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3/F, Julong Office Building, Block7, Julong Garden, 68 Xinzhong Street,
Dongcheng District, Beijing, China. 100027
Tel: (86)10 65546931
Fax: (86)10 65546932
www.greenpeace.cn
Greenpeace is an independent global campaigning organisation that acts to
change attitudes and behaviour, to protect and conserve the environment and
to promote peace.
Designed by Desile Brand Design (Beijing) Co.Ltd
1. The sources of all the data and information quoted in this report are
from public materials; Greenpeace East Asia does not guarantee the
timeliness, accuracy and integrity.
2. The findings in this report are the results of the independent
research, analysis and study conducted by Greenpeace East Asia on
the basis of the information acquired within the time limit of such
research, analysis and study.
3. The legal provisions quoted in this report are restricted to which can
be obtained by Greenpeace East Asia within the permissions. The
understanding of such legal provisions only presents the view of
Greenpeace East Asia on the relevant laws and regulations.
Disclaimer :
Elixir of Health or
Pesticide Cocktail?
Chinese Herbs:
Results of Sample Testing
from Seven Countries
Summary
Between November 2012 and April 2013, Greenpeace offices
①
commissioned by
Greenpeace East Asia ( hereinafter referred to as “GPEA”) bought Chinese herbal products
from shops in seven key export markets: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands,
the UK, and the USA. These samples were then sent to an independent science lab – to be
tested for pesticide residues.
In total, we collected 36 samples of herbal products imported from China, including
chrysanthemum, wolfberry, honeysuckle, dried lily bulb, san qi, Chinese date, and rosebud.
These products are favoured by health-conscious consumers and Asian communities, and
they are purchased for their medicinal properties.
However, the independent analysis found that a majority of the samples contained a cocktail
of pesticides, some of them very dangerous:
• 32 (out of the 36 samples collected) contained three or more kinds of pesticides. For
example, the samples of honeysuckle collected from Canada and Germany contained 24
and 26 types of pesticides respectively.
• 17 (out of 36 samples) showed residues of pesticides classified by the World Health
Organization (WHO) as highly or extremely hazardous.
• 26 (out of 29 samples
②
) showed pesticide residue levels that exceeded what the
European authorities consider the maximum level for safety (MRLs).
Pesticides on Chinese herbs should not be considered an isolated case; rather, they are yet
another example of the systematic failings of the chemical-intensive agricultural model.
Greenpeace sees an urgent need for all of the world's governments to abandon chemical-
intensive agriculture practices – which threaten not only people’s health, but biodiversity
(for example population numbers of bees and other pollinators) – and make the switch to
ecological farming
③
.
①
The offices were Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the UK, and the USA.
② 
In our analysis of samples that exceeded EU MRL, we excluded seven dried lily bulb samples because there
wasn't a specific product category for this Chinese product.
③ 
Even the poorest societies have the potential through ecological agriculture and integrated pest management
to meet or significantly exceed yields produced by conventional methods, as well as reduce the demand for
land conversion for agriculture, restore ecosystem services (particularly water), reduce the use of and need for
synthetic fertilizers derived from fossil fuels, and reduce the use of harsh insecticides and herbicides.
Summary	
1.Uses and Scope of
Chinese Herbs
2. The Overseas
Market for Chinese
Herbs
3. Sample Testing
Method and
Results
4. Conclusions and
Suggestions:
the Solution
is Ecological
Farming	
Reference
Annexes
Table Of Content
2
5
6
9
15
18
19
54 Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? Uses and Scope of Chinese Herbs Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? Uses and Scope of Chinese Herbs
Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history in China and is a treasured
part of Chinese culture. Chinese herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine
are largely derived from natural ingredients and their processed products.
According to data from the third national survey on Chinese medicine
resources
④
, China has 12,807 kinds of Chinese medicine resources, including
herbal plants (their roots, stems, flowers and fruit), animal parts, and minerals.
Herbal plants have 11,146 different varieties. In traditional Chinese medicine
theory, Chinese herbs are not only an alternative to Western medicine, but
also an important part of the Chinese people’s daily diet. Chrysanthemum,
honeysuckle and other herbs, for example, are directly soaked in water or
made into other beverages. Wolfberries, lily bulbs, ginseng and other herbal
ingredients have a wide range of uses in medicinal soups and other dishes.
Fennel, dried ginger, and prickly ash, also classified as Chinese herbs, are
used in everyday Chinese cooking as seasonings.
④ 
There have been three national surveys conducted on Chinese medicine resources. The third
survey was conducted between 1983 and 1987. The fourth survey is currently being carried
out. [rev 2011 Nov 6; cited 2013 May 14] Available from: http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2011-11/06/
content_1986952.htm
Uses and Scope of
Chinese Herbs
6 Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail?
The Overseas Market
for Chinese Herbs
The Overseas Market
for Chinese Herbs
7Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail?
⑤
NHS Choice. “CHM: What is evidence”. Available from http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/complementary-alternative-medicine/
Pages/what-is-scientific-evidence.aspx
The Overseas Market for
Chinese Herbs
Chinese medicinal herbs are a gift from nature and a cultural heritage stemming back thousands
of years. Sadly, these precious plant species have now become the latest “victims” of chemical-
intensive agriculture.
Traditional Chinese medicine, mostly based on natural therapies, is becoming increasingly known
and accepted in the Western world. Treatment using traditional Chinese medicine is available
in many European hospitals, backed by scientific evidence that proves, to some degree, their
effectiveness
⑤
. Examples include pain relief through acupuncture and morning sickness relief by
ginger extracts. One of the basic tenets of Chinese herbs is that many plants, either as medicine
or food, are good for health. A growing number of Westerners have shown an interest in taking
Chinese herbs resulting in an increased presence in Western markets. Export volumes of Chinese
herbs from China in 2011 amounted to 2.33 billion US dollars, with an annual increase rate of
36.48% compared to that of the previous year .
GPEA recently published a report “Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? -
Investigation Report on Chinese Herbs and Pesticides”. Chinese herbs, purchased from nine
Chinese herbal medicine companies, were tested, and three herbal medicine producing regions
were investigated. Our independent analysis discovered that, in spite of the trust consumers and
patients have in the health benefits of Chinese herbs, the Chinese herb farming model is heavily
dependent on the use of chemical pesticides. The presence of pesticide residue in herbs also
indicates.
Chinese herbs grown in China are sold in Europe and North America. To get a better picture of the
pesticide residues present in Chinese herbs currently on the market, Greenpeace East Asia also
tested seven kinds of Chinese herbs that were produced in China but sold overseas. We hereby
present key results from our investigation into the pesticides on exported Chinese herbs.
8 Sample Testing Method and Results Sample Testing Method and Results 9Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail?
8第一章   中国的农药使用药中药 中药材农药污染调查报告   
Between November 2012 and April 2013, Greenpeace offices selected seven kinds
of Chinese herbs for testing, namely: chrysanthemum, wolfberry, honeysuckle,
dried lily bulb, san qi root, Chinese date and rosebud. We purchased a total of 36
products from Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the UK and the
USA (see annex 1). 500 grams of each product were bought, sealed individually in
a secure pouch to prevent cross-contamination, and sent to an independent third
party laboratory. Below are the key findings:
1.Majority of Samples Contained a Cocktail of
Pesticides
All samples were found to contain pesticide residues, except for one Chinese
date sample in Germany. 32 out of 36 samples contained three or more kinds of
pesticides. A honeysuckle sample from Germany contained the highest number of
pesticide residues, with 26 different types of pesticides. The lily bulb samples had a
lower end number of different residues, but still had between 1-7 kinds depending on
the country (figure 1). Such large numbers of different pesticides found on individual
samples is known as the cocktail effect, as the combination of different pesticides
may have an effect more dangerous than simply an individual one (synthetic effect).
There has so far been relatively little research on the toxicological effect of ingesting
a mixture of pesticides, but based on the precautionary principle continuous
exposure should be avoided.
Figure 1: Multiple types of pesticide residues found in seven Chinese herbal
products tested in seven countries
⑥
⑥ 
Not all products were available for purchase in each country, thus an absent bar means the product
was not tested in that country.
Sample Testing
Method and Results
0!
5!
10!
15!
20!
25!
30!
US! Canada! UK! France! German! Italy! Netherland!
Chinese date! Chrysanthemum! Chrysanthemum 2!
Honeysuckle! Lily bulb! Rosebud!
San Qi! Wolfberry! Wolfberry2!
10 Sample Testing Method and Results Sample Testing Method and Results 11Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail?
2.Several Samples Revealed Pesticides Classified by
the WHO as Extremely or Highly Hazardous (WHO Ia
 Ib)
Nearly half of the samples (17 of the 36 samples) contained residues of pesticides classified
by the WHO as extremely or highly hazardous (class Ia and Ib). These include carbofuran,
phorate, and triazophos, albeit at low concentrations (table 1). Pesticides classified by the
WHO as ‘WHO Ia  Ib’ are considered to be a highly acute risk to health. Acute pesticide
poisoning may happen when a person is directly exposed to these pesticides. Acute
pesticide poisoning is unfortunately a relatively frequent occurrence in the agricultural
industry. A study undertaken between 1998-2005 examined 3,271 acute pesticides
poisoning cases in American agricultural farmers, and suggested that acute pesticide
poisoning in the agricultural industry continues to be a significant problem3
. This is of
greater concern in developing countries where farmers tend to use less protection and are
less informed regarding usage instruction when spraying pesticides.
Table 1: Presence of pesticide residue classified as WHO Ia and Ib
3. 26 Out of 29 Samples Had Residue Levels Higher than the EU
Maximum Residue Limits (MRL)
While EU MRLs should not be taken as a guarantee of safe levels of toxic chemicals, 26 out of the 29
samples had pesticide residues that exceeded EU MRLs. Lily bulb samples are not considered in the
analysis of residue levels exceeding EU MRLs since there was no product category specific to this Chinese
herb product
⑦
. Fungicide thiophanate-methyl was found in honeysuckle samples bought in all six countries
at levels exceeding EU MRLs. According to classifications by the WHO, thiophanate-methyl is a chemical of
low acute toxicity. However, both the EU and the Australian government define it as having potential harm
to the respiratory system and aquatic organisms4
(see figure 2 for pesticide residues on the six honeysuckle
samples purchased in six countries).
MRL: Not a guarantee for food safety
The establishment of MRLs takes farming practices into consideration, and is used for management
purposes. Assumptions made by toxicity studies in the lab are that a certain level of pesticide exposure
is acceptable or at least unavoidable. However, what has been often neglected in these studies is that
long-term exposure to any dosage of chemical pesticides might pose a considerable threat to people’s
health.
⑦ 
The MRL standards for each product are based on the groups of product classification under EU No. 212/2013. These standards are
defined by EC No. 296/2005 which was updated on 17/04/2013. Each sample’s product category within the EU MRL standards are:
1)Wolfberry: category with code number 231010 - tomatoes (Cherry tomatoes, tree tomato, Physalis, gojiberry, wolfberry (Lycium
barbarum and L. Chinese))
2)Chinese Date: category with code number 0140040 - plums (under category stone fruit, examples of varieties include Red date/
Chinese date/Chinese jujube)
3)Honeysuckle, Chrysanthemum, Rosebud: category with code 631990 – others (under the category of herbal infusions (dried) - (a)
flowers)
4)San Qi powder, San Qi root: category with code 633990 – others (under the category of herbal infusions (dried) - (c) roots)
Number of
products,
where found
Range of
residue levels
found (mg/kg)
Countries where the
samples were bought
Extremely
Hazardous
WHO class
Ia
Ethoprophos 1 0.09 Canada
Phorate 3 0.006-0.01 Canada, Italy, France
Highly
Hazardous
WHO class
Ib
Carbofuran 10 0.007-0.08
US, France, Italy, UK, Netherland,
Germany, Canada
Omethoate 5 0.01 France, Germany, Canada
Methamidophos 1 0.14 Canada
Methomyl 2 0.005-0.008 Germany, Canada
Triazophos 4 0.02-0.17 US, Germany, Netherland
12 Sample Testing Method and Results Sample Testing Method and Results 13Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail?
The EU classifies5
carbendazim as a chemical that
could potentially harm the unborn child, affect male
fertility, and cause inheritable genetic damage. And
yet this chemical was the most commonly found
pesticide from 25 of the samples, with 11 of the
samples exceeding the EU’s MRL.
Many of the samples contained several pesticides
exceeding the EU MRLs. For example, a sample
of Coconut Tree branded honeysuckle in Germany
tested positive for 26 different pesticides, nine of them
exceeding EU MRLs. Of the chrysanthemum bought
in Britain, 15 pesticides were detected and eight of
them exceeded EU MRLs (annex 2).
0	
  
