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Citizen Science & Geographical
Technologies: creativity,
learning, and engagement
Muki Haklay
Extreme Citizen Science (ExCiteS) research group, UCL
@mhaklay @UCL_ExCiteS
Acknowledgement
This talk would not be possible without the generosity of
the many people and communities that we have worked
with over the years…
Acknowledgement
… and the funders, project partners, and sponsors that we’ve
worked with (and will work with in the future)
Outline
• Citizen science – why now?
• Citizen science today: across disciplines, technologies,
and levels of engagement
• Pushing citizen science to the extremes
• Learning & creativity in citizen science
• Over to you!
Citizen Science (OED 2014)
citizen science n. scientific work undertaken by members of the
general public, often in collaboration with or under the direction of
professional scientists and scientific institutions.
citizen scientist n. (a) a scientist whose work is characterized by a
sense of responsibility to serve the best interests of the wider
community (now rare); (b) a member of the general public who
engages in scientific work, often in collaboration with or under the
direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions; an
amateur scientist.
Citizen Science & Science
Early science
(1600’s – early 1800’s)
Professional science
(late 1800’s – 1900’s)
Opening Science
(since 2000s)
Citizen Science & Science
Early science
(1600’s – earl 1800’s)
Professional science
(late 1800’s – 1900’s)
Opening Science
(since 2000s)
Illiteracy
Basic to
High-school
Higher
Education
Citizen Science & Science
Early science
(1600’s – early 1800’s)
Professional science
(late 1800’s – 1900’s)
Opening Science
(since 2000s)
Illiteracy
Basic to
High-school
Higher
Education
Citizen Science
as Gentlemen/
Gentlewomen
science
Mary Anning (1799-1847)
Citizen Science & Science
Early science
(1600’s – early 1800’s)
Professional science
(late 1800’s – 1900’s)
Opening Science (since
2000s)
Illiteracy
Basic to
High-school
Higher
Education
Citizen Science
as Gentlemen/
Gentlewomen
science
Citizen Science
diminishing
© WMO–No. 919
Volunteer rainfall observer Rick Grocke checks
the rain gauge at Tanami Downs cattle station in
the Northern Territory of Australia
The era of professional science
• Involvement continued: archaeology, astronomy, ornithology,
conservation, meteorology …
• No recognition, views of volunteers as ‘untrustworthy’
contributors
Shoemaker-Levy 9 on 17 May 1994
Why Now?
• Societal trends:
– Education and qualifications
– Leisure
– Sharing economies / peer production systems
• Technological trends:
– Internet access (broadband)
– Collaborative Web
– Mobile devices
– DIY electronics
Years of school completed by population 25+ years 1940-2009
Part of a global trend…
>200 million
Source: UNESCO
… with many PhD students (>1%)
>2.5 million
Source: UNESCO
Leisure
• Across the developed
world there have been a
marked declined in the
number of working
hours
Source: the Atlantic
Sharing economies
• In many areas, especially in production and sharing of
information
Citizen Science & Geographical Technologies: creativity, learning, and engagement
Collaborative Web
Active mobile-broadband subscriptions, 2007-2013*
R Nial Bradshaw
DIY electronics
Citizen Science & Science
Early science
(1600’s – early 1800’s)
Professional science
(late 1800’s – 1900’s)
Opening Science
(since 2000s)
Illiteracy
Basic to
High-school
Higher
Education
Citizen Science
as Gentlemen/
Gentlewomen
science
Citizen Science
diminishing
Citizen Science as
open & inclusive
science
Citizen Science Today
Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of
participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge
Citizen Science
Long running
Citizen Science
Ecology &
biodiversity
Meteorology Astronomy
Citizen
Cyberscience
Volunteer
computing
Volunteer
thinking
Passive
Sensing
Community
Science
Participatory
sensing
DIY Science Civic Science
A new era of citizen science
Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of
participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge
Citizen Science
Long running
Citizen Science
Ecology &
biodiversity
Meteorology Astronomy
Citizen
Cyberscience
Volunteer
computing
Volunteer
thinking
Passive
Sensing
Community
Science
Participatory
sensing
DIY Science Civic Science
Biodiversity/Ecology
Participating in Big Garden
Bridwatch (source: RSPB)
Participating in BioBlitz (source: OPAL, Esri)
Kerski, J., 2016, Mapping BioBlitz Field Data in ArcGIS Online Esri GIS Education Community Blog
Meteorology
• Community Collaborative Rain,
Hail & Snow Network
Rebecca Jacobson
Astronomy
Using an app to learn
about the importance
of dark skies – and
about the stars
A new era of citizen science
Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of
participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge
Citizen Science
Long running
Citizen Science
Ecology &
biodiversity
Meteorology Astronomy
Citizen
Cyberscience
Volunteer
computing
Volunteer
thinking
Passive
Sensing
Community
Science
Participatory
sensing
DIY Science Civic Science
Volunteer computing
You can join World Community Grid at http://www.worldcommunitygrid.org/
Volunteer Thinking
Passive Sensing
A new era of citizen science
Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of
participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge
Citizen Science
Long running
Citizen Science
Ecology &
biodiversity
Meteorology Astronomy
Citizen
Cyberscience
Volunteer
computing
Volunteer
thinking
Passive
Sensing
Community
Science
Participatory
sensing
DIY Science Civic Science
Mapping for ChangeEveryAware website at http://www.everyaware.eu
Download WideNoise at http://cs.everyaware.eu
Citizen Science & Geographical Technologies: creativity, learning, and engagement
October2012
Citizen Science & Geographical Technologies: creativity, learning, and engagement
More information at http://publiclaboratory.org
DIY/Civic Science
Coming soon: the Crowd & the Cloud
Follow the Crowd & the Cloud at crowdandcloud.org
Gathering pace…
Problem
definition
Data collection
Visualisation &
analysis
Action
Classification
& basic analysis
Basic School
High School
Postgraduate
PhD
Literacy
Current Citizen Science
University/
College
Problem
definition
Data collection
Visualisation &
analysis
Action
Classification
& basic analysis
Basic School
High School
University/
College
Postgraduate
PhD
Literacy
Where next for Citizen Science?
Participation in citizen science
• Collaborative science – problem
definition, data collection and analysis
Level 4 ‘Extreme/
Up-Science’
• Participation in problem definition
and data collection
Level 3 ‘Participatory
science’
• Citizens as basic interpreters
Level 2 ‘Distributed
intelligence’
• Citizens as sensors
Level 1
‘Crowdsourcing’
Haklay. 2013. Citizen Science and volunteered geographic information: Overview
and typology of participation, Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge
Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of
participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge
Extreme Citizen Science
Extreme Citizen Science (ExCiteS) is a situated,
bottom-up practice that takes into account local
needs, practices and culture and works with broad
networks of people to design and build new devices
and knowledge creation processes that can transform
the world.
Creating technologies that are designed to be
embedded within participatory processes.
Engagement: Free, Prior Informed Consent
44
Jerome Lewis, ExCiteS
Participatory Software design
Recording community resources
Towards Intelligent Maps
Survey 123
ArcGIS Web Services
Citizen Science & Geographical Technologies: creativity, learning, and engagement
Ashaninka village “Apiwtxa”
José Frank Melo
Community based monitoring
Carolina Comandulli
Earthquake preparedness
What Citizen Science offers?
• Learning to volunteer for a wider goal (contribute to
science)
• Awareness of environmental and scientific issues
• Education in science, technology, engineering &
mathematics
• Developing new skills and insights
• Linking studies to place and local community
• Adapting to different types of learning
What do they learn?
