location of theVillage Between 22013’14.47’’ to 22016’9.618’’ N latitude and 70029’16.755’’ to 70032’59.216’’ E longitude Elevation of 21 m above MSL. Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-313001 38
  39. 39. Objectives of LRI in Gujarat 1. Detailed characterization and mapping of the cultivable/arable land resources at village level of Gujarat. 2. Identification of waste and degraded lands, their extent and distribution at village level. 3. Identification of constraints affecting crop production and land utilization at village and watershed level 4. Evaluating the available land resources for existing, promising and alternate land uses.alternate land uses. 5. Evolving location-specific cropping pattens and farming systems that is reflective of the prevailing natural resource endowments of the area. 6. To provide the required base line information, very essential and basic for the effective implementation, monitoring and evaluation of various developmental schemes at different levels of Gujarat state. 7. Identifying Benchmark sites and hot spots in different Agro-ecosystems for periodical monitoring the state of health of the natural resources. Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300139
  40. 40. Methodology of Soil Resource Mapping in Gujarat GEOCODED FCCAncillary data SOI toposheet SRM maps of the area Geology Other collateral information Interpretations Physiography map Map superimposition Composite map Ground truth collection Land use land cover map SOIToposheet (1:10000/50000) Slope map Validation of image interpretation unit Transect/ toposequence study Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300140 Ground truth collection Physiography soil relationship Soil correlation Soil map preparation Map validation Final soil map Database preparation Thematic maps Soil analysis Transect/ toposequence study Random field checking Checking of soil boundaries Soil accuracy assessment
  41. 41. District wise information on TGA, arable land, irrigated land, and cost of survey of rain fed and irrigated districts of GUJARAT Sr. No. Name of District Reporting area for land utilization statistics Fallow land Net area sown Other uncultivated land excluding fallow land (permanent pasture + culturable waste land) Arable Land (D+E+F) % irrigated area categor y Cost of Survey (Crore Rs) A B C D E F G H I J 1 Ahmedabad 774800 22300 563700 50700 586000 35.0 IR 10.82 2 Amreli 739200 8500 560000 65000 568500 22.5 RF 10.77 3 Anand 294700 4200 197100 24300 201300 100.0 IR 3.84 4 Banas Kantha 1044900 23500 747100 80100 770600 54.2 IR 14.46 5 Baruch 524700 40500 318400 49300 358900 30.6 IR 6.94 6 Bhavnagar 858000 47200 541400 84600 588600 35.9 IR 11.44 7 Dahod 371200 6300 217700 12100 224000 28.0 RF 4.01 8 Dangs 228200 0 55800 0 55800 1.8 RF 0.95 9 Gandhinagar 215900 5500 168500 15800 174000 61.5 IR 3.239 Gandhinagar 215900 5500 168500 15800 174000 61.5 IR 3.23 10 Jamnagar 1020300 27700 616400 107100 644100 23.6 RF 12.77 11 Junagarh 880200 7500 544300 96900 551800 44.5 IR 11.03 12 Kachchh 4565200 123900 641300 1733400 765200 18.7 RF 42.48 13 Kheda 394400 9300 313000 16600 322300 66.1 IR 5.76 14 Mahesana 439200 8200 358100 30400 366300 59.2 IR 6.74 15 Narmada 280100 4400 109900 11700 114300 35.4 IR 2.14 16 Navsari 220100 1600 137100 19500 138700 63.1 IR 2.69 17 Panch Mahals 513800 26900 280700 26200 307600 17.2 RF 5.67 18 Patan 566800 25000 391000 43300 416000 27.8 RF 7.81 19 Porbander 229500 7000 137100 29500 144100 22.3 RF 2.95 20 Rajkot 1107400 27200 767700 101600 794900 35.6 IR 15.24 21 Sabarkantha 729800 20500 458200 47100 478700 37.5 IR 8.94 22 Surat 431100 10900 286000 47900 296900 84.0 IR 5.86 23 Surendranagar 1045800 47600 709100 60800 756700 22.5 RF 13.90 24 Tapi 343500 600 162400 13700 163000 0.0 RF 3.00 25 Vadodra 752800 15400 526100 390000 541500 39.4 IR 15.84 26 Valsad 294400 6900 157700 8400 164600 41.7 IR 2.94 Gujarat 18866000 528600 9965800 3166000 10494400 232.23 Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-313001 41