0.1	
  
0.2	
  
0.3	
  
0.4	
  
0.5	
  
0.6	
  
0.7	
  
Acetam
iprid	
  
Carbendazim
/Benom
yl	
  (sum
)	
  
Carbofuran	
  (Sum
)	
  	
  
Chlorpyrifos	
  
Difenoconazole	
  
Om
ethoate	
  	
  
Em
am
ecHn(Sum
)	
  Fipronil	
  
Flusilazole	
  
Hexaconazole	
  
Im
idacloprid	
  
M
yclobutanil	
  Phoxim
	
  
Pyridaben	
  
Tebufenozide	
  
Thiophanate-­‐m
ethyl	
  
Triadim
efon	
  and	
  triadim
enol	
  
Bifenthrin	
  
Cyhalothrin	
  lam
bda	
  
Cyperm
ethrin	
  
Dicofol	
  (Sum
)	
  
Fenpropathrin	
  
Fenvalerate	
  	
  Esfenvalerate	
  (Sum
	
  of	
  RSSR	
  Isom
ers)	
  
Residue	
  level	
  (mg/kg)	
  
Pes1cide	
  residues	
  in	
  Chinese	
  Honeysuckle	
  bought	
  in	
  France	
  
Sample	
  Residue	
  Level	
  (mg/kg)	
  
EU	
  Maximum	
  Residue	
  Limit	
  (mg/kg)	
  
0	
  
0.2	
  
0.4	
  
0.6	
  
0.8	
  
1	
  
1.2	
  
1.4	
  
Acetam
iprid	
  
Carbendazim
/Benom
yl	
  (sum
)	
  
Carbofuran	
  (Sum
)	
  	
  
Chlorpyrifos	
  
Difenoconazole	
  
Em
am
ecEn(Sum
)	
  
Fipronil	
  
Hexaflum
uron	
  
Im
idacloprid	
  Pyridaben	
  
Tebuconazole	
  
Thiophanate-­‐m
ethyl	
  
Triadim
efon	
  and	
  triadim
enol	
  
Cyhalothrin	
  lam
bda	
  
Cyperm
ethrin	
  
Dicofol	
  (Sum
)	
  
Fenvalerate	
  	
  Esfenvalerate	
  (Sum
	
  of	
  RSSR	
  Isom
ers)	
  
Residue	
  level	
  (mg/kg)	
  
Pes1cide	
  residues	
  in	
  Chinese	
  Honeysuckle	
  bought	
  in	
  the	
  UK	
  
Sample	
  Residue	
  Level	
  (mg/kg)	
  
EU	
  Maximum	
  Residue	
  Limit	
  (mg/kg)	
  
0	
  
1	
  
2	
  
3	
  
4	
  
5	
  
6	
  
7	
  
Acetam
iprid	
  
Carbendazim
/Benom
yl	
  (sum
)	
  
Carbofuran	
  (Sum
)	
  	
  
Chlorpyrifos	
  
Difenoconazole	
  
Dim
ethom
orph	
  
Em
am
ecFn(Sum
)	
  Fipronil	
  
Flusilazole	
  
Hexaconazole	
  
Hexaflum
uron	
  
Im
idacloprid	
  
M
ethom
yl/Thiodicarb(sum
)	
  Phoxim
	
  
Propiconazole	
  
Pyridaben	
  
Tebuconazole	
  
Tebufenozide	
  
Thiophanate-­‐m
ethyl	
  
Triadim
efon	
  and	
  triadim
enol	
  Atrazine	
  
Bifenthrin	
  
Cyhalothrin	
  lam
bda	
  
Cyperm
ethrin	
  
Endosulfan	
  (Sum
)	
  	
  
Fenvalerate	
  	
  Esfenvalerate	
  (Sum
	
  of	
  RSSR	
  Isom
ers)	
  
Residue	
  level	
  (mg/kg)	
  
Pes1cide	
  residues	
  in	
  Chinese	
  Honeysuckle	
  bought	
  in	
  Germany	
  
Sample	
  Residue	
  Level	
  (mg/kg)	
  
EU	
  Maximum	
  Residue	
  Limit	
  (mg/kg)	
  
0	
  
0.05	
  
0.1	
  
0.15	
  
0.2	
  
0.25	
  
0.3	
  
0.35	
  
0.4	
  
0.45	
  
0.5	
  
Abam
ec/n(Sum
)	
  
Acetam
iprid	
  
Averm
ec/n	
  B1a	
  
Carbendazim
/Benom
yl	
  (sum
)	
  
Chlorpyrifos	
  
Difenoconazole	
  
Dim
ethoate/Om
ethoate(sum
)	
  
Em
am
ec/n(Sum
)	
  Fipronil	
  
Hexaconazole	
  
Hexaflum
uron	
  
Im
idacloprid	
  
M
yclobutanil	
  
Om
ethoate	
  
Phorate	
  (Sum
)	
  	
  Phoxim
	
  
Pyridaben	
  
Tebuconazole	
  
Tebufenozide	
  
Thiophanate-­‐m
ethyl	
  
Triadim
efon	
  and	
  triadim
enol	
  
Cyhalothrin	
  lam
bda	
  
Cyperm
ethrin	
  
Fenvalerate	
  	
  Esfenvalerate	
  (Sum
	
  of	
  RSSR	
  Isom
ers)	
  
Perm
ethrin	
  
Residue	
  level	
  (mg/kg)	
  
Pes1cide	
  residues	
  in	
  Chinese	
  Honeysuckle	
  bought	
  in	
  Canada	
  
Sample	
  Residue	
  Level	
  (mg/kg)	
  
EU	
  Maximum	
  Residue	
  Limit	
  (mg/kg)	
  
0	
  
0.2	
  
0.4	
  
0.6	
  
0.8	
  
1	
  
1.2	
  
1.4	
  
1.6	
  
Acetam
iprid	
  
Carbendazim
/Benom
yl	
  (sum
)	
  
Diethofencarb	
  
Em
am
ecDn(Sum
)	
  Flusilazole	
  
Hexaconazole	
  
Im
idacloprid	
  Lufenuron	
  
M
yclobutanil	
  
Propam
ocarb	
  
Tebuconazole	
  
Tebufenozide	
  
Thiophanate-­‐m
ethyl	
  Bifenthrin	
  
Cyhalothrin	
  lam
bda	
  
Cyperm
ethrin	
  
Dicofol	
  (Sum
)	
  
Fenvalerate	
  	
  Esfenvalerate	
  (Sum
	
  of	
  RSSR	
  Isom
ers)	
  
Procym
idone	
  
Residue	
  level	
  (mg/kg)	
  
Pes1cide	
  residues	
  in	
  Chinese	
  Honeysuckle	
  bought	
  in	
  the	
  USA	
  
Sample	
  Residue	
  Level	
  (mg/kg)	
  
EU	
  Maximum	
  Residue	
  Limit	
  (mg/kg)	
  
0	
  
0.5	
  
1	
  
1.5	
  
2	
  
2.5	
  
Abam
ec-n	
  (Sum
)	
  
Acetam
iprid	
  
Averm
ec-n	
  B1a	
  
Azoxystrobin	
  
Carbendazim
/Benom
yl(sum
)	
  
Chlorpyrifos	
  
Difenoconazole	
  
Em
am
ec-n(Sum
)	
  Fipronil	
  
Hexaconazole	
  
Hexaflum
uron	
  
Im
idacloprid	
  
M
yclobutanil	
  
Tebufenozide	
  
Thiophanate-­‐m
ethyl	
  
Triadim
efon	
  and	
  triadim
enol	
  
Cyhalothrin	
  lam
bda	
  
Cyperm
ethrin	
  
Fenvalerate	
  	
  Esfenvalerate	
  (Sum
	
  of	
  RSSR	
  Isom
ers)	
  
Residue	
  level	
  (mg/kg)	
  
Pes1cide	
  residues	
  in	
  Chinese	
  Honeysuckle	
  bought	
  in	
  the	
  
Netherlands	
  Sample	
  Residue	
  Level	
  (mg/kg)	
  
EU	
  Maximum	
  Residue	
  Limit	
  (mg/kg)	
  
