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Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques for Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA)

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http://www.fao.org/globalsoilpartnership/en/

This presentation was presented during the 4th Plenary Assembly of the Global Soil Partnership (GSP) that took place at FAO headquarters 23-25 May 2016. The presentation was made by L.K. Heng and presents the Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques for Climate-Smart Agriculture.

© FAO: http://www.fao.org

Published in: Education
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Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques for Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA)

  1. 1. International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques for Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) L.K. Heng (L.Heng@iaea.org) Section Head Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Section Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (AGE) Vienna, Austria 23-25 May 2016, 4th GSP Plenary Assembly, FAO Rome
  2. 2. International Atomic Energy Agency Global Climate is Changing CLIMATE TRENDS: • Temperature • Extreme Weather • Hurricanes • Severe Storms • Precipitation • Heavy Downpours • Frost-free Season • Ice Melt • Sea Level • Ocean Acidification
  3. 3. International Atomic Energy Agency Challenges Faced by Agriculture • Crop and livestock production will decline due to increased stress of weeds, diseases, insect pests …. • Loss and degradation of agricultural soil and water will become more serious. • The rising incidence of extreme weather will have increasingly negative impacts on agricultural productivity. • Increased innovation will be needed to ensure the rate of adaptation of agriculture. • Climate change effects on agriculture will have consequences for food security.
  4. 4. International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear and Isotopic Applications for CSA ----From Understanding to Action • Assessment/evaluation of: • Impact of climate change on agriculture • Impact of agricultural practices on climate change • Development of technologies for adaptation and build resilience to climate change • Good agriculture practice for potential mitigation of climate change
  5. 5. International Atomic Energy Agency Strategic Considerations for CSA • Strengthening R&D for nuclear applications in assessment of climate change impact • Focusing on technology development for better adaptation and mitigation strategies for CSA • Emergency preparation and response to nuclear emergency, extreme weather events and disease outbreak
  6. 6. International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear and isotopic techniques for climate- smart soil and water management 15N 13C 12C 13CO2 12CO2 18O 2H Carbon isotope discrimination to assess adaptation of crops tolerant to drought and salinity To quantify the flow and fate of N fertilizers to improve fertilizer use by crops To quantify biological nitrogen fixation to save N fertilizers To assess soil organic carbon storage To estimate sources and fluxes of water to improve WUE 15N 15N 13C 18O 16O 16O 18O 32P 31P 32P 14N 15N
  7. 7. International Atomic Energy Agency 12CO2 (99%) 13CO2 (1%) C3 plants: d13C = -26‰ rice, wheat, forest, vegetation maize, sorghum, sugarcane, some tropical herbs C4 plants: d13C = -12 ‰ Differences in carbon isotope signatures allow assessment of abiotic stresses
  8. 8. International Atomic Energy Agency Fallout Radionuclides (FRNs) for erosion studies BasicconceptsofFRNstoinvestigatesoilerosion
  9. 9. International Atomic Energy Agency Use of FRNs to Date Sediment (e.g. 137Cs) Sediment core in reservoir BasicconceptsofFRNstoinvestigatesoilerosion
  10. 10. International Atomic Energy Agency New FRN soil tracers: 239+240Pu BasicconceptsofFRNstoinvestigatesoilerosion
  11. 11. International Atomic Energy Agency Atmospheric CO2 Cool weather grasses, trees, shrubs C3 Vegetation ~ -26‰ Warm weather grasses, cereal crops C4 Vegetation ~ -12‰ C3 C4 Compound Specific Stable Isotope (CSSI): sources of erosion  The CSSI techniques, a forensic tool, identify sources of soil erosion in landscapes with different land uses  All plants that grow in a particular land use produce a range of organic biomarkers (e.g. fatty acids) with carbon chain containing between 14 to 24 carbon atoms  Different fatty acids have unique 13C isotopic signatures specific to a particular plant
  12. 12. International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA’s FRN work on National Geographic