  42. 42. Arable Land in state Name of nodal centre NBSS&LUP, Regional Centre, Udaipur State to be undertaken for LRI study Gujarat Total Geographical Area (ha) 18866000 Arable land (ha) (actually to be surveyed) 10494400Arable land (ha) (actually to be surveyed) 10494400 No. of districts in states 33 No. ofTaluka in state 248 No. of villages in state 18800 Total no.of pedons @ 3 each village 56400 Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300142
  43. 43. Plan of Work  Director NBSS&LUP, Nagpur and Head, NBSS&LUP, Regional Centre, Udaipur hold a meeting with officials of state government of Gujarat in Gandhinagar  Discussed the issues related to Land Resource Inventorization (LRI) of the state.  Gujarat Govt. had agreed to support the Bureau for LRI study.Gujarat Govt. had agreed to support the Bureau for LRI study.  According to this agreement, BISAG, Department of Science & Technology, Government of Gujarat will provide digital remote sensing data base, digitized cadastral maps at village level,  BISAG will carry out most of the RS&GIS based work in Gandhinagar. Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300143
  44. 44. Plan of Work Conti……  Govt. of Gujarat has Kishan Mitra at village level in whole state.  These Kishan Mitra, spread all over the state will dig three pedons in each village keeping the physiography-soil relationship in view.  Kishan Mitra will also collect the soil samples at specified depth i.e. 0-20, 20-50, 50-100, >100cm.  These soil samples will reach NBSS&LUP, Udaipur for further These soil samples will reach NBSS&LUP, Udaipur for further processing and analysis.  Bureau will pay an honorarium to Kishan Mitra @ Rs. 300/-pedon. Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300144
  45. 45. Plan of Work Conti……  ATMA officials have also agreed to support in this LRI study.  Bureau will also pay them honorarium @ Rs. 200/- per village.  The NBSS&LUP, Regional Centre, Udaipur will train the Kishan Mitra before starting the soil sampling programme using video conferencing techniques.  Bureau will generate a video film on “Techniques of soil survey Bureau will generate a video film on “Techniques of soil survey and sampling”.  It will telecast through video conferencing mode from BISAG, Gandhinagar in Gujarati/Hindi/English language.  Later on the Kishan Mitra will proceed for soil sampling programme. Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300145
  46. 46. Plan of Work Conti……  A face to field training programme will be arranged for ATMA officials representing from eachTaluka of Gujarat state. It will be arranged at NBSS&LUP, Udaipur.  Simultaneously, Soil survey teams will also proceed from NBSS&LUP, Udaipur to monitor the soil survey work by Kishan Mitra. Bureau will also conduct the soil survey in parallel to Kishan Mitra Bureau will also conduct the soil survey in parallel to Kishan Mitra for grouping of similar soils on the basis of homogeneity and heterogeneity concept.  Finally, the bureau will establish the soil series at 1:10,000 scales and generate the maps in the state. Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300146
  47. 47. Estimated Budget Recurring Item @ Estimated cost (Rs in Lakhs) Cost of pedon digging @ Rs. 300 per pedon 56400*300 169.2 Honararium to ATMA person @ Rs. 200 per village 18800*200 37.6 Labour-for field work 100.0 Transport-vehicle 100.0 Travel (TA+ DA cost) 100.0 Labour for soil processing 50.0 JRF,SRF salary 100.0 Chemicals and Glass wares 100.0 Stationeries 100.0 Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300147
  48. 48. Non-Recurring Item @ Estimated cost (Rs in Lakhs) Video film production and telecast 50.0 Training to ATMA officials 100.0 Field camp modernization 100.0 Laboratory equipments 200.0 Digital camera/video camera 50.0 Work stations and accessories 200.0 Vehicle hiring charges (sample collection/transportation) 30.0 Report writing and printing maps 100.0 Total Rs in Lakhs 1686.8 Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300148
  49. 49. Dr. R P Sharma, Scientist, NBSS&LUP,Regional Centre, Udaipur-31300149

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