Conclusions and Suggestions:
the Solution is Ecological Farming
15Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail?14 Sample Testing Method and ResultsChinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail?
Conclusions and
Suggestions: the Solution
is Ecological Farming
1.Just Another Example of the Systemic Failure of
Chemical-intensive Agriculture
Pesticide contamination of Chinese herbs should not be viewed as an exceptional case, but
rather yet another example of failure by the chemical-intensive agricultural model in China and
around the world. The reliance on chemical pesticides is so heavy that even natural herbs, which
have a reputation for being healthy, are now contaminated by pesticides. In addition, we found
the presence of extremely hazardous pesticides that may come from deliberate application on
the plants, or contamination from the environment due to historical use.
Although a large amount of pesticide is used, only a small percentage reaches the target crops.
The majority ends up in the environment – the soil, water and atmosphere, which then has a
negative impact on non-target organisms, and destroys the ecological balance of the surrounding
environment. For example, a recent Greenpeace International report Bees in Decline reviewed
the key factors affecting the decline in populations of bees and other pollinators. The report
concludes that the use of certain chemical pesticides is one of the factors responsible for bee
decline globally. The study also highlights the ecological and economic importance of healthy
bee populations and stresses the urgent need to eliminate the use of top-ranking bee harming
pesticides .
Chemical pesticides also kill many insects that can be beneficial for natural pest control in the
farm. This is one reason why chemical pesticides make it harder to avoid pest damage in the
crop, leading to an increase in incidence of damage by pests and disease. Thus, in the long term,
chemical-intensive agriculture becomes more vulnerable to pest damage and requires greater
and greater use of pesticides. This means higher costs for farmers and higher risks to all of us
due to the presence of toxics chemicals in agriculture. In short, the impact on the environment by
this current form of agriculture has become tremendously damaging.
1716
Conclusions and Suggestions:
the Solution is Ecological Farming
Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail?
2.Getting off the Chemical Treadmill: Ecological
Farming is the Solution
Ecological farming protects soil, water resources, the climate and biodiversity. It does
not use chemical fertilizers or pesticides, rather a variety of modern, ecological farming
technologies and techniques to keep the environment clean and maintain the ecological
balance. Ecological farming advocates species and crop diversification. It stresses
the inter-dependence of natural resources, such as protecting biodiversity, recycling
nutrients, promoting soil regeneration, and the good use of all natural resources of
the whole ecosystem. It is a much more flexible and effective agricultural strategy,
particularly under erratic climatic changes.
In their purest form, Chinese herbs should represent nature, without chemical pollution.
In order to create an uncontaminated environment for the farming of Chinese herbs, we
need to abandon the current chemical agricultural model and switch to an ecological
model. Policy makers should generate and reward policy options that encourage
sustainable and environmental practices. Examples include incentives to promote
integrated pest management, payment to farmers and local communities for ecosystem
services, facilitating and providing incentives for alternative markets such as green
products , and moving towards an ecological farming model.
18
张惠源, 赵润怀, 袁昌齐, 孙传奇, 张志英. 我国的中药资源种类.《中国中药杂志》, 1995年07期。
中国医药保健品进出口商会,2011 年中国医药保健品进出口统计 . [report on the internet]. [rev 2010
Feb 7; cited 2013 May 20]. Available from: http://www.cccmhpie.org.cn/Pub/3317/47889.shtml
Geoffrey M. Calvert MD, MPH1*, Jennifer Karnik MPH1, Louise Mehler PHD, MD2, John Beckman
BS3, Barbara Morrissey MS4, Jennifer Sievert BA5, Rosanna Barrett MPH6, Michelle Lackovic MPH7,
Laura Mabee BA8, Abby Schwartz MPH9, Yvette Mitchell MS10, Stephanie Moraga-McHaley MS11.
Acute pesticide poisoning among agricultural workers in the United States 1998–2005. American
Journal of Industrial Medicine, Volume 51, Issue 12, pages 883–898, December 2008.
Thiophanate-methyl, classified by the EU as possibly causing harm to the respiratory system, under
Dir. 67/548/EEC, and very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects, under Reg. 1272/2008.
Classified by the EU as possibly causing harm to unborn children, impairing fertility and causing
inheritable genetic damage, Dir. 67/548/EEC.
Greenpeace, Bees in Decline, a review of factors that put pollinators and agriculture in Europe at
risk. [report on the internet]. [rev 2013 Apr 9; cited 2013 May]. Available from: http://www.greenpeace.
org/international/en/publications/Campaign-reports/Agriculture/Bees-in-Decline/.
Crowder, D. W., Northfield, T. D., Strand, M. R.  Snyder, W. E. 2010. Organic agriculture promotes
evenness and natural pest control. Nature, 466: 109-112.
Foley, J. A., Ramankutty, N., Brauman, K. A., Cassidy, E. S., Gerber, J. S., Johnston, M., Mueller, N. D.,
O/'Connell, C., Ray, D. K., West, P. C., Balzer, C., Bennett, E. M., Carpenter, S. R., Hill, J., Monfreda, C.,
Polasky, S., Rockstrom, J., Sheehan, J., Siebert, S., Tilman, D.  Zaks, D. P. M. 2011. Solutions for a
cultivated planet. Nature, 478: 337–342.
Rockstrom, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K., Persson, A., Chapin, F. S., Lambin, E. F., Lenton, T. M.,
Scheffer, M., Folke, C., Schellnhuber, H. J., Nykvist, B., de Wit, C. A., Hughes, T., van der Leeuw, S.,
Rodhe, H., Sorlin, S., Snyder, P. K., Costanza, R., Svedin, U., Falkenmark, M., Karlberg, L., Corell, R.
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Reference
No. Brand Sample Purchase Date Country
1 KW Honeysuckle 2013/3/25 Canada
2 KW Chinese date 2013/3/25 Canada
3 Double Deer Chrysanthemum 2013/3/25 Canada
4 Tune Ren Hong San Qi Powder 2013/3/26 Canada
5 Sailing Boat brand Dried Lilybulb 2013/3/26 Canada
6 Golden Leopard Rosebud 2013/3/26 Canada
7 KW Wolfberry 2013/3/25 Canada
8 Longevity Honeysuckle 2013/3/19 France
9 EAglobe Chrysanthemum 2013/3/19 France
10 EAglobe Dried Lilybulb 2013/3/19 France
11 Longevity Chinese date 2013/3/20 France
12 Three Coconut Tree Honeysuckle 2013/3/20 Germany
13 Three Coconut Tree Dried Lilybulb 2013/3/20 Germany
14 Three Coconut Tree Chrysanthemum 2013/3/20 Germany
15 Three Coconut Tree Wolfberry 2013/3/20 Germany
16 Three Coconut Tree Chinese date 2013/3/20 Germany
17 Teng Guan Chinese date 2013/3/19 Italy
18 Longevity Dried Lilybulb 2013/3/19 Italy
19 Longevity Wolfberry 2013/3/19 Italy
20 GoldenDiamond Chrysanthemum 2013/3/19 Netherlands
21 GoldenDiamond Honeysuckle 2013/3/19 Netherlands
22 GoldenDiamond Chinese date 2013/3/19 Netherlands
23 GoldenDiamond Wolfberry 2013/3/19 Netherlands
24 Tongrentang Honeysuckle 2013/3/14 UK
25 Tongrentang Chrysanthemum 2013/3/14 UK
26 Tongrentang Wolfberry 2013/3/14 UK
27 Tongrentang San Qi Root 2013/3/14 UK
28 Tongrentang Dried Lilybulb 2013/3/14 UK
29 Tongrentang Rosebud 2013/3/14 UK
30 Sen Ji Chrysanthemum 2012/11/18 US
31 Ben Cao Wolfberry 2012/11/18 US
32 Ben Cao Honeysuckle 2013/3/14 US
33 Lam Sheng Kee Chinese date 2013/3/14 US
34 Ben Cao Chrysanthemum 2013/3/14 US
35 Humei Foods Wolfberry 2013/3/14 US
36 Ben Cao Dried Lilybulb 2013/3/14 US
Annex 1: International Sample List
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
19
20
WHO classification explanation:
Ia = Extremely hazardous; Ib = Highly hazardous; II = Moderately hazardous;
III = slightly hazardous; U = Unlikely to present acute hazard in normal use;
O = Obsolete as pesticide, not classified; *=not listed.
MRL EU “-”: No specific product category for this Chinese product, therefore, MRL not listed
21
Annex 2: International Sample Testing
Results Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL EU
Banned
in China
WHO
classification
Tune Ren
Hong
San Qi Powder 15
Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.02 0.1   U
Dimethomorph 0.05 0.05   U
Ethoprophos 0.09 0.02 Y Ia
Iprodione 0.03 0.1   III
Oxadixyl 0.02 0.02   II
Propargite 0.01 0.02   III
Propham 0.07 0.1   *
Pyraclostrobin 0.01 0.05   *
Pyrimethanil 0.01 0.1   III
Thiophanate-methyl 0.35 0.1   U
Triadimefon and
0.13 0.2   II
triadimenol
HCH (Sum, without Lindan) 0.04 0.02 Y II
Procymidone 0.22 0.1   U
Quintozene 0.04 0.1   u
KW Chinese date 9
Omethoate 0.01 0.02   Ib
Forchlorfenuron 0.02 0.05   U
Imidacloprid 0.04 0.3   II
Tebuconazole 0.37 1   II
Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.03 0.1   II
Bifenthrin 0.04 0.2   II
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.02 0.2   II
Cypermethrin 0.06 2   II
Fenvalerate  Esfenvalerate
(Sum of RSSR Isomers)
0.21 0.02   II
Double Deer Chrysanthemum 9
Acephate 0.11 0.05   II
Acetamiprid 0.06 0.1   *
Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.29 0.1   U
Chlorpyrifos 0.13 0.5   II
Hexaflumuron 0.04 0.01   U
Imidacloprid 0.09 0.05   II
Lufenuron 0.03 0.05   *
Methamidophos 0.14 0.05 Y Ib
Cypermethrin 0.09 0.1   II
Sailing Boat Dried Lilybulb 3
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.15 -   U
Prochloraz 0.02 -   II
Thiophanate-methyl 0.08 -   U
Golden Leop-
ard
Rosebud 6 Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.08 0.1   U
Canada
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL EU
Banned
in China
WHO
classification
KW Honeysuckle 24
Abamectin(Sum) 0.01 0.02   *
Acetamiprid 0.15 0.1   *
Avermectin B1a 0.01 0.02   *
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.11 0.1   U
Chlorpyrifos 0.15 0.5   II
Difenoconazole 0.06 20   II
Omethoate 0.01 0.1   Ib
Emamectin(Sum) 0.11 0.02   *
Fipronil 0.06 0.005 Y II
Hexaconazole 0.05 0.05   III
Hexaflumuron 0.03  0.01   U
Imidacloprid 0.05 0.05   II
Myclobutanil 0.05 0.05   II
Phorate (Sum) 0.01 0.05 Y Ia
Phoxim 0.02 0.1   II
Pyridaben 0.02 0.05   II
Tebuconazole 0.01 50   II
Tebufenozide 0.18 0.1   U
Thiophanate-methyl 0.18 0.1   U
Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.03 0.2   II
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.45 1   II
Cypermethrin 0.45 0.1   II
Fenvalerate  Esfenvalerate
(Sum of RSSR Isomers)
0.11 0.05   II
Permethrin 0.05 0.1   II
Tune Ren
Hong
San Qi Powder 15 Boscalid 0.04 0.5   U
22
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL EU
Banned
in China
WHO
classification
Longevity Honeysuckle 23
Acetamiprid 0.07 0.1   *
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.27 0.1   U
Carbofuran (Sum) 0.007 0.05 Y Ib
Chlorpyrifos 0.02 0.5   II
Difenoconazole 0.05 20   II
Omethoate 0.01 0.1   Ib
Emamectin(Sum) 0.03 0.02   *
Fipronil 0.02 0.005 Y II
France
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL EU
Banned
in China
WHO
classification
Longevity Honeysuckle 23
Flusilazole 0.02 0.05   II
Hexaconazole 0.02 0.05   III
Imidacloprid 0.09 0.05   II
Myclobutanil 0.02 0.05   II
Phoxim 0.02 0.1   II
Pyridaben 0.02 0.05   II
Tebufenozide 0.02 0.1   U
Thiophanate methyl 0.66 0.1   U
Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.1 0.2   II
Bifenthrin 0.01 0.1   II
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.16 1   II
Cypermethrin 0.27 0.1   II
Dicofol (Sum) 0.06 0.1   II
Fenpropathrin 0.06 0.02   II
Fenvalerate  Esfenvalerate
(Sum of RSSR Isomers)
0.06 0.05   II
EAglobe Chrysanthemum 2
Omethoate 0.01 0.1   Ib
Phorate (Sum) 0.01 0.05 Y Ia
EAglobe Dried Lilybulb 4
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.22 -   U
Chlorpyrifos 0.01 -   II
Thiophanate-methyl 0.09 -   U
Procymidone 0.04 -   U
Longevity Chinese date 13
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.08 0.5   U
Chlorobenzuron 0.04 0.01   *
Difenoconazole 0.12 0.5   II
Imazalil 0.03 0.05   II
Imidacloprid 0.01 0.3   II
Prochloraz 0.06 0.05   II
Propiconazole 0.03 0.05   II
Thiophanate-methyl 0.01 0.3   U
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.05 0.2   II
Cypermethrin 0.11 2   II
Fenvalerate  Esfenvalerate
