SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 27
Download to read offline
ANTI-CANCER DRUGS
SUBMITTED TO; SUBMITTED BY;
Ms. Neelam Painuly Mr. Anupam
Associate Professor M. Pharm(PHARMACOLOGY)
Sopr.Neelam@dbuu.ac.in anupanni111@gmail.com
SoPR, DBUU, Dehradun SoPR, DBUU, Dehradun
CONTENTS
 INTRODUCTION
 TYPES OF CANCER
 CELL CYCLE
 CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI-CANCER DRUGS
 DISEASE AND THEIR DRUF OF CHOICE
 REFERENCES
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 2
INTRODUCTION
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines the cancer as a wide range of diseases which produces
impact on any body part. The term "metastasis" refers to the unchecked proliferation & dissemination of
aberrant cells to various parts of body via the lymphatic or circulatory systems.
Cancer is a cell disease defined by abnormal, purposeless, progressive, persistent, and uncontrollably
growing tissue.
Cancer cell produce oncoproteins in the absence of growth factor or external stimuli.
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 3
Fig1: Process of cancer cell development.
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 4
TYPES OF
CANCER
Carcinoma
Skin cells
and organs
like the
kidney or
liver
cancer.
Sarcoma
Bone,
cartilage,
fat, muscle,
connective
tissue and
supportive
tissue
cancer.
Leukaemia
Bone
marrow
cancer that
results in
an
excessive
quantity of
irregular
blood cells.
Myeloma
and
lymphoma
Immune
system
cancer.
CNS
Cancer
Brain and
Spinal cord
cancer.
Germ cell
Cancer
Testicle and
Ovarian
cancer.
Cell Cycle of both Normal as well as Cancer Cells
1. G1 phase (pre-synthetic phase, 40%): Enzyme and other
biological components required for DNA synthesis are
synthesised.
2. S phase (synthetic phase, 39%): The synthesis of DNA occurs.
3. G2 phase (pre-mitotic phase, 19%): biological components
necessary for myosis are synthesised (RNA and protein
synthesis).
4. M phase (mitotic phase, 2.1%): Division of mitotic cells occur.
5. G0 phase (resting phase): Stop division of cells.
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 5
Fig2: Cell Cycle
CLASSIFICATION
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 6
ANTI- METABOLITES
TAXANES
CAMPTOTHECINS
ENZYME
HORMONAL AGENTS
ANTIBIOTICS
EPIPODOPHYLLOTOXINS
VINCA ALKALOIDS
ALKYLATING AGENTS
ANTI-CANCER
DRUGS
MISCELLANEOUS
AGENTS
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI-CANCER DRUGS
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 7
1. Alkylating agents
a) Nitrogen Mustered: - Mechlorethamine, Cyclophosphamide, Melphalan, Chlorambucil.
b) Alkyl Sulfonate: - Busulphan.
c) Nitrosoureas: - Carmustine, Lomustine.
d) Platinum-containing compound: - Cisplatin, Carboplatin.
e) Triazene: - Dacarbazine.
2. Antimetabolites
a) Folate antagonists: - Methotrexate.
b) Purine antagonists: - 6-Mercaptopurine, 6-Thioguinine.
c) Pyrimidine antagonists: - 5-Fluorouracil, Cytarabine.
3. Vinca Alkaloid: - Vincristine, Vinblastine.
4. Taxanes: - Paclitaxel, Docetaxel.
5. Epipodophyllotoxins: - Etoposide, Tenoposide.
6. Camptothecins: - Topotecan, Irinotecan.
7. Antibiotics: - Actinomycin, Bleomycin, Mitomycin, Doxorubicin.
8. Enzymes: - L-Asparaginase.
9. Miscellaneous agents: - Hydroxyurea, Imatinib.
10. Hormonal drugs
a) Oestrogen: - Ethnyl estradiol, Fosfestrol.
b) Oestrogen receptor modulator: - Tamoxifen.
c) Aromatase inhibitor: - Anastrozole, Letrozole.
d) Antiandrogen: - Flutamide.
e) Progestin: - Hydroxyprogesterone acetate.
f) Androgen: - Testosterone propionate.
g) GnRH analogue: - Buserelin.
h) Corticosteroids: - Prednisolone.
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 8
Anti-Cancer Drugs may be divided into two groups:
1. Cell Cycle Specific (CCS): Act mainly in dividing cell.
2. Cell Cycle Non-Specific (CCNS): Act mainly in dividing cell as well as resting cell.
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 9
Cell Cycle Specific (CCS) Cell Cycle Non-Specific (CCNS)
Antimetabolites Alkylating Agents
Vinca Alkaloids Antibiotics
Taxanes Camptothecins
Epipodophyllotoxins
ALKYLATING AGENTS
Agents that works by directly damaging the DNA of cancer cell by getting converting to azindinum ion and
bond with the nitrogen atom at 7th position in the guanine of DNA.
These drugs come under CCNS (Cell Cycle Non-Specific Drugs).
 Mechanism of Action:
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 10
a) Nitrogen Mustered: - Mechlorethamine, Cyclophosphamide, Melphalan, Chlorambucil.
i. Cyclophosphamide: It is a prodrug and alkylating agent which activated in liver.
 It is effective after metabolism and administered orally and IV route.
 Also have powerful immunosuppressant activity.
 Drug of choice in Lung Cancer.
Mechanism of Action:
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 11
ii. Chlorambucil: It is a slow acting alkylating agent.
Drug of choice in lymphatic leukaemia.
Toxicity of chlorambucil is pulmonary fibrosis.
iii. Melphalan: It is a alkylating agent which is treatment of choice for ovarian and testicular cancer.
b) Alkyl Sulfonate: - Busulphan.
Busulphan is a bi-functional methane sulphonic ester that forms transferred cross-linking with DNA results in
cell death.
Drug of choice in myeloid leukaemia.
It depresses bone marrow and have common side effects are hyperuricemia and pigmentation of skin.
c) Nitrosoureas: - Carmustine, Lomustine.
These drugs are highly lipid soluble drugs.
It reaches in high concentration in Blood Brain Barrier (BBB).
Mainly used for Brain Tumours (Drug of choice).
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 12
d) Platinum-containing compound: - Cisplatin, Carboplatin.
 Heavy metal complex that shows strong neoplastic action.
i. Cisplatin: It causes nephropathy, emesis and nephrotoxicity.
Mechanism of Action:
ii. Carboplatin: It is a derivative of cisplatin with less Neuro, Nephro and Ototoxicity.
e) Triazene: - Dacarbazine.
 Dacarbazine inhibit RNA and protein synthesis that results in cell death.
 Dacarbazine is a drug of choice in malignant myeloma.
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 13
ANTIMETABOLITES
These drugs inhibit the proliferation and development of cancer cells.
 These drugs mimic normal cellular metabolites and integrated into DNA and RNA during the cell cycle, disrupting the
synthesis of nucleic acids and ultimately leading to cell death.
 Therse drugs acts in S phase.
a) Folate antagonists: - Methotrexate (inhibit dihydrofolate reductase).
 Methotrexate drug have anti-neoplastic, immunosuppressant and anti-inflammatory effects.
 Antidote for methotrexate is Folinic Acid.
 Methotrexate shows Hepatotoxicity, Obstructive Nephropathy.
Mechanism of Action:
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 14
b) Purine antagonists: - 6-Mercaptopurine, 6-Thioguinine.
 These drugs come under CCS (Cell Cycle Specific Drugs) and acts in S phase.
 Purine antagonists cause Hepatotoxicity.
Mechanism of Action:
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 15
c) Pyrimidine antagonists: - 5-Fluorouracil, Cytarabine.
 These drugs come under CCS (Cell Cycle Specific Drugs) and acts in S phase.
i. 5-Fluorouracil: It cause Hand and Foot Syndrome and Neurotoxicity.
