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Human Microbiome - Gut Microbiota

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A review report on detailed study of research endeavours, undertaken on Human Microbiome, its composition, its implications, applications, disease and other role.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Human Microbiome - Gut Microbiota

  1. 1. GUT MICROBIOTA The Human Bacteria
  2. 2. Humans as micro biomes:- - 100 trillion microbes in human intestine. - 3 million genes (100X). - 2 kg weight. - 300-1000 species of bacteria. - control almost all body functions.
  3. 3. COMPOSITION • 99 % from 30 – 40 species. • 4 dominant phyla : - Bacteriodetes. - Fermicutes. - Actinobacteria. - Proteobacteria. • Enterotypes : - Prevotella. - Bacteroides. - Ruminococcus.
  4. 4. Variation of Gut Micro biota : - Dependence on Age - Dependence on Geography - Dependence on Diet
  5. 5. Variation with Age
  6. 6. Variation with Diet
  7. 7. Acquisition Of Micro Biota • The 1st week bacteria create a reducing environment. • Strict anaerobic species genera : Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Clostridium, and Ruminococcus. • Breast-fed babies : Bifidobacteria • Formula-fed infants : Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococci, Bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, and Clostridia. • Immune inactivation in early age.
  8. 8. FUNCTIONS
  9. 9. NUTRITION • 30% more calories. • Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) • SACCHAROLYTIC FERMENTATION • Acetic acid, Propionic acid and Butyric acid. • SCFAs in the caecum. Intestinal SCFAs directly provide energy to colonocytes, absorption into the portal circulation, stimulates adipogenesis. • PROTEOLYTIC FERMENTATION • Collagen and Elastin • Toxins, Carcinogens, SCFAs
  10. 10. TROPHIC EFFECTS • Growth of intestinal epithelial cells, lymphoid tissue and control their proliferation and differentiation • Sodium/Glucose transporters
  11. 11. METABOLISM • Positively control the intestinal epithelial cell differentiation , proliferation by production of Short-Chain Fatty Acids. • Syntheses of vitamins like Biotin and Folic Acid • Absorption of ions including Magnesium, Calcium and Iron. • Metabolize dietary carcinogens - Micro components & Macro components • Micro - Genotoxic , Heterocyclic Amines (HCAs) • Macro - Excessive intake of Fat and Sodium Chloride
  12. 12. IMMUNITY • Oral Tolerance • Immune Exclusion - IgA • Expression of TLRs
  13. 13. PROTECTIVE FUNCTIONS • Competitive Exclusion by BARRIER EFFECT • Bacteriocins • produces lactic acid and fatty acids, serves to lower the pH in the colon • In alergic patients, C. difficile and S. aureus are higher and lower prevalence of Bacteroides and Bifidobacteria • Prevention of IBD
  14. 14. SPECIATION • Nasonia giraulti, N. longicornis, N. vitripennis • Halogenome
  15. 15. OBESITY • fewer Bacteroidetes and more Firmicutes • differences in the energy-reabsorbing potential • Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) • Results in significant weight loss improvements in conditions like Type 2 diabetes. • 29% of their body weight within 3 weeks, despite no change in net food intake.
  16. 16. IBD • Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's disease
  17. 17. CANCER • Bacteroides and Clostridium • Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria TRANSLOCATION • Too much growth of bacteria in the small intestine • Reduced immunity of the host • Increased gut lining permeability in diseases like cirrhosis
  18. 18. MENTAL HEALTH • kids with autism were twice as likely as children with other types of disorders to have frequent diarrhoea or colitis • mice with autism-like symptoms were given a diet with Bacillus fragilis • Probiotics have been used to treat Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD. • Anxiety often causes nausea and diarrhoea, and depression can change appetite. • sociability and risk taking
  19. 19. HEART DISEASE • Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) • Atherosclerosis • L-carnitine & Red Meat.
  20. 20. ALTERATIONS
  21. 21. ANTIBIOTICS • Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhoea (AAD) • Antibiotic-Resistant bacteria. • C. difficile and Salmonella kedougou • Selective Digestive Tract Decontamination (SDD) • Children who were given antibiotics during the first 6 months of life were more likely to have a higher body mass
  22. 22. PHARMABIOTICS • Probiotic bacteria • Probiotic-derived biologically active metabolites • Prebiotics • Synbiotics or genetically modified commensal bacteria • IBD, Atopy, Infection, Diarrhoea, Cancer & Arthritis
  23. 23. STUDY OF MICROBIOTA
  24. 24. TECHNIQUES OF STUDY
  25. 25. CULTURE DEPENDENT TECHNIQUES • cost-effective and reproducible. • strict anaerobes, and it is estimated that >80% of the gut micro biota cannot be cultivated under standard laboratory conditions.
  26. 26. CULTURE INDEPENDENT TECHNIQUES • Molecular-based techniques. • 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene.
  27. 27. MODELS OF STUDY • Germ Free Animals • Mono-, Bi-, Poly- Associated Animals • Human Flora Associated Animals.
  28. 28. ARE WE REALLY MORE OF BACTERIAL MICROBIOME THAN MAMMALS?
  29. 29. Microbiota as a FORGOTTEN ORGAN ?
  30. 30. What would be the advantage of unicellular organisms becoming multi-cellular?
  31. 31. What differentiates a multi-cellular unit from a colony of unicellular beings living in proximity?
  32. 32. Whether this association will evolve into a more complex system in further evolution of human digestive system?

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