(Sum of RSSR Isomers)
0.1 0.02   II
Methacrifos 0.02 0.05   II
Tetradifon 0.06 0.01   U
23
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL EU
Banned
in China
WHO
classification
Golden Leop-
ard
Rosebud 6
Carbofuran 0.01 0.05 Y Ib
Imidacloprid 0.03 0.05   II
Methomyl/Thiodicarb(sum) 0.005 0.1   Ib
Myclobutanil 0.02 0.05   II
Triadimefon and triadimenol 1.4 0.2   II
KW Wolfberry 12
Acetamiprid 0.47 0.15   *
Amitraz(sum) 0.1 0.05   II
Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.18 0.3   U
Carbofuran(Sum) 0.08 0.01 Y Ib
Clofentezine 0.1 0.3   III
Imidacloprid 0.25 0.5   II
Myclobutanil 0.05 0.3   II
Propargite 0.09 2   III
Pyridaben 0.14 0.3   II
Thiophanate-methyl 0.04 1   U
Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.17 1   II
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.02 0.1   II
24 25
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL
EU
Banned in
China
WHO
classification
Three Coconut
Tree
Honeysuckle 26
Acetamiprid 0.48 0.1   *
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 1.1 0.1   U
Carbofuran (Sum) 0.01 0.05 Y Ib
Chlorpyrifos 0.08 0.5   II
Difenoconazole 0.41 20   II
Dimethomorph 0.03 0.05   U
Emamectin(Sum) 0.09 0.02   *
Fipronil 0.16 0.005 Y II
Flusilazole 0.04 0.05   II
Hexaconazole 0.14 0.05   III
Hexaflumuron 0.03  0.01   U
Imidacloprid 0.1 0.05   II
Methomyl/Thiodicarb(sum) 0.008 0.1   Ib
Phoxim 0.05 0.1   II
Propiconazole 0.05 0.1   II
Pyridaben 0.03 0.05   II
Tebuconazole 0.03 50   II
Tebufenozide 0.07 0.1   U
Thiophanate-methyl 6.7 0.1   U
Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.2 0.2   II
Atrazine 0.02 0.1   III
Bifenthrin 0.06 0.1   II
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.36 1   II
Cypermethrin 0.41 0.1   II
Endosulfan (Sum) 0.03 0.1   II
Fenvalerate  Esfenvalerate
(Sum of RSSR Isomers)
0.27 0.05   II
Three Coconut
Tree
Dried Lilybulb 1 Acetamiprid 0.04 -   *
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL
EU
Banned in
China
WHO
classification
Three Coconut
Tree
Chrysanthemum 18
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.87 0.1   U
Chlorpyrifos 0.05 0.5   II
Difenoconazole 0.04 20   II
Omethoate 0.01 0.1   Ib
Dimethomorph 0.24 0.05   U
Imidacloprid 0.19 0.05   II
Metalaxyl 0.05 0.1   II
Oxadixyl 0.04 0.02   II
Propamocarb 1.1 0.2   U
Propiconazole 0.01 0.1   II
Pyridaben 0.01 0.05   II
Pyrimethanil 0.02 0.1   III
Tebuconazole 0.01 50   II
Thiophanate-methyl 0.1 0.1   U
Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.02 0.2   II
Cypermethrin 0.13 0.1   II
Procymidone 0.02 0.1   U
Profenofos 0.31 0.1   II
Three Coconut
Tree
Wolfberry 14
Abamectin (Sum) 0.01 0.02   *
Acetamiprid 0.41 0.15   *
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.05 0.3   U
Carbofuran 0.01 0.01 Y Ib
Chlorpyrifos 0.01 0.5   II
Clofentezine 0.02 0.3   III
Difenoconazole 0.02 2   II
Imidacloprid 0.06 0.5   II
Propargite 0.08 2   III
Pyridaben 0.02 0.3   II
Thiophanate-methyl 0.69 1   U
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.02 0.1   II
Germany
26 27
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL
EU
Banned in
China
WHO
classification
Three Coconut
Tree
Wolfberry 14
Fenvalerate  Esfenvalerate
(Sum of RSSR Isomers)
0.21 0.02   II
Triazophos 0.02 0.01   Ib
Three Coconut
Tree
Chinese date Not Detected          
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL
EU
Banned in
China
WHO
classification
Teng Guan Chinese date 3
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.02 0.5   U
Propargite 0.12 4   III
Tebuconazole 0.08 1   II
Longevity Dried Lilybulb 7
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.03 -   U
Chlorpyrifos 0.02 -   II
Phorate (Sum) 0.006 - Y Ia
Thiophanate-methyl 0.04 -   U
Dicofol (Sum) 0.01 -   II
Dienochlor 0.17 -   O
Procymidone 0.07 -   U
Longevity Wolfberry 13
Acetamiprid 0.33 0.15   *
Amitraz (sum) 0.04 0.05   II
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL
EU
Banned in
China
WHO
classification
Longevity Wolfberry 13
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.02 0.3   U
Carbofuran (Sum) 0.01 0.01 Y Ib
Clofentezine 0.02 0.3   III
Imidacloprid 0.1 0.5   II
Propargite 0.16 2   III
Pyridaben 0.01 0.3   II
Tebufenozide 0.02 1   U
Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.02 1   II
Anthraquinone 0.02 0.01   U
Cypermethrin 0.05 0.5   II
Fenpropathrin 0.04 0.01   II
Italy
Netherlands
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL
EU
Banned in
China
WHO
classification
Golden Dia-
mond
Chrysanthemum 13
Acetamiprid 0.13 0.1   *
Buprofezin 0.05 0.05   III
Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.05 0.1   U
Chlorpyrifos 0.32 0.5   II
Fipronil 0.02 0.005 Y II
28 29
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL
EU
Banned in
China
WHO
classification
Golden Dia-
mond
Chrysanthemum 13
Hexaflumuron 0.08  0.01   U
Imidacloprid 0.07 0.05   II
Phoxim 0.01 0.1   II
Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.03 0.2   II
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.06 1   II
Cypermethrin 0.08 0.1   II
Endosulfan (Sum) 0.2 0.1   II
Profenofos 0.02 0.1   II
Golden Dia-
mond
Honeysuckle 19
Abamectin (Sum) 0.02 0.02   *
Acetamiprid 0.21 0.1   *
Avermectin B1a 0.01 0.02   *
Azoxystrobin 0.01 50   U
Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.19 0.1   U
Chlorpyrifos 0.02 0.5   II
Difenoconazole 0.06 20   II
Emamectin(Sum) 0.06 0.02   *
Fipronil 0.1 0.005 Y II
Hexaconazole 0.04 0.05   III
Hexaflumuron 0.02  0.01   U
Imidacloprid 0.04 0.05   II
Myclobutanil 0.07 0.05   II
Tebufenozide 0.11 0.1   U
Thiophanate-methyl 2.2 0.1   U
Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.03 0.2   II
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.18 1   II
Cypermethrin 0.2 0.1   II
Fenvalerate  Esfenvalerate
(Sum of RSSR Isomers)
0.04 0.05   II
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL
EU
Banned in
China
WHO
classification
Golden Dia-
mond
Chinese date 11
Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.15 0.5   U
Chlorobenzuron 0.28 0.01   *
Difenoconazole 0.31 0.5   II
Imidacloprid 0.03 0.3   II
Prochloraz 0.11 0.05   II
Propiconazole 0.17 0.05   II
Pyrimethanil 0.02 3   III
Tebuconazole 0.16 1   II
Thiophanate-methyl 0.09 0.3   U
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.02 0.2   II
Cypermethrin 0.23 2   II
GoldenDia-
mond
Wolfberry 14
Acetamiprid 0.43 0.15   *
Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.14 0.3   U
Carbofuran(Sum) 0.01 0.01 Y Ib
Clofentezine 0.01 0.3   III
Difenoconazole 0.02 2   II
Imidacloprid 0.02 0.5   II
Propargite 0.02 2   III
Pyridaben 0.04 0.3   II
Tebuconazole 0.01 1   II
Thiophanate-methyl 0.06 1   U
Cypermethrin 0.07 0.5   II
Fenpropathrin 0.06 0.01   II
Fenvalerate  Esfenvalerate
(Sum of RSSR Isomers)
0.12 0.02   II
Triazophos 0.07 0.01   Ib
30 31
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL EU
Banned in
China
WHO
classification
Tongrentang Honeysuckle 17
Acetamiprid 0.34 0.1   *
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.25 0.1   U
Carbofuran (Sum) 0.02 0.05 Y Ib
Chlorpyrifos 0.04 0.5   II
Difenoconazole 0.01 20   II
Emamectin(Sum) 0.01 0.02   *
Fipronil 0.03 0.005 Y II
Hexaflumuron 0.02  0.01   U
Imidacloprid 0.09 0.05   II
Pyridaben 0.02 0.05   II
Tebuconazole 0.01 50   II
Thiophanate-methyl 1.3 0.1   U
Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.04 0.2   II
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.11 1   II
Cypermethrin 0.21 0.1   II
Dicofol (Sum) 0.01 0.1   II
Fenvalerate  Esfenvalerate
(Sum of RSSR Isomers)
0.14 0.05   II
Tongrentang Chrysanthemum 15
Acetamiprid 0.05 0.1   *
Buprofezin 0.22 0.05   III
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.12 0.1   U
Chlorpyrifos 0.14 0.5   II
Fenobucarb 0.03 0.01   II
Fipronil 0.01 0.005 Y II
Imidacloprid 0.06 0.05   II
Isoprocarb 0.02 0.01   II
Phoxim 0.01 0.1   II
Thiophanate-methyl 0.05 0.1   U
Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.01 0.2   II
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL EU
Banned in
China
WHO
classification
Tongrentang Chrysanthemum 15
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.05 1   II
Cypermethrin 0.13 0.1   II
Endosulfan (Sum) 0.23 0.1   II
HCH (Sum, without Lindan) 0.02 0.02 Y II
Tongrentang Wolfberry 13
Acetamiprid 0.19 0.15   *
Amitraz (sum) 0.01 0.05   II
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.03 0.3   U
Carbofuran (Sum) 0.03 0.01 Y Ib
Chlorpyrifos 0.03 0.5   II
Clofentezine 0.01 0.3   III
Difenoconazole 0.02 2   II
Imidacloprid 0.07 0.5   II
Propargite 0.08 2   III
Pyridaben 0.02 0.3   II
Thiophanate-methyl 0.01 1   U
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.04 0.1   II
Cypermethrin 0.12 0.5   II
Tongrentang San Qi Root 7
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.02 0.1   U
Dimethomorph 0.04 0.05   U
Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.08 0.2   II
HCH (Sum, without Lindan) 0.008 0.02 Y II
Pentachloroaniline 0.06 0.01   *
Procymidone 0.27 0.1   U
Quintozene 0.14 0.1   U
Tongrentang Dried Lilybulb 4
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.26 -   U
Dicofol (Sum) 0.12 -   II
Dienochlor 0.08 -   O
Procymidone 0.03 -   U
Tongrentang Rosebud 2
Abamectin (Sum) 0.005 0.02   *
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.14 0.1   U
UK
32 33
USA
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL EU
Banned in
China
WHO
classification
Sen Ji Chrysanthemum 5
Acetamiprid 0.02 0.1   *
Buprofezin 0.02 0.05   III
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.26 0.1   U
Chlorpyrifos 0.22 0.5   II
Imidacloprid 0.14 0.05   II
Ben Cao Wolfberry 13
Acetamiprid 0.31 0.15   *
Amitraz (sum) 0.01 0.05   II
Carbofuran 0.01 0.01 Y Ib
Chlorpyrifos 0.01 0.5   II
Clofentezine 0.01 0.3   III
Imidacloprid 0.04 0.5   II
Propargite 0.05 2   III
Pyridaben 0.04 0.3   II
Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.01 1   II
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.07 0.1   II
Cypermethrin 0.09 0.5   II
Fenvalerate  Esfenvalerate
(Sum of RSSR Isomers)
0.06 0.02   II
Triazophos 0.05 0.01   Ib
Ben Cao Honeysuckle 19
Acetamiprid 0.1 0.1   *
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.72 0.1   U
Diethofencarb 0.01 0.05   U
Emamectin(Sum) 0.06 0.02   *
Flusilazole 0.09 0.05   II
Hexaconazole 0.11 0.05   III
Imidacloprid 0.15 0.05   II
Lufenuron 0.01 0.05   *
Myclobutanil 0.02 0.05   II
Propamocarb 0.02 0.2   U
Tebuconazole 0.03 50   II
Tebufenozide 0.04 0.1   U
Thiophanate-methyl 1.5 0.1   U
Bifenthrin 0.01 0.1   II
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL EU
Banned in
China
WHO
classification
Ben Cao Honeysuckle 19
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.36 1   II
Cypermethrin 0.85 0.1   II
Dicofol (Sum) 0.16 0.1   II
Fenvalerate  Esfenvalerate
(Sum of RSSR Isomers)
0.11 0.05   II
Procymidone 0.08 0.1   U
Lam Sheng
Kee
Chinese date 10
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.03 0.5   U
Chlorobenzuron 0.07 0.01   *
Difenoconazole 0.42 0.5   II
Flusilazole 0.04 0.1   II
Myclobutanil 0.03 0.5   II
Prochloraz 0.26 0.05   II
Propiconazole 0.18 0.05   II
Tebuconazole 0.45 1   II
Thiophanate-methyl 0.01 0.3   U
Cypermethrin 0.16 2   II
Ben Cao Chrysanthemum 8
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.04 0.1   U
Chlorpyrifos 0.04 0.5   II
Fipronil 0.01 0.005 Y II
Phoxim 0.01 0.1   II
Propamocarb 0.09 0.2   U
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.04 1   II
Endosulfan (Sum) 0.16 0.1   II
Triazophos 0.17 0.02   Ib
Humei Wolfberry 16
Acetamiprid 0.55 0.15   *
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.12 0.3   U
Chlorpyrifos 0.09 0.5   II
Clofentezine 0.06 0.3   III
Difenoconazole 0.04 2   II
Flusilazole 0.01 0.02   II
Imidacloprid 0.09 0.5   II
Prochloraz 0.01 0.05   II
Propargite 0.19 2   III
Propiconazole 0.02 0.05   II
Pyridaben 0.03 0.3   II
3534
Brand Product
No. of
pesticide
residue
Pesticide residue
Amount
(mg/kg)
MRL EU
Banned in
China
WHO
classification
Humei Wolfberry 16
Tebuconazole 0.11 1   II
Thiophanate-methyl 0.04 1   U
Chlorothalonil 0.02 2   U
Cyhalothrin lambda 0.04 0.1   II
Cypermethrin 0.07 0.5   II
Ben Cao Dried Lilybulb 4
Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.08 -   U
Thiophanate-methyl 0.15 -   U
Procymidone 0.04 -   U
Quintozene 0.04 -   U