Mechanism of Action:
ii. Cytarabine: It cause neurotoxicity.
 Cytarabine is a drug of choice with combination of Idarubicin in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia.
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 16
VINCAALKALOIDS
These drugs are cell cycle specific (CCS) and acts in M phase.
Vincristine and Vinblastine are derived from periwinkle plants.
Vinca alkaloid cause Peripheral Neuropathy.
Vinblastine is used to treat leukaemia in children’s and Vincristine is used to treat breast cancer.
Mechanism of Action:
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 17
TAXANES
It enhanced stability of microtubule preventing the separation of chromosomes during anaphase.
 It decreases the ability of bone marrow to produce blood cells. e.g., Paclitaxel, Docetaxel.
i. Paclitaxel: It causes peripheral neuropathy and hypersensitivity.
ii. Docetaxel: It causes peripheral neuropathy as well as fluid retention.
EPIPODOPHYLLOTOXINS
Drugs that acts in G2 phase and S phase of cell cycle. e.g., Etoposide, Tenoposide.
Etoposide causes Bone marrow depression and GI side effects.
Mechanism of Action:
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 18
CAMPTOTHECINS
Drugs that acts in G2 phase and S phase of cell cycle. e.g., Topotecan, Irinotecan.
 These are used in Ovarian, Lungs, Colorectal cancer.
Mechanism of Action: Camptothecins binds to topoisomerase-I (a nuclear enzyme that replicate DNA and transcription)
complex and inhibit the resealing of DNA, thus produce cell death.
ANTIBIOTICS
All these drugs produce direct action on DNA & they act by blocking the transcription of DNA.
e.g., Actinomycin, Bleomycin, Mitomycin, Doxorubicin.
i. Actinomycin: It administered through IV route.
Mechanism of Action: Actinomycin also produces direct action of DNA & they act by blocking the transcription of DNA.
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 19
ii. Bleomycin: A mixture of glycopeptide antibiotics.
 It acts on G2 phase and M phase of cell cycle.
 It also crosses BBB (Blood Brain Barrier), so it is used to treat Brain cancer.
 Bleomycin is given as a drug of choice with combination of Cisplatin and Etoposide to treat testis cancer.
ii. Mitomycin: It causes cross-linking of DNA and generates free radicals which damage DNA.
iii. Doxorubicin: It causes Cardiotoxicity.
Mechanism of Action:
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 20
ENZYME
Enzyme is isolated from bacteria specially ecoli.
It is a necessary amino acid for the production of proteins. e.g., L-Asparaginase.
 Cancer cells lack of this enzyme.
 It causes toxicity of Hypersensitivity, Hyperglycaemia, Haemorrhage.
Mechanism of Action:
Normal cells can synthesize asparagine because they contain asparagine synthase.
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 21
MISCELLANEOUS AGENTS
It acts on S phase of cell cycle (CCS drugs).
e.g., Hydroxyurea, Imatinib.
Mechanism of Action: Hydroxyurea interferes with the conversion of RBC to DNA by inhibiting ribonucleoside
diphosphate reductase, this results in inhibition of DNA synthesis.
HORMONALAGENTS
These agents are non-cytotoxic but it modifies the growth of hormones dependent tumour.
a) Oestrogen: - These are physically antagonist of androgen; hence oestrogen is used to antagonise the effect of androgen.
 Widely used in Prostate cancer.
 e.g., Ethnyl estradiol, Fosfestrol.
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 22
b) Oestrogen receptor modulator: - It is a compound that can interact with oestrogen receptors
in the body and modulate their activities.
These can act as either agonist (activating the receptor) or antagonist (blocking the receptor) of
oestrogen receptors, depending on the specific tissue type.
 E.g., Tamoxifen i.e. highly effective in Breast cancer.
c) Aromatase inhibitor: - These are used in the post-monophasic menstrual cycle to treat
hormone-dependent breast cancer. e.g., Anastrozole, Letrozole.
d) Antiandrogen: - It antagonizes the androgen action on prostate cancer. E.g., Flutamide.
e) Progestin: - Used to treat endometrium cancer. e.g., Hydroxyprogesterone acetate.
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 23
f) Androgen: - e.g., Testosterone propionate.
Testosterone propionate is an injectable medication that is used as hormone replacement therapy in
men with less testosterone levels and female breast cancer.
g) GnRH analogue: - These drugs produce arising LH (Luteinizing hormone) and FSH (Follicle
stimulating hormone).
These are effective in advance prosthetic & breast cancer.
e.g., Buserelin.
h) Corticosteroids: - It produces feeling of well-being and it suppress the hypersensitivity
reactions.
These drugs having anti-inflammatory activity and it decreases Glaucoma.
e.g., Prednisolone.
Mechanism of Action: Prednisolone interfere with the cell cycle of activated lymphoid cells.
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 24
Diseases and their Drug of Choice
Diseases Drug of Choice
Brain Tumour Nitrosourea
Lung Cancer Cyclophosphamide
Ovarian and Testicular Cancer Melphalan
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Cytarebine + Idarabicin
Testis Cancer Bleomycin + Cisplatin + Etoposide
Myeloid Leukaemia Busulfan
Breast Cancer Tamoxifen
Prostate Cancer Oestrogen
Lymphatic Leukaemia Chlorambucil
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 25
REFERENCES
1. https://lecture-notes.tiu.edu.iq/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/Anticancer-drugs-26.-4.2023.pptx
2. https://www.intechopen.com/books/potential-of-essential-oils/potential-of-medicinal-use-of-essential-oils-from-aromatic-plants
3. https://1filedownload.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Pharmacology-Dr-Sparsh-Gupta-Book.pdf
4. https://www.slideshare.net/nasertadvi/14cancer-chemotherapy
5. https://tse3.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.rDyuhrnIE8uf2FHxzn_EtAHaHa&pid=Api&P=0&h=180
6. https://tse1.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.6HKR8HQQZ_t0EmsbkUx2IwHaGI&pid=Api&P=0&h=180
7. https://5.imimg.com/data5/SELLER/Default/2021/11/SB/ZW/HY/73501836/ciszest-50-500x500.jpeg
8. https://tse3.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.Telrn-utZ6j27mHyOZQyKAHaFj&pid=Api&P=0&h=180
9. https://tse3.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.YxqRigXAdlD4XJ56XhXGpAAAAA&pid=Api&P=0&h=180
10. https://tse3.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.w83pkK9cLq3tdz-2gBHGfAHaHa&pid=Api&P=0&h=180
11. https://tse4.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.WbeCLdryJc48T6K0tnyexAHaHa&pid=Api&P=0&h=180
12. https://tse1.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.tWWEPlzqRZwxBR7uXSrzaAHaHa&pid=Api&P=0&h=180
13. https://tse1.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.Z1n3HiHCk806Fd5KneSqSwHaHa&pid=Api&P=0&h=180
14. https://www.magicinepharma.com/img/products/blogs/1%20(18).jpg
15. https://tse1.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.AtNHmXd2AUpJ4ygD8Yi7AwHaGE&pid=Api&P=0&h=180
16. https://cpimg.tistatic.com/05475036/b/4/extra-05475036.jpg
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 26
THANK YOU
SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 27

