Water, Soil and Drought Managementtoward Maintaining Food Security in theIslamic Republic of IranA. GhaffariDryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI), IranبسمبسمااالرحمنالرحمنالرحيالرحيممInternational Conference on Policies for Water and Food Securityin Dry Areas, 24- 26 June, Cairo, Egypt
Total land area is 164.8 mil. ha. About 18.5 mil. ha. are usedfor agriculture: 6 mil. ha. (irrigated): 32.4% 6 mil . ha. (rainfed) : 32.4% 4.5 mil. ha. (fallow) : 24.4% 2 mil. ha. (hort. crops): 10.8% Wheat and Barley:the two major crops Average Wheat Growing areas: 6.7 mil. ha Irrigated wheat: 2.7 mil. ha Rainfed wheat: 4.0 mil. haIntroduction
• Iran is generally known of arid andsemi-arid climate (94.1% based onUNESCO Approach) except forCaspian Sea region.• The average precipitation of thecountry (247 mm) is about half of Asia(480 mm) and one third of the world(850 mm).Climate
Agro-Climatic ZoningRainfed Land areaMeanP/PET = 0.05 - 0.65
292423118 2Distribution (%) of countryarea by annual rainfallrates<150mm150-250mm250-350mmGhaffari et al., 2004Precipitation
75% off Growing Season25% in Growing SeasonSeasonal Distribution of Rainfall
General information on water resourcesTotal water potential425 Mm3Border water12 Mm3Rainfall413 Mm3Evaporation295 Mm3Surface water105 Mm3Infiltration25 Mm3Total available water130 Mm3
Water used in different sectorsSectors Consumption(×109m3)Consumption(%)By2020(×109m3)By2020(%)Agriculture 85.2 92.1 99.7 85.3Urban andindustry6.2 6.7 8.7 7.4Environment - - 6.3 5.4Miscellaneous 1.1 1.2 2.3 1.9Total 92.5 100 117.0 100Overall irrigation efficiency is 38% which is lower than the world’saverage irrigation efficiency but, water productivity is roughly 1.25kg.m3which is good.
Structure of Water in Iran The two Ministries of Energy and Agriculture are currently waterThe two Ministries of Energy and Agriculture are currently wateradministrators in Iranadministrators in Iran There are several water relevant research institutes (e.g. AERI ,There are several water relevant research institutes (e.g. AERI ,SWRI in Ministry of Agriculture or TAMAB in Ministry of Energy),SWRI in Ministry of Agriculture or TAMAB in Ministry of Energy),research centers, water departments in the Universities, andresearch centers, water departments in the Universities, andConsultant Engineers Companies (private sector) (e.g. Mahab-eConsultant Engineers Companies (private sector) (e.g. Mahab-eGhods) also have an important role in this regard.Ghods) also have an important role in this regard. A number of duties of Ministry of Agriculture on soil and water issues are:A number of duties of Ministry of Agriculture on soil and water issues are: Integrated study of basins (watersheds)Integrated study of basins (watersheds) Land consolidation, on-farm improvements, and infrastructureLand consolidation, on-farm improvements, and infrastructureactivities in farms and orchards for efficient use of agricultural inputs,activities in farms and orchards for efficient use of agricultural inputs,especially waterespecially water Management of water delivery in tertiary and lower order irrigationManagement of water delivery in tertiary and lower order irrigationcanals and their O&M activitiescanals and their O&M activities Study and execute small scale water supply development projectsStudy and execute small scale water supply development projects(following permission of Ministry of Energy)(following permission of Ministry of Energy)
For optimum use of water allocated to the farmers,the following policies are considered:• Control of water resources and volumetric allocation of water to the farms.• Based on the established law, water charge of the regulatedsurface water is between 1-3% of value of the cultivated crops• water pumping from groundwater resources must be in accordance with thecrop water requirement and proposed cropping pattern in each region.• Subsidizing policies for water charging and supervision chargingfor farmers who their yields are higher than average.• Termination of water allocation to the farmers who in two successive yearsconsumed water more than permissible level.• Encouraging policies for the farmers who use less water andmaintain their production in reasonable level using propermanagement practices.