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Chinese herbs-testing-results

  • 1. 3/F, Julong Office Building, Block7, Julong Garden, 68 Xinzhong Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing, China. 100027 Tel: (86)10 65546931 Fax: (86)10 65546932 www.greenpeace.cn Greenpeace is an independent global campaigning organisation that acts to change attitudes and behaviour, to protect and conserve the environment and to promote peace. Designed by Desile Brand Design (Beijing) Co.Ltd 1. The sources of all the data and information quoted in this report are from public materials; Greenpeace East Asia does not guarantee the timeliness, accuracy and integrity. 2. The findings in this report are the results of the independent research, analysis and study conducted by Greenpeace East Asia on the basis of the information acquired within the time limit of such research, analysis and study. 3. The legal provisions quoted in this report are restricted to which can be obtained by Greenpeace East Asia within the permissions. The understanding of such legal provisions only presents the view of Greenpeace East Asia on the relevant laws and regulations. Disclaimer : Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? Chinese Herbs: Results of Sample Testing from Seven Countries
  • 2. Summary Between November 2012 and April 2013, Greenpeace offices ① commissioned by Greenpeace East Asia ( hereinafter referred to as “GPEA”) bought Chinese herbal products from shops in seven key export markets: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the UK, and the USA. These samples were then sent to an independent science lab – to be tested for pesticide residues. In total, we collected 36 samples of herbal products imported from China, including chrysanthemum, wolfberry, honeysuckle, dried lily bulb, san qi, Chinese date, and rosebud. These products are favoured by health-conscious consumers and Asian communities, and they are purchased for their medicinal properties. However, the independent analysis found that a majority of the samples contained a cocktail of pesticides, some of them very dangerous: • 32 (out of the 36 samples collected) contained three or more kinds of pesticides. For example, the samples of honeysuckle collected from Canada and Germany contained 24 and 26 types of pesticides respectively. • 17 (out of 36 samples) showed residues of pesticides classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as highly or extremely hazardous. • 26 (out of 29 samples ② ) showed pesticide residue levels that exceeded what the European authorities consider the maximum level for safety (MRLs). Pesticides on Chinese herbs should not be considered an isolated case; rather, they are yet another example of the systematic failings of the chemical-intensive agricultural model. Greenpeace sees an urgent need for all of the world's governments to abandon chemical- intensive agriculture practices – which threaten not only people’s health, but biodiversity (for example population numbers of bees and other pollinators) – and make the switch to ecological farming ③ . ① The offices were Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the UK, and the USA. ② In our analysis of samples that exceeded EU MRL, we excluded seven dried lily bulb samples because there wasn't a specific product category for this Chinese product. ③ Even the poorest societies have the potential through ecological agriculture and integrated pest management to meet or significantly exceed yields produced by conventional methods, as well as reduce the demand for land conversion for agriculture, restore ecosystem services (particularly water), reduce the use of and need for synthetic fertilizers derived from fossil fuels, and reduce the use of harsh insecticides and herbicides. Summary 1.Uses and Scope of Chinese Herbs 2. The Overseas Market for Chinese Herbs 3. Sample Testing Method and Results 4. Conclusions and Suggestions: the Solution is Ecological Farming Reference Annexes Table Of Content 2 5 6 9 15 18 19
  • 3. 54 Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? Uses and Scope of Chinese Herbs Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? Uses and Scope of Chinese Herbs Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history in China and is a treasured part of Chinese culture. Chinese herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine are largely derived from natural ingredients and their processed products. According to data from the third national survey on Chinese medicine resources ④ , China has 12,807 kinds of Chinese medicine resources, including herbal plants (their roots, stems, flowers and fruit), animal parts, and minerals. Herbal plants have 11,146 different varieties. In traditional Chinese medicine theory, Chinese herbs are not only an alternative to Western medicine, but also an important part of the Chinese people’s daily diet. Chrysanthemum, honeysuckle and other herbs, for example, are directly soaked in water or made into other beverages. Wolfberries, lily bulbs, ginseng and other herbal ingredients have a wide range of uses in medicinal soups and other dishes. Fennel, dried ginger, and prickly ash, also classified as Chinese herbs, are used in everyday Chinese cooking as seasonings. ④ There have been three national surveys conducted on Chinese medicine resources. The third survey was conducted between 1983 and 1987. The fourth survey is currently being carried out. [rev 2011 Nov 6; cited 2013 May 14] Available from: http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2011-11/06/ content_1986952.htm Uses and Scope of Chinese Herbs
  • 4. 6 Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? The Overseas Market for Chinese Herbs The Overseas Market for Chinese Herbs 7Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? ⑤ NHS Choice. “CHM: What is evidence”. Available from http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/complementary-alternative-medicine/ Pages/what-is-scientific-evidence.aspx The Overseas Market for Chinese Herbs Chinese medicinal herbs are a gift from nature and a cultural heritage stemming back thousands of years. Sadly, these precious plant species have now become the latest “victims” of chemical- intensive agriculture. Traditional Chinese medicine, mostly based on natural therapies, is becoming increasingly known and accepted in the Western world. Treatment using traditional Chinese medicine is available in many European hospitals, backed by scientific evidence that proves, to some degree, their effectiveness ⑤ . Examples include pain relief through acupuncture and morning sickness relief by ginger extracts. One of the basic tenets of Chinese herbs is that many plants, either as medicine or food, are good for health. A growing number of Westerners have shown an interest in taking Chinese herbs resulting in an increased presence in Western markets. Export volumes of Chinese herbs from China in 2011 amounted to 2.33 billion US dollars, with an annual increase rate of 36.48% compared to that of the previous year . GPEA recently published a report “Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? - Investigation Report on Chinese Herbs and Pesticides”. Chinese herbs, purchased from nine Chinese herbal medicine companies, were tested, and three herbal medicine producing regions were investigated. Our independent analysis discovered that, in spite of the trust consumers and patients have in the health benefits of Chinese herbs, the Chinese herb farming model is heavily dependent on the use of chemical pesticides. The presence of pesticide residue in herbs also indicates. Chinese herbs grown in China are sold in Europe and North America. To get a better picture of the pesticide residues present in Chinese herbs currently on the market, Greenpeace East Asia also tested seven kinds of Chinese herbs that were produced in China but sold overseas. We hereby present key results from our investigation into the pesticides on exported Chinese herbs.
  • 5. 8 Sample Testing Method and Results Sample Testing Method and Results 9Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? 8第一章 中国的农药使用药中药 中药材农药污染调查报告 Between November 2012 and April 2013, Greenpeace offices selected seven kinds of Chinese herbs for testing, namely: chrysanthemum, wolfberry, honeysuckle, dried lily bulb, san qi root, Chinese date and rosebud. We purchased a total of 36 products from Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the UK and the USA (see annex 1). 500 grams of each product were bought, sealed individually in a secure pouch to prevent cross-contamination, and sent to an independent third party laboratory. Below are the key findings: 1.Majority of Samples Contained a Cocktail of Pesticides All samples were found to contain pesticide residues, except for one Chinese date sample in Germany. 32 out of 36 samples contained three or more kinds of pesticides. A honeysuckle sample from Germany contained the highest number of pesticide residues, with 26 different types of pesticides. The lily bulb samples had a lower end number of different residues, but still had between 1-7 kinds depending on the country (figure 1). Such large numbers of different pesticides found on individual samples is known as the cocktail effect, as the combination of different pesticides may have an effect more dangerous than simply an individual one (synthetic effect). There has so far been relatively little research on the toxicological effect of ingesting a mixture of pesticides, but based on the precautionary principle continuous exposure should be avoided. Figure 1: Multiple types of pesticide residues found in seven Chinese herbal products tested in seven countries ⑥ ⑥ Not all products were available for purchase in each country, thus an absent bar means the product was not tested in that country. Sample Testing Method and Results 0! 5! 10! 15! 20! 25! 30! US! Canada! UK! France! German! Italy! Netherland! Chinese date! Chrysanthemum! Chrysanthemum 2! Honeysuckle! Lily bulb! Rosebud! San Qi! Wolfberry! Wolfberry2!