More Related Content

What's hot

immunostimulants
immunostimulantsimmunostimulants
immunostimulantsacademic
 
Immunosuppressant drugs by Pankaj Maurya
Immunosuppressant drugs by Pankaj Maurya Immunosuppressant drugs by Pankaj Maurya
Immunosuppressant drugs by Pankaj Maurya Pankaj Maurya
 
Immunopharmacology
ImmunopharmacologyImmunopharmacology
ImmunopharmacologyManish Kumar
 
chronopharmacology.pptx
chronopharmacology.pptxchronopharmacology.pptx
chronopharmacology.pptxDrSeemaBansal
 
Immunostimulants & immunosuppressants
Immunostimulants & immunosuppressantsImmunostimulants & immunosuppressants
Immunostimulants & immunosuppressantsNiraliThakkar20
 
Endocrine pharmacology
Endocrine pharmacologyEndocrine pharmacology
Endocrine pharmacologyPavana K A
 
Antiemetics, Anti-Diarrheals and Drugs for Constipation and irritable bowel s...
Antiemetics, Anti-Diarrheals and Drugs for Constipation and irritable bowel s...Antiemetics, Anti-Diarrheals and Drugs for Constipation and irritable bowel s...
Antiemetics, Anti-Diarrheals and Drugs for Constipation and irritable bowel s...KuldeepKumar56017
 
