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MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Content

 Skin Flora
 Oral Cavity Flora
 Intestinal Flora
 Urogenital Flora

MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Harmful

 *microorganism in perianal area enter the urinary
tract (UT) causing infection in internal UT
Can prevent infection by:
 Medical asepsis – personnel and hospital
environment should be clean from pathogens
 Surgical asepsis – instrument used should be sterile
and including the surgical room
 What did you implement in daily life?
MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Skin Flora


MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Anatomy of the Skin


MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Oils production

 Different area consist of different microflora. Example
armpits vs forehead.
 Moisture area will support larger populations; nutrients
from oils and sweat
 Those normal flora might have capability to produce oils
that known as fatty acid providing an acidic condition of
particular area
 Initiating host defense against infection in the 1st line
stage
 But, excess of oils production might resulting an odour of
unpleasant smell to the body
MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Sweating

 Beside oils, the 2nd line of host defends is the sweat
that are salty
 However, in opposite situation, there are bacteria
that able to live in salty area such as Staphylococcus
sp.
 Majority of the skin flora – Gram +ve : Staphylococcus,
Micrococcus and Corynebacterium
 Hair follicles inhabitants – mite Demodex folliculorum

MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Skin shedding

 3rd line defends is regarding the keratin-degrading
fungi
 It helps in rapid and continuous shedding of skin
cells replacing layer by layer
 Removing of skin cell together with group of m/org
on the skin

MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Closing the loop

 Producing fatty acids that prevent growth of other
m/org
 Excretion of lysozyme by sweat glands
 Desquamation of epithelial

MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Normal flora

Gram positive org.
 Staphylococcus sp
 Micrococcus
 Coryneform bacteria

 Demodex folliculorum (opening glands – eyebrows)

MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Oral Cavity Flora


MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Anatomy of the oral
cavity


MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Mouth

 Basically the 1st area expose to m/org – the m/org
more than people on earth
 Affect the anatomy of mouth – teeth, tongue
 Contain saliva use to flush down food and bacteria
to the digestive systems below
 Level of efficacy of bacteria vary interms of
individual capability – physically and chemically
 Resulting a tooth decay which are differ between
individual
MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Ecology of m/org

 Currently, there are 400 species indentified
colonizing human mouth
 There are a lots more unknown m/org that need to
be discovered
 Colonization of m/org on cell lining cheek, tongue,
palate and floor of the mouth resulting bad breath
 Major effects on tooth appearance

MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Intestinal Flora


MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
GI tract

 In esophagus – no normal flora – pH of stomach
inhibit the colonization
 Until the 2/3 of small intestine rarely contain normal
flora – except lactobacili and streptococci (transient
microbes)
 The last 1/3 small intestine, the movement become
slower and leads to increasing of microbes
colonization

MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
1/3 small intestine

The main flora in 1/3 last small intestine –
 Gram-negative
 Facultitative anaerobe such as enterobacteriaceae
(E.coli)
 obligate anaerobes (Bacteroides and Clostridium)

MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Large intestine

 Food remain as long as 60 hrs – long period leads to
high microbes colonization and replication
 50% of feces = microbes
 Mostly Bacteroides
 Eating foods of raw material derived from small
intestine
 By-product = vit K for clotting of blood

MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Urogenital Flora


MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Anatomy of female


MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Anatomy of male


MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Urogenital

 All parts are sterile except urogenital opening
 Urine collection should have ‘clean catch’ technique
 E.coli and Lactobacillus are common flora = 100,000
bact/ml of urine
 Collection during direct puncture (suprapubic) = sterile
sample
 Acid pH, high salt and urea concentration leads to high
m/org growth
 Urine sample should be refrigerated during
transportation if delay – high multiplication if stir in RT
MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Cont.

 Mycobacterium smegmatis (acid fast staining bacili)
live in external genitalia of female and male
 Esp under penis of uncircumsized male – smegma
 If included in the sample, might leads to confusion
wt the tuberculosis patient which actually having M.
tuberculosis
 In male, 1/3 of deep are for genital area don’t have
normal flora

MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
In female..

Due to hormonal changes..
 Child-bearing – lactobacili numerous in vagina
(eating glycogen)
 Glycogen in vaginal cell will be fermented become
lactic acid and pH decrease to 4.7
 Childhood and after menopause, lactobacili absent
coz no glycogen –replaced by streptococci and
staphylococci due to alkaline pH in vagina

MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
Normal flora

 Mycobacterium smegmatis
 Lactobacillus
 E.coli
 Staphylococcus
 Streptococcus

MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
To be continue..

Sorry..c u tomorrow nite..

MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim

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Chapter 2 – normal flora

  • 1. Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 2. Content   Skin Flora  Oral Cavity Flora  Intestinal Flora  Urogenital Flora MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 3. Harmful   *microorganism in perianal area enter the urinary tract (UT) causing infection in internal UT Can prevent infection by:  Medical asepsis – personnel and hospital environment should be clean from pathogens  Surgical asepsis – instrument used should be sterile and including the surgical room  What did you implement in daily life? MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 4. Skin Flora  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 5. Anatomy of the Skin  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 6. Oils production   Different area consist of different microflora. Example armpits vs forehead.  Moisture area will support larger populations; nutrients from oils and sweat  Those normal flora might have capability to produce oils that known as fatty acid providing an acidic condition of particular area  Initiating host defense against infection in the 1st line stage  But, excess of oils production might resulting an odour of unpleasant smell to the body MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 7. Sweating   Beside oils, the 2nd line of host defends is the sweat that are salty  However, in opposite situation, there are bacteria that able to live in salty area such as Staphylococcus sp.  Majority of the skin flora – Gram +ve : Staphylococcus, Micrococcus and Corynebacterium  Hair follicles inhabitants – mite Demodex folliculorum MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 8. Skin shedding   3rd line defends is regarding the keratin-degrading fungi  It helps in rapid and continuous shedding of skin cells replacing layer by layer  Removing of skin cell together with group of m/org on the skin MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 9. Closing the loop   Producing fatty acids that prevent growth of other m/org  Excretion of lysozyme by sweat glands  Desquamation of epithelial MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 10. Normal flora  Gram positive org.  Staphylococcus sp  Micrococcus  Coryneform bacteria  Demodex folliculorum (opening glands – eyebrows) MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 11. Oral Cavity Flora  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 12. Anatomy of the oral cavity  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 13. Mouth   Basically the 1st area expose to m/org – the m/org more than people on earth  Affect the anatomy of mouth – teeth, tongue  Contain saliva use to flush down food and bacteria to the digestive systems below  Level of efficacy of bacteria vary interms of individual capability – physically and chemically  Resulting a tooth decay which are differ between individual MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 14. Ecology of m/org   Currently, there are 400 species indentified colonizing human mouth  There are a lots more unknown m/org that need to be discovered  Colonization of m/org on cell lining cheek, tongue, palate and floor of the mouth resulting bad breath  Major effects on tooth appearance MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 15. Intestinal Flora  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 16. GI tract   In esophagus – no normal flora – pH of stomach inhibit the colonization  Until the 2/3 of small intestine rarely contain normal flora – except lactobacili and streptococci (transient microbes)  The last 1/3 small intestine, the movement become slower and leads to increasing of microbes colonization MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 17. 1/3 small intestine  The main flora in 1/3 last small intestine –  Gram-negative  Facultitative anaerobe such as enterobacteriaceae (E.coli)  obligate anaerobes (Bacteroides and Clostridium) MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 18. Large intestine   Food remain as long as 60 hrs – long period leads to high microbes colonization and replication  50% of feces = microbes  Mostly Bacteroides  Eating foods of raw material derived from small intestine  By-product = vit K for clotting of blood MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 19. Urogenital Flora  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 20. Anatomy of female  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 21. Anatomy of male  MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 22. Urogenital   All parts are sterile except urogenital opening  Urine collection should have ‘clean catch’ technique  E.coli and Lactobacillus are common flora = 100,000 bact/ml of urine  Collection during direct puncture (suprapubic) = sterile sample  Acid pH, high salt and urea concentration leads to high m/org growth  Urine sample should be refrigerated during transportation if delay – high multiplication if stir in RT MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 23. Cont.   Mycobacterium smegmatis (acid fast staining bacili) live in external genitalia of female and male  Esp under penis of uncircumsized male – smegma  If included in the sample, might leads to confusion wt the tuberculosis patient which actually having M. tuberculosis  In male, 1/3 of deep are for genital area don’t have normal flora MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 24. In female..  Due to hormonal changes..  Child-bearing – lactobacili numerous in vagina (eating glycogen)  Glycogen in vaginal cell will be fermented become lactic acid and pH decrease to 4.7  Childhood and after menopause, lactobacili absent coz no glycogen –replaced by streptococci and staphylococci due to alkaline pH in vagina MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 25. Normal flora   Mycobacterium smegmatis  Lactobacillus  E.coli  Staphylococcus  Streptococcus MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim
  • 26. To be continue..  Sorry..c u tomorrow nite.. MIC341 - Miss Rashidah Hj Iberahim