  • 6. 10 Sample Testing Method and Results Sample Testing Method and Results 11Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? 2.Several Samples Revealed Pesticides Classified by the WHO as Extremely or Highly Hazardous (WHO Ia Ib) Nearly half of the samples (17 of the 36 samples) contained residues of pesticides classified by the WHO as extremely or highly hazardous (class Ia and Ib). These include carbofuran, phorate, and triazophos, albeit at low concentrations (table 1). Pesticides classified by the WHO as ‘WHO Ia Ib’ are considered to be a highly acute risk to health. Acute pesticide poisoning may happen when a person is directly exposed to these pesticides. Acute pesticide poisoning is unfortunately a relatively frequent occurrence in the agricultural industry. A study undertaken between 1998-2005 examined 3,271 acute pesticides poisoning cases in American agricultural farmers, and suggested that acute pesticide poisoning in the agricultural industry continues to be a significant problem3 . This is of greater concern in developing countries where farmers tend to use less protection and are less informed regarding usage instruction when spraying pesticides. Table 1: Presence of pesticide residue classified as WHO Ia and Ib 3. 26 Out of 29 Samples Had Residue Levels Higher than the EU Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) While EU MRLs should not be taken as a guarantee of safe levels of toxic chemicals, 26 out of the 29 samples had pesticide residues that exceeded EU MRLs. Lily bulb samples are not considered in the analysis of residue levels exceeding EU MRLs since there was no product category specific to this Chinese herb product ⑦ . Fungicide thiophanate-methyl was found in honeysuckle samples bought in all six countries at levels exceeding EU MRLs. According to classifications by the WHO, thiophanate-methyl is a chemical of low acute toxicity. However, both the EU and the Australian government define it as having potential harm to the respiratory system and aquatic organisms4 (see figure 2 for pesticide residues on the six honeysuckle samples purchased in six countries). MRL: Not a guarantee for food safety The establishment of MRLs takes farming practices into consideration, and is used for management purposes. Assumptions made by toxicity studies in the lab are that a certain level of pesticide exposure is acceptable or at least unavoidable. However, what has been often neglected in these studies is that long-term exposure to any dosage of chemical pesticides might pose a considerable threat to people’s health. ⑦ The MRL standards for each product are based on the groups of product classification under EU No. 212/2013. These standards are defined by EC No. 296/2005 which was updated on 17/04/2013. Each sample’s product category within the EU MRL standards are: 1)Wolfberry: category with code number 231010 - tomatoes (Cherry tomatoes, tree tomato, Physalis, gojiberry, wolfberry (Lycium barbarum and L. Chinese)) 2)Chinese Date: category with code number 0140040 - plums (under category stone fruit, examples of varieties include Red date/ Chinese date/Chinese jujube) 3)Honeysuckle, Chrysanthemum, Rosebud: category with code 631990 – others (under the category of herbal infusions (dried) - (a) flowers) 4)San Qi powder, San Qi root: category with code 633990 – others (under the category of herbal infusions (dried) - (c) roots) Number of products, where found Range of residue levels found (mg/kg) Countries where the samples were bought Extremely Hazardous WHO class Ia Ethoprophos 1 0.09 Canada Phorate 3 0.006-0.01 Canada, Italy, France Highly Hazardous WHO class Ib Carbofuran 10 0.007-0.08 US, France, Italy, UK, Netherland, Germany, Canada Omethoate 5 0.01 France, Germany, Canada Methamidophos 1 0.14 Canada Methomyl 2 0.005-0.008 Germany, Canada Triazophos 4 0.02-0.17 US, Germany, Netherland
  • 7. 12 Sample Testing Method and Results Sample Testing Method and Results 13Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? The EU classifies5 carbendazim as a chemical that could potentially harm the unborn child, affect male fertility, and cause inheritable genetic damage. And yet this chemical was the most commonly found pesticide from 25 of the samples, with 11 of the samples exceeding the EU’s MRL. Many of the samples contained several pesticides exceeding the EU MRLs. For example, a sample of Coconut Tree branded honeysuckle in Germany tested positive for 26 different pesticides, nine of them exceeding EU MRLs. Of the chrysanthemum bought in Britain, 15 pesticides were detected and eight of them exceeded EU MRLs (annex 2). 0   0.1   0.2   0.3   0.4   0.5   0.6   0.7   Acetam iprid   Carbendazim /Benom yl  (sum )   Carbofuran  (Sum )     Chlorpyrifos   Difenoconazole   Om ethoate     Em am ecHn(Sum )  Fipronil   Flusilazole   Hexaconazole   Im idacloprid   M yclobutanil  Phoxim   Pyridaben   Tebufenozide   Thiophanate-­‐m ethyl   Triadim efon  and  triadim enol   Bifenthrin   Cyhalothrin  lam bda   Cyperm ethrin   Dicofol  (Sum )   Fenpropathrin   Fenvalerate    Esfenvalerate  (Sum  of  RSSR  Isom ers)   Residue  level  (mg/kg)   Pes1cide  residues  in  Chinese  Honeysuckle  bought  in  France   Sample  Residue  Level  (mg/kg)   EU  Maximum  Residue  Limit  (mg/kg)   0   0.2   0.4   0.6   0.8   1   1.2   1.4   Acetam iprid   Carbendazim /Benom yl  (sum )   Carbofuran  (Sum )     Chlorpyrifos   Difenoconazole   Em am ecEn(Sum )   Fipronil   Hexaflum uron   Im idacloprid  Pyridaben   Tebuconazole   Thiophanate-­‐m ethyl   Triadim efon  and  triadim enol   Cyhalothrin  lam bda   Cyperm ethrin   Dicofol  (Sum )   Fenvalerate    Esfenvalerate  (Sum  of  RSSR  Isom ers)   Residue  level  (mg/kg)   Pes1cide  residues  in  Chinese  Honeysuckle  bought  in  the  UK   Sample  Residue  Level  (mg/kg)   EU  Maximum  Residue  Limit  (mg/kg)   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   Acetam iprid   Carbendazim /Benom yl  (sum )   Carbofuran  (Sum )     Chlorpyrifos   Difenoconazole   Dim ethom orph   Em am ecFn(Sum )  Fipronil   Flusilazole   Hexaconazole   Hexaflum uron   Im idacloprid   M ethom yl/Thiodicarb(sum )  Phoxim   Propiconazole   Pyridaben   Tebuconazole   Tebufenozide   Thiophanate-­‐m ethyl   Triadim efon  and  triadim enol  Atrazine   Bifenthrin   Cyhalothrin  lam bda   Cyperm ethrin   Endosulfan  (Sum )     Fenvalerate    Esfenvalerate  (Sum  of  RSSR  Isom ers)   Residue  level  (mg/kg)   Pes1cide  residues  in  Chinese  Honeysuckle  bought  in  Germany   Sample  Residue  Level  (mg/kg)   EU  Maximum  Residue  Limit  (mg/kg)   0   0.05   0.1   0.15   0.2   0.25   0.3   0.35   0.4   0.45   0.5   Abam ec/n(Sum )   Acetam iprid   Averm ec/n  B1a   Carbendazim /Benom yl  (sum )   Chlorpyrifos   Difenoconazole   Dim ethoate/Om ethoate(sum )   Em am ec/n(Sum )  Fipronil   Hexaconazole   Hexaflum uron   Im idacloprid   M yclobutanil   Om ethoate   Phorate  (Sum )    Phoxim   Pyridaben   Tebuconazole   Tebufenozide   Thiophanate-­‐m ethyl   Triadim efon  and  triadim enol   Cyhalothrin  lam bda   Cyperm ethrin   Fenvalerate    Esfenvalerate  (Sum  of  RSSR  Isom ers)   Perm ethrin   Residue  level  (mg/kg)   Pes1cide  residues  in  Chinese  Honeysuckle  bought  in  Canada   Sample  Residue  Level  (mg/kg)   EU  Maximum  Residue  Limit  (mg/kg)   0   0.2   0.4   0.6   0.8   1   1.2   1.4   1.6   Acetam iprid   Carbendazim /Benom yl  (sum )   Diethofencarb   Em am ecDn(Sum )  Flusilazole   Hexaconazole   Im idacloprid  Lufenuron   M yclobutanil   Propam ocarb   Tebuconazole   Tebufenozide   Thiophanate-­‐m ethyl  Bifenthrin   Cyhalothrin  lam bda   Cyperm ethrin   Dicofol  (Sum )   Fenvalerate    Esfenvalerate  (Sum  of  RSSR  Isom ers)   Procym idone   Residue  level  (mg/kg)   Pes1cide  residues  in  Chinese  Honeysuckle  bought  in  the  USA   Sample  Residue  Level  (mg/kg)   EU  Maximum  Residue  Limit  (mg/kg)   0   0.5   1   1.5   2   2.5   Abam ec-n  (Sum )   Acetam iprid   Averm ec-n  B1a   Azoxystrobin   Carbendazim /Benom yl(sum )   Chlorpyrifos   Difenoconazole   Em am ec-n(Sum )  Fipronil   Hexaconazole   Hexaflum uron   Im idacloprid   M yclobutanil   Tebufenozide   Thiophanate-­‐m ethyl   Triadim efon  and  triadim enol   Cyhalothrin  lam bda   Cyperm ethrin   Fenvalerate    Esfenvalerate  (Sum  of  RSSR  Isom ers)   Residue  level  (mg/kg)   Pes1cide  residues  in  Chinese  Honeysuckle  bought  in  the   Netherlands  Sample  Residue  Level  (mg/kg)   EU  Maximum  Residue  Limit  (mg/kg)  
  • 8. Conclusions and Suggestions: the Solution is Ecological Farming 15Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail?14 Sample Testing Method and ResultsChinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? Conclusions and Suggestions: the Solution is Ecological Farming 1.Just Another Example of the Systemic Failure of Chemical-intensive Agriculture Pesticide contamination of Chinese herbs should not be viewed as an exceptional case, but rather yet another example of failure by the chemical-intensive agricultural model in China and around the world. The reliance on chemical pesticides is so heavy that even natural herbs, which have a reputation for being healthy, are now contaminated by pesticides. In addition, we found the presence of extremely hazardous pesticides that may come from deliberate application on the plants, or contamination from the environment due to historical use. Although a large amount of pesticide is used, only a small percentage reaches the target crops. The majority ends up in the environment – the soil, water and atmosphere, which then has a negative impact on non-target organisms, and destroys the ecological balance of the surrounding environment. For example, a recent Greenpeace International report Bees in Decline reviewed the key factors affecting the decline in populations of bees and other pollinators. The report concludes that the use of certain chemical pesticides is one of the factors responsible for bee decline globally. The study also highlights the ecological and economic importance of healthy bee populations and stresses the urgent need to eliminate the use of top-ranking bee harming pesticides . Chemical pesticides also kill many insects that can be beneficial for natural pest control in the farm. This is one reason why chemical pesticides make it harder to avoid pest damage in the crop, leading to an increase in incidence of damage by pests and disease. Thus, in the long term, chemical-intensive agriculture becomes more vulnerable to pest damage and requires greater and greater use of pesticides. This means higher costs for farmers and higher risks to all of us due to the presence of toxics chemicals in agriculture. In short, the impact on the environment by this current form of agriculture has become tremendously damaging.