Expt 3 antiulcer activity by pyloric ligation method
Expt 3  antiulcer activity by pyloric ligation methodExpt 3  antiulcer activity by pyloric ligation method
Expt 3 antiulcer activity by pyloric ligation methodMirzaAnwarBaig1
 
Protozoal infections and antiprotozoal drugs(therapy).
Protozoal infections and antiprotozoal drugs(therapy).Protozoal infections and antiprotozoal drugs(therapy).
Protozoal infections and antiprotozoal drugs(therapy).Gagandeep Jaiswal
 
Drug affecting calcium regulation
Drug affecting calcium regulationDrug affecting calcium regulation
Drug affecting calcium regulationRishabhchalotra
 
CHRONOPHARMACOLOGY UNIT- 12 GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY
CHRONOPHARMACOLOGY UNIT- 12 GENERAL PHARMACOLOGYCHRONOPHARMACOLOGY UNIT- 12 GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY
CHRONOPHARMACOLOGY UNIT- 12 GENERAL PHARMACOLOGYPHARMA IQ EDUCATION
 
Anticancer drugs: Classification , general toxicity and Alkylating agents.
Anticancer drugs: Classification , general toxicity and Alkylating agents.Anticancer drugs: Classification , general toxicity and Alkylating agents.
Anticancer drugs: Classification , general toxicity and Alkylating agents.Ameena Kadar
 
DRUGS USED IN HELMINTHIASIS
DRUGS USED IN HELMINTHIASISDRUGS USED IN HELMINTHIASIS
DRUGS USED IN HELMINTHIASISDinesh Gangoda
 

What's hot (20)

immunostimulants
immunostimulantsimmunostimulants
immunostimulants
 
Immunosuppressant drugs by Pankaj Maurya
Immunosuppressant drugs by Pankaj Maurya Immunosuppressant drugs by Pankaj Maurya
Immunosuppressant drugs by Pankaj Maurya
 
Antiulcer drugs
Antiulcer drugsAntiulcer drugs
Antiulcer drugs
 
Drugs for helminthiasis.
Drugs for helminthiasis.Drugs for helminthiasis.
Drugs for helminthiasis.
 
immuno stimulants
immuno stimulants immuno stimulants
immuno stimulants
 
Immunopharmacology
ImmunopharmacologyImmunopharmacology
Immunopharmacology
 
chronopharmacology.pptx
chronopharmacology.pptxchronopharmacology.pptx
chronopharmacology.pptx
 
Genotoxicity studies
Genotoxicity studiesGenotoxicity studies
Genotoxicity studies
 
Pharmacology of anti ulcer drugs
Pharmacology of anti ulcer drugsPharmacology of anti ulcer drugs
Pharmacology of anti ulcer drugs
 
Acute eye irritation oecd
Acute eye irritation oecdAcute eye irritation oecd
Acute eye irritation oecd
 
Immunostimulants & immunosuppressants
Immunostimulants & immunosuppressantsImmunostimulants & immunosuppressants
Immunostimulants & immunosuppressants
 
Endocrine pharmacology
Endocrine pharmacologyEndocrine pharmacology
Endocrine pharmacology
 
Antiemetics, Anti-Diarrheals and Drugs for Constipation and irritable bowel s...
Antiemetics, Anti-Diarrheals and Drugs for Constipation and irritable bowel s...Antiemetics, Anti-Diarrheals and Drugs for Constipation and irritable bowel s...
Antiemetics, Anti-Diarrheals and Drugs for Constipation and irritable bowel s...
 
Chronopharmacology
ChronopharmacologyChronopharmacology
Chronopharmacology
 
Expt 3 antiulcer activity by pyloric ligation method
Expt 3  antiulcer activity by pyloric ligation methodExpt 3  antiulcer activity by pyloric ligation method
Expt 3 antiulcer activity by pyloric ligation method
 
Protozoal infections and antiprotozoal drugs(therapy).
Protozoal infections and antiprotozoal drugs(therapy).Protozoal infections and antiprotozoal drugs(therapy).
Protozoal infections and antiprotozoal drugs(therapy).
 
Drug affecting calcium regulation
Drug affecting calcium regulationDrug affecting calcium regulation
Drug affecting calcium regulation
 
CHRONOPHARMACOLOGY UNIT- 12 GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY
CHRONOPHARMACOLOGY UNIT- 12 GENERAL PHARMACOLOGYCHRONOPHARMACOLOGY UNIT- 12 GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY
CHRONOPHARMACOLOGY UNIT- 12 GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY
 
Anticancer drugs: Classification , general toxicity and Alkylating agents.
Anticancer drugs: Classification , general toxicity and Alkylating agents.Anticancer drugs: Classification , general toxicity and Alkylating agents.
Anticancer drugs: Classification , general toxicity and Alkylating agents.
 
