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Cognitive
Bias
For Emotional Design
B y J o a n a C e r e j o , 2 0 1 9
Today’s MENU
1. Define a Cognitive Bias
2. Describe a Design Implication
of the Bias
3. Present a real example of this
design implication at work
DESIGN EMOTIONS
USER EXPERIENCE DESIGNERS (UXD)
designs how a user interacts and
responds to a service or product.
THAT RESPONSE IS AN EMOTION.
UXD not only strive to design usable,
functional products but to also generate a
certain emotional effect on their audience.
https://www.toptal.com/designers/product-design/design-for-emotion-to-increase-user-engagement
They are two closely related fields.
Cognitive bias should be a powerful
tool in the designer’s belt. Because we
can take advantage of it.
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
DESIGN
We are
Programmed
to Make
Cognitive
Shortcuts
Users / Customers apply
their cognitive functions
during their interaction
with the products and
services we design.
WHAT IS A COGNITIVE BIAS?
They are a series of mental shortcuts, distortions in our
perception that make part of our cognitive activity.
Often Bias are beneficial
but sometimes they can
hurt our designs.
IN OTHER WORDS…
Cognitive Biases are the outcome of the
brain’s attempt to simplify
I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g .
Exploring Cognitive Bias help
us, Designers, to predict
HUMAN IRRATIONALITY.
WHY DESIGNERS SHOULD BE AWARE OF THESE?
t
Cognitive Biases are:
Predi ct abl e
(s ys tem a ti c )
Affect the way users think and feel about a
product or service.
Un co n t ro l l abl e
(i nvo l unta ry)
DESIGN
We can apply Cognitive
Biases to IMPROVE or
ENHANCE our Designs.
But also to
MANIPULATE
our Designs.
But just like in the case
of dark patterns, it
may result in some
quick wins, but it has a
negative impact in the
long run.
USER EXPERIENCE
By understanding the effects of the most
relevant cognitive biases, we can improve
UX not only by trying to avoid the possible
negative consequences, but also by taking
advantage of them!
https://uxknowledgebase.com/cognitive-bias-part-1-8191decf703a
> 1 7 5 COGNITIVE BIAS
BIAS ON DESIGNERS
Another significant aspect is that we,
designers, also have cognitive biases, so
we need to pay attention to these during
the research and
design process.
Blind Spot Bias
BIAS ON DESIGNERS
There are design choices we can make that
help keep harmful cognitive biases in check
(or leverage the for good).
4 PROBLEMS
Biases help us address:
1. Information overload
2. Lack of meaning
3. Need to act fast
4. What should we remember
for later
https://betterhumans.coach.me/cognitive-bias-cheat-
sheet-55a472476b18
4 PROBLEMS
Biases help us address:
1. Information overload
2. Lack of meaning
3. Need to act fast
4. What should we remember
for later
Availability heuristic / Attentional bias /
Illusory truth effect / Mere exposure effect /
Context effect / Cue-dependent forgetting /
Mood-congruent memory bias / Frequency
illusion / Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon /
Empathy gap / Bizarreness effect / Humor
effect / Von Restorff effect / Negativity bias /
Publication bias / Omission bias / Anchoring /
Contrast effect / Focusing effect / Framing
effect / Weber–Fechner law / Distinction bias
/ Confirmation bias / Congruence bias / Post-
purchase rationalization / Choice-supportive
bias / Selective perception / Observer-
expectancy effect / Experimenter’s bias /
Observer effect / Expectation bias / Ostrich
effect / Subjective validation / Continued
influence effect / Semmelweis reflex / Bucket
error / Law of narrative gravity, / Bias blind
spot / Naïve cynicism / Naïve realism
4 PROBLEMS
Biases help us address:
1. Information overload
2. Lack of meaning
3. Need to act fast
4. What should we remember
for later
Confabulation / Clustering illusion / Insensitivity to sample
size / Neglect of probability / Anecdotal fallacy / Illusion of
validity / Masked man fallacy / Recency illusion / Gambler’s
fallacy / Hot-hand fallacy / Illusory correlation / Pareidolia,
Anthropomorphism / Group attribution error / Ultimate
attribution error / Stereotyping / Essentialism / Functional
fixedness / Moral credential effect / Just-world hypothesis /
Argument from fallacy / Authority bias / Automation bias /
Bandwagon effect / Placebo effect / Halo effect / In-group