  13. 13. International Atomic Energy Agency Cosmic Ray Neutron Probe (COSMOS): area-wide soil water measurement • For measuring soil moisture about 30-40 ha in area (70 cm depth; 350 m radius) • Does not have a radioactive source • Important for hydrological processes (runoff, infiltration etc.), land- surface coupling
  14. 14. International Atomic Energy Agency The Comparable Advantage on the Use of Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques • Nitrogen-15 isotope – trace fertilizer pathways; determine amount of N fixed through BNF; quantify amount and sources of greenhouse gas emissions and trace sources of nitrate to improve farming practices. • Soil moisture neutron probe – monitor soil water to improve water use efficiency. • 18O, 2H isotopes – partition soil evaporation and crop transpiration from total ET to minimize water losses; determine proportion seawater intrusion. • Carbon-13 – select crops tolerant to drought and salinity; quantify carbon sequestration, soil organic carbon turnover. • FRN and CSSI: Quantify soil erosion rates and identify sources of land degradation for effective soil conservation strategies. • Natural cosmic ray neutron probe – monitor large-scale (30-40 ha) agricultural water to improve water use efficiency.
  15. 15. International Atomic Energy Agency Facilities at SWMCN Laboratory in Seibersdorf 1 N2O laser isotope analyser for GHG emission study 1 CO2 laser isotope analyser for assessing soil organic carbon sequestration 1 O-18 laser isotope analyser for water study 2 IRMS for stable isotope analysis 2 Gamma detectors for soil erosion study
  16. 16. International Atomic Energy Agency Animated infographic on ‘‘137Cs for Assessing and Mitigating Soil Erosion’’ highlight the use of FRN techniques (i.e. 137Cs) to investigate soil erosion and sedimentation processes in agricultural environments http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/resources-nafa/soil-Erosion-stream32.mp4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fYVeauL-usI&list=PLzp5NgJ2- dK7malfX4U8aqEiO1wXmeQrv&index=5
  17. 17. International Atomic Energy Agency Animated infographic on ‘‘Managing Nitrogen’’ http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/resources-nafa/Managing-Nitrogen-LR.mp4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PXn3NThQS2I&list=PLzp5NgJ2- dK7malfX4U8aqEiO1wXmeQrv&index=1
  18. 18. International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA Technical Cooperation 2016-2017 Projects in Soil and Water Management 2016-17 TC Projects Country Continent ALG5029 Improving Wheat and Legume Yield through Better Water and Fertilizer Management and Introduction of New Vegetal Material Algeria Africa BKF5016 Using Nuclear Techniques for Improving Rice Yield and Quality Burkina Faso Africa BOT5012 Improving Soil and Water Management Options to Optimize Yields of Selected Crops Botswana Africa BDI5001 Improving Cassava Productivity through Mutation Breeding and Better Water and Nutrient Management Practices Using Nuclear Techniques Burundi Africa BKF5016 Using Nuclear Techniques for Improving Rice Yield and Quality Burkina Faso Africa CMR5021 Developing Best Nutrient and Water Management Practices to Improve Soil Fertility and Productivity and Minimize Land Degradation Using Isotopic Techniques Cameroon Africa CAF5008 Cassava androgeneses culture and contribution to soil fertilization Central Africa Republic Africa CHD5006 Using Nuclear Technology to Improve Knowledge and Sustainable Agricultural Production to Safeguard Lake Chad Chad Africa KEN5036 Developing Soil Fertility and Water Management for Soil, Crop and Livestock Integration in Three Agro-Ecological Zones Kenya Africa KUW5001 Improving Production and Water Use Efficiency of Forage Crops with Nuclear Techniques Kuwait Africa MAU5006 Contributing to the Improvement of Rice Crop Yields through the Application of Nuclear Techniques To Water Management and Soil Fertility Mauritania Africa NAM5014 Evaluating Efficient Water and Nutrient Use, Molecular Characterization and Nutritional Composition of Mutant Germplasm Populations Namibia Africa NER5021 Using Microbial Biotechnology to Improve Productivity and Adapt Cowpea to Climate Change Niger Africa SEY5007 Increasing Crop Production through Effective Management of Soil Salinity in the Coastal Area using Nuclear and Related Techniques Seychelles Africa SUD5037 Application of nuclear and related biotechnology techniques to improve of crop productivity and lively hood of small scale farmers drought prone areas of Sudan Sudan Africa UGA5037 Introducing Integrated Soil Fertility Management for Improved Crop Production and Food Security Uganda Africa ZIM5021 Assessing and Promoting Sustainable Agricultural Production in Communal and Newly Resettled Farms Zimbabwe Africa RAF5071 Enhancing Crop Nutrition and Soil and Water Management and Technology Transfer in Irrigated Systems for Increased Food Production and Income Generation (AFRA) Regional Africa Africa RAF5075 Enhancing Regional Capacities for Assessing Soil Erosion and the Efficiency of Agricultural Soil Conservation Strategies through Fallout Radionuclides Regional Africa Africa RAF0038 Project proposal Morocco - Cote d'Ivoire Regional Africa Africa