DRUGS USED IN HELMINTHIASIS
DRUGS USED IN HELMINTHIASISDRUGS USED IN HELMINTHIASIS
DRUGS USED IN HELMINTHIASIS
 

Similar to CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx

ANTI-CANCER DRUGS: All you need to know by RxVichuz!
ANTI-CANCER DRUGS: All you need to know by RxVichuz!ANTI-CANCER DRUGS: All you need to know by RxVichuz!
ANTI-CANCER DRUGS: All you need to know by RxVichuz!RxVichuZ
 
Anticancer drugs persentation
Anticancer drugs persentationAnticancer drugs persentation
Anticancer drugs persentationROHIT PAL
 
Antineoplastic agents/ Anticancer agents
Antineoplastic agents/ Anticancer agentsAntineoplastic agents/ Anticancer agents
Antineoplastic agents/ Anticancer agentsAmbareen Fatima Ahmed
 
Chemotherapy of cancer
Chemotherapy of cancer Chemotherapy of cancer
Chemotherapy of cancer DollyChauhan10
 
AntineoplasticAgentsby KEMISA. HASSEN ZAINABU
AntineoplasticAgentsby KEMISA. HASSEN ZAINABU AntineoplasticAgentsby KEMISA. HASSEN ZAINABU
AntineoplasticAgentsby KEMISA. HASSEN ZAINABU HASSENZAINABUKEMISA
 
Recent advances in anticancer agents
Recent advances  in anticancer agentsRecent advances  in anticancer agents
Recent advances in anticancer agentsDipesh Kakadiya
 
Neoplasm and Antineoplastic Agents
Neoplasm and Antineoplastic AgentsNeoplasm and Antineoplastic Agents
Neoplasm and Antineoplastic Agentspankaj patel
 
Medicinal chemistry-Anticancer agents
Medicinal chemistry-Anticancer agentsMedicinal chemistry-Anticancer agents
Medicinal chemistry-Anticancer agentsDHARMENDRA BARIA
 
Brief review of renal failure with chemotherapeutic agents
Brief review of renal failure with chemotherapeutic agentsBrief review of renal failure with chemotherapeutic agents
Brief review of renal failure with chemotherapeutic agentsKasarla Dr Ramesh
 
Cancer and anti neoplastic agents
Cancer and anti neoplastic agentsCancer and anti neoplastic agents
Cancer and anti neoplastic agentsvarshitha Nakka
 

Similar to CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx (20)

anti cancer drugs.ppt
anti cancer drugs.pptanti cancer drugs.ppt
anti cancer drugs.ppt
 
ANTI-CANCER DRUGS: All you need to know by RxVichuz!
ANTI-CANCER DRUGS: All you need to know by RxVichuz!ANTI-CANCER DRUGS: All you need to know by RxVichuz!
ANTI-CANCER DRUGS: All you need to know by RxVichuz!
 
Anticancer drugs persentation
Anticancer drugs persentationAnticancer drugs persentation
Anticancer drugs persentation
 
Anti cancer drugs
Anti  cancer drugs Anti  cancer drugs
Anti cancer drugs
 
Anticancer drugs.pptx
Anticancer drugs.pptxAnticancer drugs.pptx
Anticancer drugs.pptx
 
Chemotherapy of cancer
Chemotherapy of cancerChemotherapy of cancer
Chemotherapy of cancer
 
Canc2
Canc2Canc2
Canc2
 
Antineoplastic agents/ Anticancer agents
Antineoplastic agents/ Anticancer agentsAntineoplastic agents/ Anticancer agents
Antineoplastic agents/ Anticancer agents
 
Nz pep lecture_jan2016
Nz pep lecture_jan2016Nz pep lecture_jan2016
Nz pep lecture_jan2016
 
Chemotherapy of cancer
Chemotherapy of cancer Chemotherapy of cancer
Chemotherapy of cancer
 
ANTICANCER.pdf
ANTICANCER.pdfANTICANCER.pdf
ANTICANCER.pdf
 
AntineoplasticAgentsby KEMISA. HASSEN ZAINABU
AntineoplasticAgentsby KEMISA. HASSEN ZAINABU AntineoplasticAgentsby KEMISA. HASSEN ZAINABU
AntineoplasticAgentsby KEMISA. HASSEN ZAINABU
 
Recent advances in anticancer agents
Recent advances  in anticancer agentsRecent advances  in anticancer agents
Recent advances in anticancer agents
 
Neoplasm and Antineoplastic Agents
Neoplasm and Antineoplastic AgentsNeoplasm and Antineoplastic Agents
Neoplasm and Antineoplastic Agents
 
Medicinal chemistry-Anticancer agents
Medicinal chemistry-Anticancer agentsMedicinal chemistry-Anticancer agents
Medicinal chemistry-Anticancer agents
 
Renal transplant
Renal transplant Renal transplant
Renal transplant
 
Brief review of renal failure with chemotherapeutic agents
Brief review of renal failure with chemotherapeutic agentsBrief review of renal failure with chemotherapeutic agents
Brief review of renal failure with chemotherapeutic agents
 
Himanshu
HimanshuHimanshu
Himanshu
 
Cancer and anti neoplastic agents
Cancer and anti neoplastic agentsCancer and anti neoplastic agents
Cancer and anti neoplastic agents
 
Principles of cancer chemotherapy (2) (2)
Principles of cancer chemotherapy (2) (2)Principles of cancer chemotherapy (2) (2)
Principles of cancer chemotherapy (2) (2)
 

Recently uploaded

Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45
Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45
Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45MysoreMuleSoftMeetup
 
....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf
....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf
....................Muslim-Law notes.pdfVikramadityaRaj
 
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjMohammed Sikander
 
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).Mohamed Rizk Khodair
 
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptx
ANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptxANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptx
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptxPoojaSen20
 
Software testing for project report .pdf
Software testing for project report .pdfSoftware testing for project report .pdf
Software testing for project report .pdfKamal Acharya
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxMarlene Maheu
 
Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17
Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17
Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17Celine George
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024Borja Sotomayor
 
HVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptx
HVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptxHVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptx
HVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptxKunal10679
 
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxheathfieldcps1
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnershipsexpandedwebsite
 
philosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the lifephilosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the lifeNitinDeodare
 
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
MOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptxMOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptx
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptxPoojaSen20
 
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...Mark Carrigan
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchCaitlinCummins3
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45
Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45
Exploring Gemini AI and Integration with MuleSoft | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #45
 
....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf
....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf
....................Muslim-Law notes.pdf
 
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
 
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE .
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE                       .“O BEIJO” EM ARTE                       .
“O BEIJO” EM ARTE .
 