bias / Out-group homogeneity bias / Cross-race effect /
Cheerleader effect / Well-traveled road effect / Not
invented here / Reactive devaluation / Positivity effect /
Mental accounting / Normalcy bias / Appeal to probability
fallacy / Base rate fallacy / Murphy’s law / Hofstadter’s law
/ Subadditivity effect / Survivorship bias / Zero sum bias /
Denomination effect / Magic number 7+-2 / Swimmer’s body
illusion / Money illusion / Conservatism / Curse of
knowledge / Illusion of transparency / Spotlight effect /
Streetlight effect, / Illusion of external agency / Illusion of
asymmetric insight / Extrinsic incentive error / Hindsight bias
/ Outcome bias / Moral luck / Declinism / Telescoping
effect / Rosy retrospection / Impact bias / Pessimism bias /
Planning fallacy / Time-saving bias / Pro-innovation bias /
Projection bias / Restraint bias / Self-consistency bias
4 PROBLEMS
Biases help us address:
1. Information overload
2. Lack of meaning
3. Need to act fast
4. What should we remember
for later
Overconfidence effect / Egocentric bias / Optimism bias /
Social desirability bias / Third-person effect / Forer effect
/ Barnum effect / Illusion of control / False consensus
effect / Dunning-Kruger effect / Hard-easy effect /
Illusory superiority / Lake Wobegone effect / Self-serving
bias / Actor-observer bias / Fundamental attribution error
/ Defensive attribution hypothesis / Trait ascription bias /
Effort justification / Risk compensation / Peltzman effect
/ Armchair fallacy / Hyperbolic discounting / Appeal to
novelty / Identifiable victim effect / Sunk cost fallacy /
Irrational escalation / Escalation of commitment / Loss
aversion / IKEA effect / Processing difficulty effect /
Generation effect / Zero-risk bias / Disposition effect /
Unit bias / Pseudocertainty effect / Endowment effect /
Backfire effect / System justification / Reactance /
Reverse psychology / Decoy effect / Social comparison
bias / Status quo bias / Abilene paradox / Law of the
instrument / Law of the hammer / Maslow’s hammer /
Golden hammer / Chesterton’s fence / Hippo problem /
Ambiguity bias / Information bias / Belief bias / Rhyme
as reason effect / Bike-shedding effect / Law of Triviality
/ Delmore effect / Conjunction fallacy / Occam’s razor /
Less-is-better effect / Sapir-Whorf-Korzybski hypothesis
4 PROBLEMS
Biases help us address:
1. Information overload
2. Lack of meaning
3. Need to act fast
4. What should we
remember for later
Misattribution of memory / Source
confusion / Cryptomnesia / False memory
/ Suggestibility / Spacing effect / Implicit
associations / Implicit stereotypes /
Stereotypical bias / Prejudice / Fading
affect bias / Peak–end rule / Leveling and
sharpening / Misinformation effect /
Duration neglect / Serial recall effect /
List-length effect / Modality effect /
Memory inhibition / Part-list cueing effect /
Primacy effect / Recency effect / Serial
position effect / Suffix effect / Picture
superiority effect / Levels of processing
effect / Testing effect / Absent-
mindedness / Next-in-line effect / Tip of
the tongue phenomenon / Google effect /
Self-relevance effect
There are a few Cognitive Biases
that have successfully been
changing human behavior and
ultimately increase their user
engagement and retention.
THE VARIABLE SCHEDULE
OF REWARDS BIAS
This Bias is a schedule of reinforcement where a
response is reinforced after an unpredictable
number of responses. This schedule creates a
steady, high rate of responding.
WHAT THIS MEANS?
VARIABLE REWARDS engage more
users than predictable rewards.
There's a lot of social pressure to keep up a Snapstreak.
Design for Evil
Snapstreaks are a good example of what ex-google
design ethicist Tristan Harris calls unethical design.
Unethical designs, according to him, exploit
psychological vulnerabilities to influence what users
do without realizing it.
Duolingo, a platform to learn any language for free
has employed a similar persuasion technique as
Snapchat that ensures that users will keep working
on their learning streak, which in turn engages and
retains users.
THE CONTRAST EFFECT
Contrast Bias is the tendency to promote or
demote something when comparing it to a
contrasting thing.
A Positive Contrast Effect
would occur if something was
perceived as better than it
actually is, because it was
compared to something worse.