1. Task/game mechanics
2. Pattern recognition
3. On topic learning
5. Off topic knowledge and skills
4. Scientific process
6. Personal development
Participation
as volunteer
Source: Laure Kloetzer, University of Geneva
See citizencyberlab.eu
Rich diversity:
• A taxonomy on learning outcomes
in citizen science projects
• 3 mains categories:
1. personal development,
2. generic knowledege &
skills,
3. project-specific knowledge
and skills
Source: Laure Kloetzer,
University of Geneva
Model for volunteers who lead projects
Source: Charlene Jennett, UCL
Doing It Together Science ‘escalator’
See TogetherScience.eu
Start you own project
Other opportunities
• Join the Citizen Science Association, or the European
Citizen Science Association – both have education
working groups
• Link to local or national projects (e.g. eBird, iNaturalist,
CoCoRHaS)
• Check citizenscience.gov and SciStarter.com
• Let’s talk more in the unconference session (Tuesday
8:30am)
Conclusions
• Citizen science has grown dramatically over the past
decade
• With suitable effort, it is possible to engage people at
all levels, and all stages of the process
• Citizen science provide ample opportunities for
creativity and learning, and geographical technologies
have a major role to play in this
• Follow us:
– http://www.ucl.ac.uk/excites
– Twitter: @UCL_ExCiteS @mhaklay
– Blog: http://uclexcites.wordpress.com
http://povesham.wordpress.com
– m.haklay@ucl.ac.uk

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Citizen Science & Geographical Technologies: creativity, learning, and engagement

  • 1. Citizen Science & Geographical Technologies: creativity, learning, and engagement Muki Haklay Extreme Citizen Science (ExCiteS) research group, UCL @mhaklay @UCL_ExCiteS
  • 2. Acknowledgement This talk would not be possible without the generosity of the many people and communities that we have worked with over the years…
  • 3. Acknowledgement … and the funders, project partners, and sponsors that we’ve worked with (and will work with in the future)
  • 4. Outline • Citizen science – why now? • Citizen science today: across disciplines, technologies, and levels of engagement • Pushing citizen science to the extremes • Learning & creativity in citizen science • Over to you!
  • 5. Citizen Science (OED 2014) citizen science n. scientific work undertaken by members of the general public, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions. citizen scientist n. (a) a scientist whose work is characterized by a sense of responsibility to serve the best interests of the wider community (now rare); (b) a member of the general public who engages in scientific work, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions; an amateur scientist.
  • 6. Citizen Science & Science Early science (1600’s – early 1800’s) Professional science (late 1800’s – 1900’s) Opening Science (since 2000s)
  • 7. Citizen Science & Science Early science (1600’s – earl 1800’s) Professional science (late 1800’s – 1900’s) Opening Science (since 2000s) Illiteracy Basic to High-school Higher Education
  • 8. Citizen Science & Science Early science (1600’s – early 1800’s) Professional science (late 1800’s – 1900’s) Opening Science (since 2000s) Illiteracy Basic to High-school Higher Education Citizen Science as Gentlemen/ Gentlewomen science Mary Anning (1799-1847)
  • 9. Citizen Science & Science Early science (1600’s – early 1800’s) Professional science (late 1800’s – 1900’s) Opening Science (since 2000s) Illiteracy Basic to High-school Higher Education Citizen Science as Gentlemen/ Gentlewomen science Citizen Science diminishing © WMO–No. 919 Volunteer rainfall observer Rick Grocke checks the rain gauge at Tanami Downs cattle station in the Northern Territory of Australia
  • 10. The era of professional science • Involvement continued: archaeology, astronomy, ornithology, conservation, meteorology … • No recognition, views of volunteers as ‘untrustworthy’ contributors Shoemaker-Levy 9 on 17 May 1994
  • 11. Why Now? • Societal trends: – Education and qualifications – Leisure – Sharing economies / peer production systems • Technological trends: – Internet access (broadband) – Collaborative Web – Mobile devices – DIY electronics
  • 12. Years of school completed by population 25+ years 1940-2009
  • 13. Part of a global trend… >200 million Source: UNESCO
  • 14. … with many PhD students (>1%) >2.5 million Source: UNESCO
  • 15. Leisure • Across the developed world there have been a marked declined in the number of working hours Source: the Atlantic
  • 16. Sharing economies • In many areas, especially in production and sharing of information
  • 19. Active mobile-broadband subscriptions, 2007-2013* R Nial Bradshaw
  • 21. Citizen Science & Science Early science (1600’s – early 1800’s) Professional science (late 1800’s – 1900’s) Opening Science (since 2000s) Illiteracy Basic to High-school Higher Education Citizen Science as Gentlemen/ Gentlewomen science Citizen Science diminishing Citizen Science as open & inclusive science
  • 22. Citizen Science Today Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Citizen Science Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Astronomy Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Community Science Participatory sensing DIY Science Civic Science