Operations Management - Book1.p - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
Operations Management - Book1.p  - Dr. Abdulfatah A. SalemOperations Management - Book1.p  - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
Operations Management - Book1.p - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
 
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
 
Word Stress rules esl .pptx
Word Stress rules esl               .pptxWord Stress rules esl               .pptx
Word Stress rules esl .pptx
 
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptx
ANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptxANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptx
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptx
 
Software testing for project report .pdf
Software testing for project report .pdfSoftware testing for project report .pdf
Software testing for project report .pdf
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
 
Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17
Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17
Features of Video Calls in the Discuss Module in Odoo 17
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
 
HVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptx
HVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptxHVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptx
HVAC System | Audit of HVAC System | Audit and regulatory Comploance.pptx
 
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
 
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with Text Classification and Open Source"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with Text Classification and Open Source"Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with Text Classification and Open Source"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with Text Classification and Open Source"
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
 
philosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the lifephilosophy and it's principles based on the life
philosophy and it's principles based on the life
 
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
MOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptxMOOD     STABLIZERS           DRUGS.pptx
MOOD STABLIZERS DRUGS.pptx
 
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
Navigating the Misinformation Minefield: The Role of Higher Education in the ...
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
 

CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx

  • 1. ANTI-CANCER DRUGS SUBMITTED TO; SUBMITTED BY; Ms. Neelam Painuly Mr. Anupam Associate Professor M. Pharm(PHARMACOLOGY) Sopr.Neelam@dbuu.ac.in anupanni111@gmail.com SoPR, DBUU, Dehradun SoPR, DBUU, Dehradun
  • 2. CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  TYPES OF CANCER  CELL CYCLE  CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI-CANCER DRUGS  DISEASE AND THEIR DRUF OF CHOICE  REFERENCES SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION The World Health Organization (WHO) defines the cancer as a wide range of diseases which produces impact on any body part. The term "metastasis" refers to the unchecked proliferation & dissemination of aberrant cells to various parts of body via the lymphatic or circulatory systems. Cancer is a cell disease defined by abnormal, purposeless, progressive, persistent, and uncontrollably growing tissue. Cancer cell produce oncoproteins in the absence of growth factor or external stimuli. SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 3 Fig1: Process of cancer cell development.
  • 4. SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 4 TYPES OF CANCER Carcinoma Skin cells and organs like the kidney or liver cancer. Sarcoma Bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, connective tissue and supportive tissue cancer. Leukaemia Bone marrow cancer that results in an excessive quantity of irregular blood cells. Myeloma and lymphoma Immune system cancer. CNS Cancer Brain and Spinal cord cancer. Germ cell Cancer Testicle and Ovarian cancer.
  • 5. Cell Cycle of both Normal as well as Cancer Cells 1. G1 phase (pre-synthetic phase, 40%): Enzyme and other biological components required for DNA synthesis are synthesised. 2. S phase (synthetic phase, 39%): The synthesis of DNA occurs. 3. G2 phase (pre-mitotic phase, 19%): biological components necessary for myosis are synthesised (RNA and protein synthesis). 4. M phase (mitotic phase, 2.1%): Division of mitotic cells occur. 5. G0 phase (resting phase): Stop division of cells. SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 5 Fig2: Cell Cycle
  • 6. CLASSIFICATION SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 6 ANTI- METABOLITES TAXANES CAMPTOTHECINS ENZYME HORMONAL AGENTS ANTIBIOTICS EPIPODOPHYLLOTOXINS VINCA ALKALOIDS ALKYLATING AGENTS ANTI-CANCER DRUGS MISCELLANEOUS AGENTS
  • 7. CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI-CANCER DRUGS SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 7 1. Alkylating agents a) Nitrogen Mustered: - Mechlorethamine, Cyclophosphamide, Melphalan, Chlorambucil. b) Alkyl Sulfonate: - Busulphan. c) Nitrosoureas: - Carmustine, Lomustine. d) Platinum-containing compound: - Cisplatin, Carboplatin. e) Triazene: - Dacarbazine. 2. Antimetabolites a) Folate antagonists: - Methotrexate. b) Purine antagonists: - 6-Mercaptopurine, 6-Thioguinine. c) Pyrimidine antagonists: - 5-Fluorouracil, Cytarabine.