A Negative Contrast Effect
would be when something was
perceived as worse than it
actually is, because it was
compared to something better.
BARE IN MIND …
Make your product stand out as much as possible.
Using surprise, differentiation, and shock value, you
can make your product more memorable, and
therefore more likely for people to purchase.
THE NEGATIVE BIAS
Negative Experiences have a bigger impact on
our cognition than do Positive or Neutral ones.
We have a tendency to pay more
attention and give more weight to
negative than positive experiences
or other kinds of information.
BARE IN MIND …
Negative design / information will ring more attention than
positive information.
We can utilize this fact in our designs by paying great
attention to what negative feedback is presented to the user.
If we want users to pay attention to positive information, be
careful not to let negative feedback outshine the positive.
HOW TO AVOID IT?
• Follow design standards
• Match user’s / costumer’s expectations
• Anticipate user’s / costumer’s concerns and address them
• If a digital product / service, write good error messages
• Sprinkle delightful encounters
• Test
https://www.nngroup.com/articles/negativity-bias-ux/
THE IKEA EFFECT
The tendency for people to place a
disproportionately high value on products that
they have partially created or completed it.
The effort creates an E M O TI O N A L bond.
When someone uses their own hands to create something, they holder
it in higher esteem, even if it was done poorly.
HOW TO USE IT?
• Enable customizations if possible
• Allowing users / customers to complete a task that brings
the product or service to a complete state can trigger this
effect.
• This only works if the results are fruitful otherwise can
convert into Negative Bias by raising the levels of frustrations.
HOW TO USE IT?
1. Let your users/customers take part in building and/or
making your product(s) by investing their time and/or
money.
HOW TO USE IT?
2. Give your users /
customers the option
to customize your
product(s).
HOW TO USE IT?
BARE IN MIND …
“Emotional design has risks. If emotional
engagement compromises the functionality,
reliability, or usability of an interface, the positive
experience you wanted will mutate into a rant-
inducing disaster for your users.”
Aarron Walter. “Designing for Emotion.”
THE BABY FACE BIAS
A tendency to see people and things with baby-
faced features as more naïve, helpless, and
honest than those with mature features.
HOW TO USE IT ?
• The use of mascots to create connections with
our audience
T H E E N D

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Cognitive bias for Emotional Design

  • 1. Cognitive Bias For Emotional Design B y J o a n a C e r e j o , 2 0 1 9
  • 2. Today’s MENU 1. Define a Cognitive Bias 2. Describe a Design Implication of the Bias 3. Present a real example of this design implication at work
  • 3. DESIGN EMOTIONS USER EXPERIENCE DESIGNERS (UXD) designs how a user interacts and responds to a service or product. THAT RESPONSE IS AN EMOTION. UXD not only strive to design usable, functional products but to also generate a certain emotional effect on their audience. https://www.toptal.com/designers/product-design/design-for-emotion-to-increase-user-engagement
  • 4. They are two closely related fields. Cognitive bias should be a powerful tool in the designer’s belt. Because we can take advantage of it. COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY DESIGN
  • 5. We are Programmed to Make Cognitive Shortcuts Users / Customers apply their cognitive functions during their interaction with the products and services we design.
  • 6. WHAT IS A COGNITIVE BIAS? They are a series of mental shortcuts, distortions in our perception that make part of our cognitive activity. Often Bias are beneficial but sometimes they can hurt our designs.
  • 7. IN OTHER WORDS… Cognitive Biases are the outcome of the brain’s attempt to simplify I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g .
  • 8. Exploring Cognitive Bias help us, Designers, to predict HUMAN IRRATIONALITY.
  • 9. WHY DESIGNERS SHOULD BE AWARE OF THESE? t Cognitive Biases are: Predi ct abl e (s ys tem a ti c ) Affect the way users think and feel about a product or service. Un co n t ro l l abl e (i nvo l unta ry)
  • 10. DESIGN We can apply Cognitive Biases to IMPROVE or ENHANCE our Designs. But also to MANIPULATE our Designs. But just like in the case of dark patterns, it may result in some quick wins, but it has a negative impact in the long run.