  • 23. A new era of citizen science Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Citizen Science Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Astronomy Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Community Science Participatory sensing DIY Science Civic Science
  • 24. Biodiversity/Ecology Participating in Big Garden Bridwatch (source: RSPB) Participating in BioBlitz (source: OPAL, Esri) Kerski, J., 2016, Mapping BioBlitz Field Data in ArcGIS Online Esri GIS Education Community Blog
  • 25. Meteorology • Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network Rebecca Jacobson
  • 26. Astronomy Using an app to learn about the importance of dark skies – and about the stars
  • 27. A new era of citizen science Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Citizen Science Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Astronomy Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Community Science Participatory sensing DIY Science Civic Science
  • 28. Volunteer computing You can join World Community Grid at http://www.worldcommunitygrid.org/
  • 31. A new era of citizen science Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Citizen Science Long running Citizen Science Ecology & biodiversity Meteorology Astronomy Citizen Cyberscience Volunteer computing Volunteer thinking Passive Sensing Community Science Participatory sensing DIY Science Civic Science
  • 32. Mapping for ChangeEveryAware website at http://www.everyaware.eu
  • 33. Download WideNoise at http://cs.everyaware.eu
  • 37. More information at http://publiclaboratory.org DIY/Civic Science
  • 38. Coming soon: the Crowd & the Cloud Follow the Crowd & the Cloud at crowdandcloud.org
  • 40. Problem definition Data collection Visualisation & analysis Action Classification & basic analysis Basic School High School Postgraduate PhD Literacy Current Citizen Science University/ College
  • 41. Problem definition Data collection Visualisation & analysis Action Classification & basic analysis Basic School High School University/ College Postgraduate PhD Literacy Where next for Citizen Science?
  • 42. Participation in citizen science • Collaborative science – problem definition, data collection and analysis Level 4 ‘Extreme/ Up-Science’ • Participation in problem definition and data collection Level 3 ‘Participatory science’ • Citizens as basic interpreters Level 2 ‘Distributed intelligence’ • Citizens as sensors Level 1 ‘Crowdsourcing’ Haklay. 2013. Citizen Science and volunteered geographic information: Overview and typology of participation, Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge Haklay, M., 2013, Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information – overview and typology of participation in Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge
  • 43. Extreme Citizen Science Extreme Citizen Science (ExCiteS) is a situated, bottom-up practice that takes into account local needs, practices and culture and works with broad networks of people to design and build new devices and knowledge creation processes that can transform the world. Creating technologies that are designed to be embedded within participatory processes.
  • 44. Engagement: Free, Prior Informed Consent 44
  • 48. Towards Intelligent Maps Survey 123 ArcGIS Web Services
  • 53. What Citizen Science offers? • Learning to volunteer for a wider goal (contribute to science) • Awareness of environmental and scientific issues • Education in science, technology, engineering & mathematics • Developing new skills and insights • Linking studies to place and local community • Adapting to different types of learning
  • 54. What do they learn? 1. Task/game mechanics 2. Pattern recognition 3. On topic learning 5. Off topic knowledge and skills 4. Scientific process 6. Personal development Participation as volunteer Source: Laure Kloetzer, University of Geneva See citizencyberlab.eu
  • 55. Rich diversity: • A taxonomy on learning outcomes in citizen science projects • 3 mains categories: 1. personal development, 2. generic knowledege & skills, 3. project-specific knowledge and skills Source: Laure Kloetzer, University of Geneva
  • 56. Model for volunteers who lead projects Source: Charlene Jennett, UCL
  • 57. Doing It Together Science ‘escalator’ See TogetherScience.eu
  • 58. Start you own project
  • 59. Other opportunities • Join the Citizen Science Association, or the European Citizen Science Association – both have education working groups • Link to local or national projects (e.g. eBird, iNaturalist, CoCoRHaS) • Check citizenscience.gov and SciStarter.com • Let’s talk more in the unconference session (Tuesday 8:30am)
  • 60. Conclusions • Citizen science has grown dramatically over the past decade • With suitable effort, it is possible to engage people at all levels, and all stages of the process • Citizen science provide ample opportunities for creativity and learning, and geographical technologies have a major role to play in this
  • 61. • Follow us: – http://www.ucl.ac.uk/excites – Twitter: @UCL_ExCiteS @mhaklay – Blog: http://uclexcites.wordpress.com http://povesham.wordpress.com – m.haklay@ucl.ac.uk