  • 8. 3. Vinca Alkaloid: - Vincristine, Vinblastine. 4. Taxanes: - Paclitaxel, Docetaxel. 5. Epipodophyllotoxins: - Etoposide, Tenoposide. 6. Camptothecins: - Topotecan, Irinotecan. 7. Antibiotics: - Actinomycin, Bleomycin, Mitomycin, Doxorubicin. 8. Enzymes: - L-Asparaginase. 9. Miscellaneous agents: - Hydroxyurea, Imatinib. 10. Hormonal drugs a) Oestrogen: - Ethnyl estradiol, Fosfestrol. b) Oestrogen receptor modulator: - Tamoxifen. c) Aromatase inhibitor: - Anastrozole, Letrozole. d) Antiandrogen: - Flutamide. e) Progestin: - Hydroxyprogesterone acetate. f) Androgen: - Testosterone propionate. g) GnRH analogue: - Buserelin. h) Corticosteroids: - Prednisolone. SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 8
  • 9. Anti-Cancer Drugs may be divided into two groups: 1. Cell Cycle Specific (CCS): Act mainly in dividing cell. 2. Cell Cycle Non-Specific (CCNS): Act mainly in dividing cell as well as resting cell. SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 9 Cell Cycle Specific (CCS) Cell Cycle Non-Specific (CCNS) Antimetabolites Alkylating Agents Vinca Alkaloids Antibiotics Taxanes Camptothecins Epipodophyllotoxins
  • 10. ALKYLATING AGENTS Agents that works by directly damaging the DNA of cancer cell by getting converting to azindinum ion and bond with the nitrogen atom at 7th position in the guanine of DNA. These drugs come under CCNS (Cell Cycle Non-Specific Drugs).  Mechanism of Action: SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 10
  • 11. a) Nitrogen Mustered: - Mechlorethamine, Cyclophosphamide, Melphalan, Chlorambucil. i. Cyclophosphamide: It is a prodrug and alkylating agent which activated in liver.  It is effective after metabolism and administered orally and IV route.  Also have powerful immunosuppressant activity.  Drug of choice in Lung Cancer. Mechanism of Action: SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 11
  • 12. ii. Chlorambucil: It is a slow acting alkylating agent. Drug of choice in lymphatic leukaemia. Toxicity of chlorambucil is pulmonary fibrosis. iii. Melphalan: It is a alkylating agent which is treatment of choice for ovarian and testicular cancer. b) Alkyl Sulfonate: - Busulphan. Busulphan is a bi-functional methane sulphonic ester that forms transferred cross-linking with DNA results in cell death. Drug of choice in myeloid leukaemia. It depresses bone marrow and have common side effects are hyperuricemia and pigmentation of skin. c) Nitrosoureas: - Carmustine, Lomustine. These drugs are highly lipid soluble drugs. It reaches in high concentration in Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). Mainly used for Brain Tumours (Drug of choice). SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 12
  • 13. d) Platinum-containing compound: - Cisplatin, Carboplatin.  Heavy metal complex that shows strong neoplastic action. i. Cisplatin: It causes nephropathy, emesis and nephrotoxicity. Mechanism of Action: ii. Carboplatin: It is a derivative of cisplatin with less Neuro, Nephro and Ototoxicity. e) Triazene: - Dacarbazine.  Dacarbazine inhibit RNA and protein synthesis that results in cell death.  Dacarbazine is a drug of choice in malignant myeloma. SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 13
  • 14. ANTIMETABOLITES These drugs inhibit the proliferation and development of cancer cells.  These drugs mimic normal cellular metabolites and integrated into DNA and RNA during the cell cycle, disrupting the synthesis of nucleic acids and ultimately leading to cell death.  Therse drugs acts in S phase. a) Folate antagonists: - Methotrexate (inhibit dihydrofolate reductase).  Methotrexate drug have anti-neoplastic, immunosuppressant and anti-inflammatory effects.  Antidote for methotrexate is Folinic Acid.  Methotrexate shows Hepatotoxicity, Obstructive Nephropathy. Mechanism of Action: SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 14
  • 15. b) Purine antagonists: - 6-Mercaptopurine, 6-Thioguinine.  These drugs come under CCS (Cell Cycle Specific Drugs) and acts in S phase.  Purine antagonists cause Hepatotoxicity. Mechanism of Action: SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 15
  • 16. c) Pyrimidine antagonists: - 5-Fluorouracil, Cytarabine.  These drugs come under CCS (Cell Cycle Specific Drugs) and acts in S phase. i. 5-Fluorouracil: It cause Hand and Foot Syndrome and Neurotoxicity. Mechanism of Action: ii. Cytarabine: It cause neurotoxicity.  Cytarabine is a drug of choice with combination of Idarubicin in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia. SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 16
  • 17. VINCAALKALOIDS These drugs are cell cycle specific (CCS) and acts in M phase. Vincristine and Vinblastine are derived from periwinkle plants. Vinca alkaloid cause Peripheral Neuropathy. Vinblastine is used to treat leukaemia in children’s and Vincristine is used to treat breast cancer. Mechanism of Action: SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 17
  • 18. TAXANES It enhanced stability of microtubule preventing the separation of chromosomes during anaphase.  It decreases the ability of bone marrow to produce blood cells. e.g., Paclitaxel, Docetaxel. i. Paclitaxel: It causes peripheral neuropathy and hypersensitivity. ii. Docetaxel: It causes peripheral neuropathy as well as fluid retention. EPIPODOPHYLLOTOXINS Drugs that acts in G2 phase and S phase of cell cycle. e.g., Etoposide, Tenoposide. Etoposide causes Bone marrow depression and GI side effects. Mechanism of Action: SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 18
  • 19. CAMPTOTHECINS Drugs that acts in G2 phase and S phase of cell cycle. e.g., Topotecan, Irinotecan.  These are used in Ovarian, Lungs, Colorectal cancer. Mechanism of Action: Camptothecins binds to topoisomerase-I (a nuclear enzyme that replicate DNA and transcription) complex and inhibit the resealing of DNA, thus produce cell death. ANTIBIOTICS All these drugs produce direct action on DNA & they act by blocking the transcription of DNA. e.g., Actinomycin, Bleomycin, Mitomycin, Doxorubicin. i. Actinomycin: It administered through IV route. Mechanism of Action: Actinomycin also produces direct action of DNA & they act by blocking the transcription of DNA. SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 19