  • 11. USER EXPERIENCE By understanding the effects of the most relevant cognitive biases, we can improve UX not only by trying to avoid the possible negative consequences, but also by taking advantage of them! https://uxknowledgebase.com/cognitive-bias-part-1-8191decf703a
  • 12. > 1 7 5 COGNITIVE BIAS
  • 13. BIAS ON DESIGNERS Another significant aspect is that we, designers, also have cognitive biases, so we need to pay attention to these during the research and design process. Blind Spot Bias
  • 14. BIAS ON DESIGNERS There are design choices we can make that help keep harmful cognitive biases in check (or leverage the for good).
  • 15. 4 PROBLEMS Biases help us address: 1. Information overload 2. Lack of meaning 3. Need to act fast 4. What should we remember for later https://betterhumans.coach.me/cognitive-bias-cheat- sheet-55a472476b18
  • 16. 4 PROBLEMS Biases help us address: 1. Information overload 2. Lack of meaning 3. Need to act fast 4. What should we remember for later Availability heuristic / Attentional bias / Illusory truth effect / Mere exposure effect / Context effect / Cue-dependent forgetting / Mood-congruent memory bias / Frequency illusion / Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon / Empathy gap / Bizarreness effect / Humor effect / Von Restorff effect / Negativity bias / Publication bias / Omission bias / Anchoring / Contrast effect / Focusing effect / Framing effect / Weber–Fechner law / Distinction bias / Confirmation bias / Congruence bias / Post- purchase rationalization / Choice-supportive bias / Selective perception / Observer- expectancy effect / Experimenter’s bias / Observer effect / Expectation bias / Ostrich effect / Subjective validation / Continued influence effect / Semmelweis reflex / Bucket error / Law of narrative gravity, / Bias blind spot / Naïve cynicism / Naïve realism
  • 17. 4 PROBLEMS Biases help us address: 1. Information overload 2. Lack of meaning 3. Need to act fast 4. What should we remember for later Confabulation / Clustering illusion / Insensitivity to sample size / Neglect of probability / Anecdotal fallacy / Illusion of validity / Masked man fallacy / Recency illusion / Gambler’s fallacy / Hot-hand fallacy / Illusory correlation / Pareidolia, Anthropomorphism / Group attribution error / Ultimate attribution error / Stereotyping / Essentialism / Functional fixedness / Moral credential effect / Just-world hypothesis / Argument from fallacy / Authority bias / Automation bias / Bandwagon effect / Placebo effect / Halo effect / In-group bias / Out-group homogeneity bias / Cross-race effect / Cheerleader effect / Well-traveled road effect / Not invented here / Reactive devaluation / Positivity effect / Mental accounting / Normalcy bias / Appeal to probability fallacy / Base rate fallacy / Murphy’s law / Hofstadter’s law / Subadditivity effect / Survivorship bias / Zero sum bias / Denomination effect / Magic number 7+-2 / Swimmer’s body illusion / Money illusion / Conservatism / Curse of knowledge / Illusion of transparency / Spotlight effect / Streetlight effect, / Illusion of external agency / Illusion of asymmetric insight / Extrinsic incentive error / Hindsight bias / Outcome bias / Moral luck / Declinism / Telescoping effect / Rosy retrospection / Impact bias / Pessimism bias / Planning fallacy / Time-saving bias / Pro-innovation bias / Projection bias / Restraint bias / Self-consistency bias
  • 18. 4 PROBLEMS Biases help us address: 1. Information overload 2. Lack of meaning 3. Need to act fast 4. What should we remember for later Overconfidence effect / Egocentric bias / Optimism bias / Social desirability bias / Third-person effect / Forer effect / Barnum effect / Illusion of control / False consensus effect / Dunning-Kruger effect / Hard-easy effect / Illusory superiority / Lake Wobegone effect / Self-serving bias / Actor-observer bias / Fundamental attribution error / Defensive attribution hypothesis / Trait ascription bias / Effort justification / Risk compensation / Peltzman effect / Armchair fallacy / Hyperbolic discounting / Appeal to novelty / Identifiable victim effect / Sunk cost fallacy / Irrational escalation / Escalation of commitment / Loss aversion / IKEA effect / Processing difficulty effect / Generation effect / Zero-risk bias / Disposition effect / Unit bias / Pseudocertainty effect / Endowment effect / Backfire effect / System justification / Reactance / Reverse psychology / Decoy effect / Social comparison bias / Status quo bias / Abilene paradox / Law of the instrument / Law of the hammer / Maslow’s hammer / Golden hammer / Chesterton’s fence / Hippo problem / Ambiguity bias / Information bias / Belief bias / Rhyme as reason effect / Bike-shedding effect / Law of Triviality / Delmore effect / Conjunction fallacy / Occam’s razor / Less-is-better effect / Sapir-Whorf-Korzybski hypothesis
  • 19. 4 PROBLEMS Biases help us address: 1. Information overload 2. Lack of meaning 3. Need to act fast 4. What should we remember for later Misattribution of memory / Source confusion / Cryptomnesia / False memory / Suggestibility / Spacing effect / Implicit associations / Implicit stereotypes / Stereotypical bias / Prejudice / Fading affect bias / Peak–end rule / Leveling and sharpening / Misinformation effect / Duration neglect / Serial recall effect / List-length effect / Modality effect / Memory inhibition / Part-list cueing effect / Primacy effect / Recency effect / Serial position effect / Suffix effect / Picture superiority effect / Levels of processing effect / Testing effect / Absent- mindedness / Next-in-line effect / Tip of the tongue phenomenon / Google effect / Self-relevance effect
  • 20.