  • 9. 1716 Conclusions and Suggestions: the Solution is Ecological Farming Chinese Herbs: Elixir of Health or Pesticide Cocktail? 2.Getting off the Chemical Treadmill: Ecological Farming is the Solution Ecological farming protects soil, water resources, the climate and biodiversity. It does not use chemical fertilizers or pesticides, rather a variety of modern, ecological farming technologies and techniques to keep the environment clean and maintain the ecological balance. Ecological farming advocates species and crop diversification. It stresses the inter-dependence of natural resources, such as protecting biodiversity, recycling nutrients, promoting soil regeneration, and the good use of all natural resources of the whole ecosystem. It is a much more flexible and effective agricultural strategy, particularly under erratic climatic changes. In their purest form, Chinese herbs should represent nature, without chemical pollution. In order to create an uncontaminated environment for the farming of Chinese herbs, we need to abandon the current chemical agricultural model and switch to an ecological model. Policy makers should generate and reward policy options that encourage sustainable and environmental practices. Examples include incentives to promote integrated pest management, payment to farmers and local communities for ecosystem services, facilitating and providing incentives for alternative markets such as green products , and moving towards an ecological farming model.
  • 10. 18 张惠源, 赵润怀, 袁昌齐, 孙传奇, 张志英. 我国的中药资源种类.《中国中药杂志》, 1995年07期。 中国医药保健品进出口商会,2011 年中国医药保健品进出口统计 . [report on the internet]. [rev 2010 Feb 7; cited 2013 May 20]. Available from: http://www.cccmhpie.org.cn/Pub/3317/47889.shtml Geoffrey M. Calvert MD, MPH1*, Jennifer Karnik MPH1, Louise Mehler PHD, MD2, John Beckman BS3, Barbara Morrissey MS4, Jennifer Sievert BA5, Rosanna Barrett MPH6, Michelle Lackovic MPH7, Laura Mabee BA8, Abby Schwartz MPH9, Yvette Mitchell MS10, Stephanie Moraga-McHaley MS11. Acute pesticide poisoning among agricultural workers in the United States 1998–2005. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Volume 51, Issue 12, pages 883–898, December 2008. Thiophanate-methyl, classified by the EU as possibly causing harm to the respiratory system, under Dir. 67/548/EEC, and very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects, under Reg. 1272/2008. Classified by the EU as possibly causing harm to unborn children, impairing fertility and causing inheritable genetic damage, Dir. 67/548/EEC. Greenpeace, Bees in Decline, a review of factors that put pollinators and agriculture in Europe at risk. [report on the internet]. [rev 2013 Apr 9; cited 2013 May]. Available from: http://www.greenpeace. org/international/en/publications/Campaign-reports/Agriculture/Bees-in-Decline/. Crowder, D. W., Northfield, T. D., Strand, M. R. Snyder, W. E. 2010. Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control. Nature, 466: 109-112. Foley, J. A., Ramankutty, N., Brauman, K. A., Cassidy, E. S., Gerber, J. S., Johnston, M., Mueller, N. D., O/'Connell, C., Ray, D. K., West, P. C., Balzer, C., Bennett, E. M., Carpenter, S. R., Hill, J., Monfreda, C., Polasky, S., Rockstrom, J., Sheehan, J., Siebert, S., Tilman, D. Zaks, D. P. M. 2011. Solutions for a cultivated planet. Nature, 478: 337–342. Rockstrom, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K., Persson, A., Chapin, F. S., Lambin, E. F., Lenton, T. M., Scheffer, M., Folke, C., Schellnhuber, H. J., Nykvist, B., de Wit, C. A., Hughes, T., van der Leeuw, S., Rodhe, H., Sorlin, S., Snyder, P. K., Costanza, R., Svedin, U., Falkenmark, M., Karlberg, L., Corell, R. W., Fabry, V. J., Hansen, J., Walker, B., Liverman, D., Richardson, K., Crutzen, P. Foley, J. A. 2009. A safe operating space for humanity. Nature, 461: 472-475. IAASTD. International assessment of agricultural knowledge, science and technology for development, Synthesis report[R]. USA: IAASTD, ISBN 978-1-59726-550-8, 2009. Reference No. Brand Sample Purchase Date Country 1 KW Honeysuckle 2013/3/25 Canada 2 KW Chinese date 2013/3/25 Canada 3 Double Deer Chrysanthemum 2013/3/25 Canada 4 Tune Ren Hong San Qi Powder 2013/3/26 Canada 5 Sailing Boat brand Dried Lilybulb 2013/3/26 Canada 6 Golden Leopard Rosebud 2013/3/26 Canada 7 KW Wolfberry 2013/3/25 Canada 8 Longevity Honeysuckle 2013/3/19 France 9 EAglobe Chrysanthemum 2013/3/19 France 10 EAglobe Dried Lilybulb 2013/3/19 France 11 Longevity Chinese date 2013/3/20 France 12 Three Coconut Tree Honeysuckle 2013/3/20 Germany 13 Three Coconut Tree Dried Lilybulb 2013/3/20 Germany 14 Three Coconut Tree Chrysanthemum 2013/3/20 Germany 15 Three Coconut Tree Wolfberry 2013/3/20 Germany 16 Three Coconut Tree Chinese date 2013/3/20 Germany 17 Teng Guan Chinese date 2013/3/19 Italy 18 Longevity Dried Lilybulb 2013/3/19 Italy 19 Longevity Wolfberry 2013/3/19 Italy 20 GoldenDiamond Chrysanthemum 2013/3/19 Netherlands 21 GoldenDiamond Honeysuckle 2013/3/19 Netherlands 22 GoldenDiamond Chinese date 2013/3/19 Netherlands 23 GoldenDiamond Wolfberry 2013/3/19 Netherlands 24 Tongrentang Honeysuckle 2013/3/14 UK 25 Tongrentang Chrysanthemum 2013/3/14 UK 26 Tongrentang Wolfberry 2013/3/14 UK 27 Tongrentang San Qi Root 2013/3/14 UK 28 Tongrentang Dried Lilybulb 2013/3/14 UK 29 Tongrentang Rosebud 2013/3/14 UK 30 Sen Ji Chrysanthemum 2012/11/18 US 31 Ben Cao Wolfberry 2012/11/18 US 32 Ben Cao Honeysuckle 2013/3/14 US 33 Lam Sheng Kee Chinese date 2013/3/14 US 34 Ben Cao Chrysanthemum 2013/3/14 US 35 Humei Foods Wolfberry 2013/3/14 US 36 Ben Cao Dried Lilybulb 2013/3/14 US Annex 1: International Sample List 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 19
  • 11. 20 WHO classification explanation: Ia = Extremely hazardous; Ib = Highly hazardous; II = Moderately hazardous; III = slightly hazardous; U = Unlikely to present acute hazard in normal use; O = Obsolete as pesticide, not classified; *=not listed. MRL EU “-”: No specific product category for this Chinese product, therefore, MRL not listed 21 Annex 2: International Sample Testing Results Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Tune Ren Hong San Qi Powder 15 Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.02 0.1   U Dimethomorph 0.05 0.05   U Ethoprophos 0.09 0.02 Y Ia Iprodione 0.03 0.1   III Oxadixyl 0.02 0.02   II Propargite 0.01 0.02   III Propham 0.07 0.1   * Pyraclostrobin 0.01 0.05   * Pyrimethanil 0.01 0.1   III Thiophanate-methyl 0.35 0.1   U Triadimefon and 0.13 0.2   II triadimenol HCH (Sum, without Lindan) 0.04 0.02 Y II Procymidone 0.22 0.1   U Quintozene 0.04 0.1   u KW Chinese date 9 Omethoate 0.01 0.02   Ib Forchlorfenuron 0.02 0.05   U Imidacloprid 0.04 0.3   II Tebuconazole 0.37 1   II Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.03 0.1   II Bifenthrin 0.04 0.2   II Cyhalothrin lambda 0.02 0.2   II Cypermethrin 0.06 2   II Fenvalerate Esfenvalerate (Sum of RSSR Isomers) 0.21 0.02   II Double Deer Chrysanthemum 9 Acephate 0.11 0.05   II Acetamiprid 0.06 0.1   * Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.29 0.1   U Chlorpyrifos 0.13 0.5   II Hexaflumuron 0.04 0.01   U Imidacloprid 0.09 0.05   II Lufenuron 0.03 0.05   * Methamidophos 0.14 0.05 Y Ib Cypermethrin 0.09 0.1   II Sailing Boat Dried Lilybulb 3 Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.15 -   U Prochloraz 0.02 -   II Thiophanate-methyl 0.08 -   U Golden Leop- ard Rosebud 6 Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.08 0.1   U Canada Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification KW Honeysuckle 24 Abamectin(Sum) 0.01 0.02   * Acetamiprid 0.15 0.1   * Avermectin B1a 0.01 0.02   * Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.11 0.1   U Chlorpyrifos 0.15 0.5   II Difenoconazole 0.06 20   II Omethoate 0.01 0.1   Ib Emamectin(Sum) 0.11 0.02   * Fipronil 0.06 0.005 Y II Hexaconazole 0.05 0.05   III Hexaflumuron 0.03  0.01   U Imidacloprid 0.05 0.05   II Myclobutanil 0.05 0.05   II Phorate (Sum) 0.01 0.05 Y Ia Phoxim 0.02 0.1   II Pyridaben 0.02 0.05   II Tebuconazole 0.01 50   II Tebufenozide 0.18 0.1   U Thiophanate-methyl 0.18 0.1   U Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.03 0.2   II Cyhalothrin lambda 0.45 1   II Cypermethrin 0.45 0.1   II Fenvalerate Esfenvalerate (Sum of RSSR Isomers) 0.11 0.05   II Permethrin 0.05 0.1   II Tune Ren Hong San Qi Powder 15 Boscalid 0.04 0.5   U
  • 12. 22 Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Longevity Honeysuckle 23 Acetamiprid 0.07 0.1   * Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.27 0.1   U Carbofuran (Sum) 0.007 0.05 Y Ib Chlorpyrifos 0.02 0.5   II Difenoconazole 0.05 20   II Omethoate 0.01 0.1   Ib Emamectin(Sum) 0.03 0.02   * Fipronil 0.02 0.005 Y II France Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Longevity Honeysuckle 23 Flusilazole 0.02 0.05   II Hexaconazole 0.02 0.05   III Imidacloprid 0.09 0.05   II Myclobutanil 0.02 0.05   II Phoxim 0.02 0.1   II Pyridaben 0.02 0.05   II Tebufenozide 0.02 0.1   U Thiophanate methyl 0.66 0.1   U Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.1 0.2   II Bifenthrin 0.01 0.1   II Cyhalothrin lambda 0.16 1   II Cypermethrin 0.27 0.1   II Dicofol (Sum) 0.06 0.1   II Fenpropathrin 0.06 0.02   II Fenvalerate Esfenvalerate (Sum of RSSR Isomers) 0.06 0.05   II EAglobe Chrysanthemum 2 Omethoate 0.01 0.1   Ib Phorate (Sum) 0.01 0.05 Y Ia EAglobe Dried Lilybulb 4 Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.22 -   U Chlorpyrifos 0.01 -   II Thiophanate-methyl 0.09 -   U Procymidone 0.04 -   U Longevity Chinese date 13 Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.08 0.5   U Chlorobenzuron 0.04 0.01   * Difenoconazole 0.12 0.5   II Imazalil 0.03 0.05   II Imidacloprid 0.01 0.3   II Prochloraz 0.06 0.05   II Propiconazole 0.03 0.05   II Thiophanate-methyl 0.01 0.3   U Cyhalothrin lambda 0.05 0.2   II Cypermethrin 0.11 2   II Fenvalerate Esfenvalerate (Sum of RSSR Isomers) 0.1 0.02   II Methacrifos 0.02 0.05   II Tetradifon 0.06 0.01   U 23 Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Golden Leop- ard Rosebud 6 Carbofuran 0.01 0.05 Y Ib Imidacloprid 0.03 0.05   II Methomyl/Thiodicarb(sum) 0.005 0.1   Ib Myclobutanil 0.02 0.05   II Triadimefon and triadimenol 1.4 0.2   II KW Wolfberry 12 Acetamiprid 0.47 0.15   * Amitraz(sum) 0.1 0.05   II Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.18 0.3   U Carbofuran(Sum) 0.08 0.01 Y Ib Clofentezine 0.1 0.3   III Imidacloprid 0.25 0.5   II Myclobutanil 0.05 0.3   II Propargite 0.09 2   III Pyridaben 0.14 0.3   II Thiophanate-methyl 0.04 1   U Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.17 1   II Cyhalothrin lambda 0.02 0.1   II