  • 20. ii. Bleomycin: A mixture of glycopeptide antibiotics.  It acts on G2 phase and M phase of cell cycle.  It also crosses BBB (Blood Brain Barrier), so it is used to treat Brain cancer.  Bleomycin is given as a drug of choice with combination of Cisplatin and Etoposide to treat testis cancer. ii. Mitomycin: It causes cross-linking of DNA and generates free radicals which damage DNA. iii. Doxorubicin: It causes Cardiotoxicity. Mechanism of Action: SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 20
  • 21. ENZYME Enzyme is isolated from bacteria specially ecoli. It is a necessary amino acid for the production of proteins. e.g., L-Asparaginase.  Cancer cells lack of this enzyme.  It causes toxicity of Hypersensitivity, Hyperglycaemia, Haemorrhage. Mechanism of Action: Normal cells can synthesize asparagine because they contain asparagine synthase. SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 21
  • 22. MISCELLANEOUS AGENTS It acts on S phase of cell cycle (CCS drugs). e.g., Hydroxyurea, Imatinib. Mechanism of Action: Hydroxyurea interferes with the conversion of RBC to DNA by inhibiting ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, this results in inhibition of DNA synthesis. HORMONALAGENTS These agents are non-cytotoxic but it modifies the growth of hormones dependent tumour. a) Oestrogen: - These are physically antagonist of androgen; hence oestrogen is used to antagonise the effect of androgen.  Widely used in Prostate cancer.  e.g., Ethnyl estradiol, Fosfestrol. SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 22
  • 23. b) Oestrogen receptor modulator: - It is a compound that can interact with oestrogen receptors in the body and modulate their activities. These can act as either agonist (activating the receptor) or antagonist (blocking the receptor) of oestrogen receptors, depending on the specific tissue type.  E.g., Tamoxifen i.e. highly effective in Breast cancer. c) Aromatase inhibitor: - These are used in the post-monophasic menstrual cycle to treat hormone-dependent breast cancer. e.g., Anastrozole, Letrozole. d) Antiandrogen: - It antagonizes the androgen action on prostate cancer. E.g., Flutamide. e) Progestin: - Used to treat endometrium cancer. e.g., Hydroxyprogesterone acetate. SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 23
  • 24. f) Androgen: - e.g., Testosterone propionate. Testosterone propionate is an injectable medication that is used as hormone replacement therapy in men with less testosterone levels and female breast cancer. g) GnRH analogue: - These drugs produce arising LH (Luteinizing hormone) and FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone). These are effective in advance prosthetic & breast cancer. e.g., Buserelin. h) Corticosteroids: - It produces feeling of well-being and it suppress the hypersensitivity reactions. These drugs having anti-inflammatory activity and it decreases Glaucoma. e.g., Prednisolone. Mechanism of Action: Prednisolone interfere with the cell cycle of activated lymphoid cells. SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 24
  • 25. Diseases and their Drug of Choice Diseases Drug of Choice Brain Tumour Nitrosourea Lung Cancer Cyclophosphamide Ovarian and Testicular Cancer Melphalan Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Cytarebine + Idarabicin Testis Cancer Bleomycin + Cisplatin + Etoposide Myeloid Leukaemia Busulfan Breast Cancer Tamoxifen Prostate Cancer Oestrogen Lymphatic Leukaemia Chlorambucil SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 25
  • 26. REFERENCES 1. https://lecture-notes.tiu.edu.iq/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/Anticancer-drugs-26.-4.2023.pptx 2. https://www.intechopen.com/books/potential-of-essential-oils/potential-of-medicinal-use-of-essential-oils-from-aromatic-plants 3. https://1filedownload.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Pharmacology-Dr-Sparsh-Gupta-Book.pdf 4. https://www.slideshare.net/nasertadvi/14cancer-chemotherapy 5. https://tse3.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.rDyuhrnIE8uf2FHxzn_EtAHaHa&pid=Api&P=0&h=180 6. https://tse1.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.6HKR8HQQZ_t0EmsbkUx2IwHaGI&pid=Api&P=0&h=180 7. https://5.imimg.com/data5/SELLER/Default/2021/11/SB/ZW/HY/73501836/ciszest-50-500x500.jpeg 8. https://tse3.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.Telrn-utZ6j27mHyOZQyKAHaFj&pid=Api&P=0&h=180 9. https://tse3.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.YxqRigXAdlD4XJ56XhXGpAAAAA&pid=Api&P=0&h=180 10. https://tse3.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.w83pkK9cLq3tdz-2gBHGfAHaHa&pid=Api&P=0&h=180 11. https://tse4.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.WbeCLdryJc48T6K0tnyexAHaHa&pid=Api&P=0&h=180 12. https://tse1.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.tWWEPlzqRZwxBR7uXSrzaAHaHa&pid=Api&P=0&h=180 13. https://tse1.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.Z1n3HiHCk806Fd5KneSqSwHaHa&pid=Api&P=0&h=180 14. https://www.magicinepharma.com/img/products/blogs/1%20(18).jpg 15. https://tse1.mm.bing.net/th?id=OIP.AtNHmXd2AUpJ4ygD8Yi7AwHaGE&pid=Api&P=0&h=180 16. https://cpimg.tistatic.com/05475036/b/4/extra-05475036.jpg SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 26
  • 27. THANK YOU SOPR, DEV BHOOMI UTTARAKHAND UNIVERSITY 27