  • 21. There are a few Cognitive Biases that have successfully been changing human behavior and ultimately increase their user engagement and retention.
  • 22. THE VARIABLE SCHEDULE OF REWARDS BIAS This Bias is a schedule of reinforcement where a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule creates a steady, high rate of responding.
  • 23. WHAT THIS MEANS? VARIABLE REWARDS engage more users than predictable rewards.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27. There's a lot of social pressure to keep up a Snapstreak.
  • 28.
  • 29. Design for Evil Snapstreaks are a good example of what ex-google design ethicist Tristan Harris calls unethical design. Unethical designs, according to him, exploit psychological vulnerabilities to influence what users do without realizing it.
  • 30. Duolingo, a platform to learn any language for free has employed a similar persuasion technique as Snapchat that ensures that users will keep working on their learning streak, which in turn engages and retains users.
  • 31. THE CONTRAST EFFECT Contrast Bias is the tendency to promote or demote something when comparing it to a contrasting thing.
  • 32.
  • 33. A Positive Contrast Effect would occur if something was perceived as better than it actually is, because it was compared to something worse. A Negative Contrast Effect would be when something was perceived as worse than it actually is, because it was compared to something better.
  • 34.
  • 35. BARE IN MIND … Make your product stand out as much as possible. Using surprise, differentiation, and shock value, you can make your product more memorable, and therefore more likely for people to purchase.
  • 36. THE NEGATIVE BIAS Negative Experiences have a bigger impact on our cognition than do Positive or Neutral ones.
  • 37. We have a tendency to pay more attention and give more weight to negative than positive experiences or other kinds of information.
  • 38. BARE IN MIND … Negative design / information will ring more attention than positive information. We can utilize this fact in our designs by paying great attention to what negative feedback is presented to the user. If we want users to pay attention to positive information, be careful not to let negative feedback outshine the positive.
  • 39. HOW TO AVOID IT? • Follow design standards • Match user’s / costumer’s expectations • Anticipate user’s / costumer’s concerns and address them • If a digital product / service, write good error messages • Sprinkle delightful encounters • Test https://www.nngroup.com/articles/negativity-bias-ux/
  • 40. THE IKEA EFFECT The tendency for people to place a disproportionately high value on products that they have partially created or completed it.
  • 41. The effort creates an E M O TI O N A L bond. When someone uses their own hands to create something, they holder it in higher esteem, even if it was done poorly.
  • 42.
  • 43. HOW TO USE IT? • Enable customizations if possible • Allowing users / customers to complete a task that brings the product or service to a complete state can trigger this effect. • This only works if the results are fruitful otherwise can convert into Negative Bias by raising the levels of frustrations.
  • 44. HOW TO USE IT? 1. Let your users/customers take part in building and/or making your product(s) by investing their time and/or money.
  • 45. HOW TO USE IT? 2. Give your users / customers the option to customize your product(s).
  • 46. HOW TO USE IT?
  • 47. BARE IN MIND … “Emotional design has risks. If emotional engagement compromises the functionality, reliability, or usability of an interface, the positive experience you wanted will mutate into a rant- inducing disaster for your users.” Aarron Walter. “Designing for Emotion.”
  • 48. THE BABY FACE BIAS A tendency to see people and things with baby- faced features as more naïve, helpless, and honest than those with mature features.
  • 49. HOW TO USE IT ? • The use of mascots to create connections with our audience
  • 50. T H E E N D