  • 13. 24 25 Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Three Coconut Tree Honeysuckle 26 Acetamiprid 0.48 0.1   * Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 1.1 0.1   U Carbofuran (Sum) 0.01 0.05 Y Ib Chlorpyrifos 0.08 0.5   II Difenoconazole 0.41 20   II Dimethomorph 0.03 0.05   U Emamectin(Sum) 0.09 0.02   * Fipronil 0.16 0.005 Y II Flusilazole 0.04 0.05   II Hexaconazole 0.14 0.05   III Hexaflumuron 0.03  0.01   U Imidacloprid 0.1 0.05   II Methomyl/Thiodicarb(sum) 0.008 0.1   Ib Phoxim 0.05 0.1   II Propiconazole 0.05 0.1   II Pyridaben 0.03 0.05   II Tebuconazole 0.03 50   II Tebufenozide 0.07 0.1   U Thiophanate-methyl 6.7 0.1   U Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.2 0.2   II Atrazine 0.02 0.1   III Bifenthrin 0.06 0.1   II Cyhalothrin lambda 0.36 1   II Cypermethrin 0.41 0.1   II Endosulfan (Sum) 0.03 0.1   II Fenvalerate Esfenvalerate (Sum of RSSR Isomers) 0.27 0.05   II Three Coconut Tree Dried Lilybulb 1 Acetamiprid 0.04 -   * Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Three Coconut Tree Chrysanthemum 18 Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.87 0.1   U Chlorpyrifos 0.05 0.5   II Difenoconazole 0.04 20   II Omethoate 0.01 0.1   Ib Dimethomorph 0.24 0.05   U Imidacloprid 0.19 0.05   II Metalaxyl 0.05 0.1   II Oxadixyl 0.04 0.02   II Propamocarb 1.1 0.2   U Propiconazole 0.01 0.1   II Pyridaben 0.01 0.05   II Pyrimethanil 0.02 0.1   III Tebuconazole 0.01 50   II Thiophanate-methyl 0.1 0.1   U Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.02 0.2   II Cypermethrin 0.13 0.1   II Procymidone 0.02 0.1   U Profenofos 0.31 0.1   II Three Coconut Tree Wolfberry 14 Abamectin (Sum) 0.01 0.02   * Acetamiprid 0.41 0.15   * Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.05 0.3   U Carbofuran 0.01 0.01 Y Ib Chlorpyrifos 0.01 0.5   II Clofentezine 0.02 0.3   III Difenoconazole 0.02 2   II Imidacloprid 0.06 0.5   II Propargite 0.08 2   III Pyridaben 0.02 0.3   II Thiophanate-methyl 0.69 1   U Cyhalothrin lambda 0.02 0.1   II Germany
  • 14. 26 27 Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Three Coconut Tree Wolfberry 14 Fenvalerate Esfenvalerate (Sum of RSSR Isomers) 0.21 0.02   II Triazophos 0.02 0.01   Ib Three Coconut Tree Chinese date Not Detected           Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Teng Guan Chinese date 3 Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.02 0.5   U Propargite 0.12 4   III Tebuconazole 0.08 1   II Longevity Dried Lilybulb 7 Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.03 -   U Chlorpyrifos 0.02 -   II Phorate (Sum) 0.006 - Y Ia Thiophanate-methyl 0.04 -   U Dicofol (Sum) 0.01 -   II Dienochlor 0.17 -   O Procymidone 0.07 -   U Longevity Wolfberry 13 Acetamiprid 0.33 0.15   * Amitraz (sum) 0.04 0.05   II Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Longevity Wolfberry 13 Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.02 0.3   U Carbofuran (Sum) 0.01 0.01 Y Ib Clofentezine 0.02 0.3   III Imidacloprid 0.1 0.5   II Propargite 0.16 2   III Pyridaben 0.01 0.3   II Tebufenozide 0.02 1   U Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.02 1   II Anthraquinone 0.02 0.01   U Cypermethrin 0.05 0.5   II Fenpropathrin 0.04 0.01   II Italy Netherlands Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Golden Dia- mond Chrysanthemum 13 Acetamiprid 0.13 0.1   * Buprofezin 0.05 0.05   III Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.05 0.1   U Chlorpyrifos 0.32 0.5   II Fipronil 0.02 0.005 Y II
  • 15. 28 29 Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Golden Dia- mond Chrysanthemum 13 Hexaflumuron 0.08  0.01   U Imidacloprid 0.07 0.05   II Phoxim 0.01 0.1   II Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.03 0.2   II Cyhalothrin lambda 0.06 1   II Cypermethrin 0.08 0.1   II Endosulfan (Sum) 0.2 0.1   II Profenofos 0.02 0.1   II Golden Dia- mond Honeysuckle 19 Abamectin (Sum) 0.02 0.02   * Acetamiprid 0.21 0.1   * Avermectin B1a 0.01 0.02   * Azoxystrobin 0.01 50   U Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.19 0.1   U Chlorpyrifos 0.02 0.5   II Difenoconazole 0.06 20   II Emamectin(Sum) 0.06 0.02   * Fipronil 0.1 0.005 Y II Hexaconazole 0.04 0.05   III Hexaflumuron 0.02  0.01   U Imidacloprid 0.04 0.05   II Myclobutanil 0.07 0.05   II Tebufenozide 0.11 0.1   U Thiophanate-methyl 2.2 0.1   U Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.03 0.2   II Cyhalothrin lambda 0.18 1   II Cypermethrin 0.2 0.1   II Fenvalerate Esfenvalerate (Sum of RSSR Isomers) 0.04 0.05   II Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Golden Dia- mond Chinese date 11 Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.15 0.5   U Chlorobenzuron 0.28 0.01   * Difenoconazole 0.31 0.5   II Imidacloprid 0.03 0.3   II Prochloraz 0.11 0.05   II Propiconazole 0.17 0.05   II Pyrimethanil 0.02 3   III Tebuconazole 0.16 1   II Thiophanate-methyl 0.09 0.3   U Cyhalothrin lambda 0.02 0.2   II Cypermethrin 0.23 2   II GoldenDia- mond Wolfberry 14 Acetamiprid 0.43 0.15   * Carbendazim/Benomyl(sum) 0.14 0.3   U Carbofuran(Sum) 0.01 0.01 Y Ib Clofentezine 0.01 0.3   III Difenoconazole 0.02 2   II Imidacloprid 0.02 0.5   II Propargite 0.02 2   III Pyridaben 0.04 0.3   II Tebuconazole 0.01 1   II Thiophanate-methyl 0.06 1   U Cypermethrin 0.07 0.5   II Fenpropathrin 0.06 0.01   II Fenvalerate Esfenvalerate (Sum of RSSR Isomers) 0.12 0.02   II Triazophos 0.07 0.01   Ib
  • 16. 30 31 Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Tongrentang Honeysuckle 17 Acetamiprid 0.34 0.1   * Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.25 0.1   U Carbofuran (Sum) 0.02 0.05 Y Ib Chlorpyrifos 0.04 0.5   II Difenoconazole 0.01 20   II Emamectin(Sum) 0.01 0.02   * Fipronil 0.03 0.005 Y II Hexaflumuron 0.02  0.01   U Imidacloprid 0.09 0.05   II Pyridaben 0.02 0.05   II Tebuconazole 0.01 50   II Thiophanate-methyl 1.3 0.1   U Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.04 0.2   II Cyhalothrin lambda 0.11 1   II Cypermethrin 0.21 0.1   II Dicofol (Sum) 0.01 0.1   II Fenvalerate Esfenvalerate (Sum of RSSR Isomers) 0.14 0.05   II Tongrentang Chrysanthemum 15 Acetamiprid 0.05 0.1   * Buprofezin 0.22 0.05   III Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.12 0.1   U Chlorpyrifos 0.14 0.5   II Fenobucarb 0.03 0.01   II Fipronil 0.01 0.005 Y II Imidacloprid 0.06 0.05   II Isoprocarb 0.02 0.01   II Phoxim 0.01 0.1   II Thiophanate-methyl 0.05 0.1   U Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.01 0.2   II Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Tongrentang Chrysanthemum 15 Cyhalothrin lambda 0.05 1   II Cypermethrin 0.13 0.1   II Endosulfan (Sum) 0.23 0.1   II HCH (Sum, without Lindan) 0.02 0.02 Y II Tongrentang Wolfberry 13 Acetamiprid 0.19 0.15   * Amitraz (sum) 0.01 0.05   II Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.03 0.3   U Carbofuran (Sum) 0.03 0.01 Y Ib Chlorpyrifos 0.03 0.5   II Clofentezine 0.01 0.3   III Difenoconazole 0.02 2   II Imidacloprid 0.07 0.5   II Propargite 0.08 2   III Pyridaben 0.02 0.3   II Thiophanate-methyl 0.01 1   U Cyhalothrin lambda 0.04 0.1   II Cypermethrin 0.12 0.5   II Tongrentang San Qi Root 7 Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.02 0.1   U Dimethomorph 0.04 0.05   U Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.08 0.2   II HCH (Sum, without Lindan) 0.008 0.02 Y II Pentachloroaniline 0.06 0.01   * Procymidone 0.27 0.1   U Quintozene 0.14 0.1   U Tongrentang Dried Lilybulb 4 Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.26 -   U Dicofol (Sum) 0.12 -   II Dienochlor 0.08 -   O Procymidone 0.03 -   U Tongrentang Rosebud 2 Abamectin (Sum) 0.005 0.02   * Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.14 0.1   U UK
  • 17. 32 33 USA Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Sen Ji Chrysanthemum 5 Acetamiprid 0.02 0.1   * Buprofezin 0.02 0.05   III Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.26 0.1   U Chlorpyrifos 0.22 0.5   II Imidacloprid 0.14 0.05   II Ben Cao Wolfberry 13 Acetamiprid 0.31 0.15   * Amitraz (sum) 0.01 0.05   II Carbofuran 0.01 0.01 Y Ib Chlorpyrifos 0.01 0.5   II Clofentezine 0.01 0.3   III Imidacloprid 0.04 0.5   II Propargite 0.05 2   III Pyridaben 0.04 0.3   II Triadimefon and triadimenol 0.01 1   II Cyhalothrin lambda 0.07 0.1   II Cypermethrin 0.09 0.5   II Fenvalerate Esfenvalerate (Sum of RSSR Isomers) 0.06 0.02   II Triazophos 0.05 0.01   Ib Ben Cao Honeysuckle 19 Acetamiprid 0.1 0.1   * Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.72 0.1   U Diethofencarb 0.01 0.05   U Emamectin(Sum) 0.06 0.02   * Flusilazole 0.09 0.05   II Hexaconazole 0.11 0.05   III Imidacloprid 0.15 0.05   II Lufenuron 0.01 0.05   * Myclobutanil 0.02 0.05   II Propamocarb 0.02 0.2   U Tebuconazole 0.03 50   II Tebufenozide 0.04 0.1   U Thiophanate-methyl 1.5 0.1   U Bifenthrin 0.01 0.1   II Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Ben Cao Honeysuckle 19 Cyhalothrin lambda 0.36 1   II Cypermethrin 0.85 0.1   II Dicofol (Sum) 0.16 0.1   II Fenvalerate Esfenvalerate (Sum of RSSR Isomers) 0.11 0.05   II Procymidone 0.08 0.1   U Lam Sheng Kee Chinese date 10 Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.03 0.5   U Chlorobenzuron 0.07 0.01   * Difenoconazole 0.42 0.5   II Flusilazole 0.04 0.1   II Myclobutanil 0.03 0.5   II Prochloraz 0.26 0.05   II Propiconazole 0.18 0.05   II Tebuconazole 0.45 1   II Thiophanate-methyl 0.01 0.3   U Cypermethrin 0.16 2   II Ben Cao Chrysanthemum 8 Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.04 0.1   U Chlorpyrifos 0.04 0.5   II Fipronil 0.01 0.005 Y II Phoxim 0.01 0.1   II Propamocarb 0.09 0.2   U Cyhalothrin lambda 0.04 1   II Endosulfan (Sum) 0.16 0.1   II Triazophos 0.17 0.02   Ib Humei Wolfberry 16 Acetamiprid 0.55 0.15   * Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.12 0.3   U Chlorpyrifos 0.09 0.5   II Clofentezine 0.06 0.3   III Difenoconazole 0.04 2   II Flusilazole 0.01 0.02   II Imidacloprid 0.09 0.5   II Prochloraz 0.01 0.05   II Propargite 0.19 2   III Propiconazole 0.02 0.05   II Pyridaben 0.03 0.3   II
  • 18. 3534 Brand Product No. of pesticide residue Pesticide residue Amount (mg/kg) MRL EU Banned in China WHO classification Humei Wolfberry 16 Tebuconazole 0.11 1   II Thiophanate-methyl 0.04 1   U Chlorothalonil 0.02 2   U Cyhalothrin lambda 0.04 0.1   II Cypermethrin 0.07 0.5   II Ben Cao Dried Lilybulb 4 Carbendazim/Benomyl (sum) 0.08 -   U Thiophanate-methyl 0.15 -   U Procymidone 0.04 -   U Quintozene 0.04 -   U