  19. 19. International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA Technical Cooperation 2016-2017 Projects in Soil and Water Management AFG5006 Developing and Implementing Soil and Water National Management System Using Nuclear Techniques Afghanistan Asia BGD5029 Evaluating Promising Abiotic Stress Tolerant Crop Mutants/Varieties and Measuring the Suitable Management Practices for the Promotion of Sustainable Production at Saline, Submergence and Drought Prone Areas Bangladesh Asia IRA5013 Investigating the Effects of Deforestation and Afforestation on Soil Redistribution Iran Asia IRQ5020 Restoring Biomass Productivity of Range Land by Using Nuclear Techniques and Advanced Technology Iraq Asia KAM5001 Improving Soil Fertility and Crop Management Strategies in Diversified Rice-Based Farming Systems Cambodia Asia LAO5002 Improving Soil Fertility and Water Use Efficiency in the Cassava-Rice-Soybean Production System under Smallholder Farming Systems Laos Asia MYA5025 Monitoring and Assessment of Watershed Management Practices on Water Quality and Sedimentation Rate of Inle Lake Myanmar Asia PAL5008 Reducing Soil Degradation by Improving Soil Conservation using Fallout Radionuclides (Phase I) Palestine Asia SRL5045 Establishing a National Centre for Nuclear Agriculture Sri Lanka Asia YEM5013 Evaluating Selected Wheat Varieties for Greater Agronomic Characteristics Using Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Improved Soil and Water Management Yemen Asia RAS5069 Complementing Conventional Approaches with Nuclear Techniques towards Flood Risk Mitigation and Post-Flood Rehabilitation Efforts in Asia Regional Asia & the Pacific Asia RAS5070 Developing Bioenergy Crops to Optimize Marginal Land Productivity through Mutation Breeding and Related Techniques (RCA) Regional Asia & the Pacific Asia RAS5072 Enhancing the Use of Salt Affected Soils and Saline Water for Crop and Biomass Production and Reducing Land and Water Quality Degradation in ARASIA States Parties Regional Asia & the Pacific Asia RAS5073 Supporting Climate-Proofing Rice Production Systems (CRiPS) Based on Nuclear Applications-Phase II Regional Asia & the Pacific Asia BOL5021 Strengthening the Strategic Development Plan for Quinoa Production through Improved Use of Organic Manure, Soil and Crop Management Bolivia LatinAm BRA5059 Strengthening Strategies of Soil and Water Conservation at the Landscape Level in Natural and Agricultural Ecosystems Brazil LatinAm COS5031 Consolidating a National Reference Laboratory for the Measurement of Greenhouse Gases Costa Rica LatinAm COS5033 Assessing and Implementing Biochar Use in Climate Smart and Environmentally Friendly Pineapple Production Using Isotopic Techniques Costa Rica LatinAm CUB5019 Strengthening National Capacity for Monitoring Heavy Metals to Improve Soil and Food Quality Using Nuclear and Related Techniques Cuba LatinAm DOM50XX Evaluate the consequences induced by land use and climate change on the hydrological system of the Central Region of the Dominican Republic through the use of nuclear techniques as part of a strategy to strengthening food security Dominican Republic LatinAm ECU5028 Consolidating Food Security and Environmental Sustainability in Palm Oil Production Using Nuclear Applications Ecuador LatinAm HAI5006 Increasing Productivity and Exportability in the Agricultural Sector through Soil and Water Management and Food Safety Monitoring Haiti LatinAm JAM5012 Optimizing Irrigation Water Management to Improve Crop Output and Water Quality Control Jamaica LatinAm PAN5023 Enhancing Rice Crop Yields by Improving Water and Nutrient Management Using Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques Panama LatinAm RLA5065 Improving Agricultural Production Systems Through Resource Use Efficiency (ARCAL CXXXVI) Regional Latin America LatinAm INT5153 Assessing the Impact of Climate Change and its Effects on Soil and Water Resources in Polar and Mountainous Regions Interregional (INT) INT 10,154,115
  20. 20. International Atomic Energy Agency 2015 International Year of Soils
  21. 21. International Atomic Energy Agency 2016 International Year of Pulses Organizing a Side Event on Enhancing pulses for food security by nuclear applications during IAEA General Conference in September 2016
  22. 22. International Atomic Energy Agency Find out more, go to our website: http://www- naweb.iaea.org/nafa/swmn/in dex.html Thank you!

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