Attaining wheat selfsufficiency in the contextof securing food securityat national levelCase study
Importance of wheatWheat is the major crop in the country, where it is grownon 6.7 million hectares. Irrigated wheat covers one-third ofthe total wheat area but accounts for more than two-thirdsof the total wheat production.Iran has attained self-sufficiency in wheat production forthe first time since past 40 years during the 2003-2004.This testifies the successful adoption of effective soil andcrop management practices combined with improvedcultivars for increasing the welfare of rural communities indry areas of Iran through the sustainable use of land andwater resources. The participation of farmers, researchers,and extension workers in the testing, demonstration anddissemination of improved technologies has led to betterawareness of the technology and to its adoption by a largenumber of farmers.
Reasons for attaining self sufficiencySelecting right strategies by:1- Preparing road map through contributing all involvedrelevant policy makers, experts and researchers2- Integrated agronomy, crop breeding and policies3- Releasing of high yielding varieties4-Considering of Water Use efficiency & Waterproductivity5- Pressured irrigation systems.6- Drought tolerance varieties7- Adoption of Conservation Agriculture8- Guaranteed price for wheat market
Wheat cultivated areas (1980-2011(Wheat cultivation area:1980-2000: 2.2 Mha Irrigated & 3.8 Mha Rainfed2000-2011: 300,000 and 200,000 ha increased in rainfedand irrigated cultivation areas, respectively.
Wheat yields (kg ha-1) (1980-2011(Average Grain Yield:1980-1990: 2000 and 670 Kg/ha for irrigated and rainfed wheat, respectively.1990-2000: 2750 and 830 Kg/ha for irrigated and rainfed wheat, respectively.2000-2011: 3650 and 1060 Kg/ha for irrigated and rainfed wheat, respectively.
Wheat production (million tons) (1980-2011(Average Wheat production:1980-1990: 7 Million tons1990-2000: 10 Million tons2000-2011: 13.5 Million tons
0204060801001201990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010Area(1000*ha(YearMicroitionrrigSprinkle IrrigationDevelopment of pressurized irrigation (1990-2010)• The existing surface of pressure irrigated land is about 1 million hectares• The annual plan is 200 thousand hectares• Prediction of 1 million hectares in the 5thdevelopment plan of country
85% of the costs ofpressurized irrigation will becovered by GovernmentBased on budget law (2011)
Drought is always a limiting factorAgronomy is a limiting factor to harvesting the geneticpotential of improved cultivarsCold is limiting factor in Winter & Facultative wheat areasYellow rust remains the major disease.Septoria is growing as a new major diseases in the Caspianand southern regionsSunn pest is a major pest in all areas.RWA is becoming a growing problem in cold areasCommon aphid has become a problem in temperate andwarm areasUG99 is a threatSome weed species are becoming very invasiveMajor Limiting Factors
D / H stress, Kermanshah,2008D / H stress, Oshnavieh,2011Zanjan 2008East Azerbaijan, 2008Challenges: Drought and T. HeatChallenges: Drought and T. Heat
Distribution of irrigated wheat grain yields in Iran
1-Agronomy: Crop management/CA (3 million ha(2-Physiology: Application of physiology in wheat breedingprograms for drought and heat tolerance. Earliness isdesirable.3-Durable resistance for wheat rusts, particularly, YellowRust.4-Development of germplasm resistant to insect pest, e. g.Sunn Pest.5-Application of biotechnology particularly Marker AssistedSelection (MAS) in wheat breeding programs fordiseases/pests resistance as well as heat and droughttolerance6-Enhancement of the rate of adoption of new cultivars.7-Socio-economic studies on the adoption of new cultivarsand recommendation packages.Research Priorities
Durum Wheat Cultivars released 2001-2012No. Cultivar Year of Release Institute Origin Growth Habit1 Arya 2003 SPII CIMMYT S2 Karkheh 2005 SPII ICARDA S3 Dena 2007 SPII CIMMYT S4 Behrang 2009 SPII CIMMYT S5 Dehdasht 2009 DARI Italy S6 Saji 2010 DARI ICARDA S
Effects of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizerapplication on wheat grain yield
Supplemental irrigation study for responseof wheat productionPlanting irrigation of 50 mm is very effective0.8 t/ha2 t/ha