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Respiratory tract infections



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Respiratory tract infections

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Respiratory tract infection refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract  It is classified in to 2 types they are:  UPPER RESPIRATORYTRACT INFECTION  LOWER RESPIRATORYTRACT INFECTION
  3. 3. The upper respiratory tract consists  Following parts
  4. 4.  The lower respiratory tract consists of
  5. 5. ABOUT URTI  Upper respiratory tract infections (URI or URTI) are the illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the  upper respiratory tract  : nose,  sinuses,  pharynx or larynx.  This commonly includes: tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, and the common cold.
  6. 6. X-RAY OF URTI
  7. 7. ABOUT LRTI o Inflammation of the air passages within the lungs. o Trachea(windpipe),and the large & small bronchi(airways)within the lungs become inflamed because of the infection. • I t divided into 2 types :  BRONCHITIS  PNEMONIA
  8. 8.  BRONCHITIS
  9. 9. BRONCHITIS DIVIDED INTO: A. Acute(viruses,pollutant) B. Chronic(prolonged smoking,heavy exposure to pollutants
  11. 11.  PNEUMONIA
  13. 13. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS 1. Rhinitis 2. Pharyngitis/Tonsilitis 3. Laryngitis(common cold) 4. Sinusitis 5. Ear infection 6. Cough 7. Sore throat 8. Runny nose
  14. 14. Cntd…… 9.Headache 10.Lowgrade fever 11.Facial pressure 12.Sneezing
  15. 15. CAUSES VIRUSES(Rhinovirus, Coronavirus, Adenovirus). BACTERIA(GroupA Strptococcus) Influenza
  16. 16. RISK FACTORS  physical or close contact with someone with a upper respiratory infection  poor hand washing after contact with an individual with upper respiratory infection;  close contact with children in a group setting, schools or daycare centers;  contact with groups of individuals in a closed setting, such as, traveling, tours, cruises
  17. 17. Cntd…  smoking or second-hand smoking.  health care facilities, hospitals, nursing homes.
  18. 18. Cntd…  immunocompromised state (compromised immune system) such as, HIV, organ transplant, congenital immune defects, long term steroid use.
  19. 19. PATHOPYSIOLOGY OF URTI Bacteria &Viruse s Direct hand- hand contact Droplet Enters to the nose by inhaling Immune defenses Hair lining filters and trap some pathogens
  20. 20. Cntd… Traps in URT which coats by mucus Junction of the posterior nose to pharynx
  21. 21. Cntd… Impinge on the back of the throat Transport pathogens upto pharynx Inflammatory response to immune system SWELLING ERYTHMA Increasing of MUCUS SECRETION FEVER
  22. 22. PATHOPYSIOLOGY OF LRTI Cigarette smoking Inflammation Bradykinin, Histamine, Prostaglandin
  23. 23. Cntd…. Increasing capillary permeability Fluid/cellular exudation Edema of mucous membrane
  24. 24. Cntd…. Hypersecretion of mucus Persistant cough
  25. 25. DIAGNOSIS  The diagnosis of upper respiratory infection is based on : 1. Symptoms, 2. Physical examination, and 3. Laboratory tests.
  26. 26. Cntd… o By taking bacterial cultures with nasal swab, throat swab o Evaluation of allergies,asthma o Enlarged lymphnodes and sore throat
  28. 28. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION  In physical examination of an individual with upper respiratory infection, a doctor may look for 1. swollen and redness inside wall of the nasal cavity (sign of inflammation), 2. redness of the throat, 3. enlargement of the tonsils, 4. white secretions on the tonsils , 5. enlarged lymph nodes around the head and neck, 6. redness of the eyes, and 7. facial tenderness (sinusitis). 8. Other signs may include bad breath (halitosis), cough, voice hoarseness, and fever.
  29. 29. TREATMENT  There are 2 types of treatments they are: PHARMACOLOGICAL AND  NON PHARMACOLOGICALTREATMENT.
  30. 30. NON PHARMACOLOGICAL TRATMENT  Patients should be encouraged to drink fluids prevent dehydration & possible decrease the viscosity of respiratory secretions.  use of vaporization may further promote the thinning & losening of RESPIRATORY SECRETIONS
  31. 31. PHARMACOLOGICAL TRATMENT A. NSAIDS such as (T.IBUPROFEN + T.PARACETAMOL) Dose: for adults(400mg+325mg) for children(100mg+125mg) t/d……… B. ANTIHISTAMINES such as Syp.DIPHENEDRINE Dose: (10-20 ml) for adults for children (5-7.5ml) Q4h
  32. 32. Cntd….. 3. ANTITUSSIVES such as Syp.ROBITUSSIN Dose: adults(10-20ml), children(5-10ml) Q4h. 4.STEROIDS such as T.PREDNISONE Dose: adults (5mg), children(4-5mg) BD. 5.DECONGESTANTS such as T.PSEUDOEPHEDRINE Dose: adults(60mg),children(30mg)TD.
  33. 33. Cntd…  ANTIBIOTICS. 1. CIPROFLOXACIN for adults (500mg) for children(5o-15omg)BD 2. AMOXICILLIN/CLAVULATE for adults (500+125mg), for children(250_125mg)TD 3. TETRACYLINE for adults(250_500mg), for children(125-250mg
  34. 34. Cntd….  Rarely surgical procedures may be necessary in case of complicated sinus infections, comprised airway with difficulty in breathing
  35. 35. Some of the home remedies for respiratory infection? 1. Making steam in shower by turning on the hot water (without going under it) and breathing the steamed air. 2. Drinking warm beverages (hot tea, hot chocolate, warm milk). 3. Using a vaporizer to create humidity in the room; and 4. Avoid cold, dry air if possible. 5.HONEY can be used.