The Human Oral Microflora

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The Human Oral Microflora

  1. 1. TITLE THE HUMAN ORAL MICROFLORA DR.ALI YALDRUM DATE CLASS 22-03-12 1ST YEAR B.D.SFriday, March 23, 2012
  2. 2. Lecture Objectives At the end of this lecture students should be able to Describe what is Human Microflora, Oral Microflora Describe the importance of relationship between host and microflora Describe the diverse ecosystem of Oral Microflora Describe the relationship between Oral Health and General HealthFriday, March 23, 2012
  3. 3. WHAT IS NORMAL MICROFLORAFriday, March 23, 2012
  4. 4. ‘is the aggregate of microorganism that reside on the surface and in deep layers of skin, in the saliva and oral mucosa, in the conjuctiva, and in the gastrointestinal tracts.’Friday, March 23, 2012
  5. 5. Microflora is a misnomer, Researchers prefer “Microbiota” In a healthy human, internal tissues are devoid of microorganisms Brain, Blood, Muscles etcFriday, March 23, 2012
  6. 6. human body contains an estimated up of 1014 cells only 10% are mammalian cells 90% are resident microbiotaFriday, March 23, 2012
  7. 7. so what is oral microflora? the microflora existing in the oral cavity is called as oral microflora.Friday, March 23, 2012
  8. 8. FUNCTIONS OF ORAL CAVITYFriday, March 23, 2012
  9. 9. COMMUNICATION DIGESTIVE SENSORY GENERAL HEALTH FIG.1Friday, March 23, 2012
  10. 10. ORAL MICROFLORAFriday, March 23, 2012
  11. 11. The presence of nutrients, epithelial debris and secretions makes the mouth a favorable habitat for a variety of microorganisms Streptococcus Actinomyces Prevotella FusobacteriumFriday, March 23, 2012
  12. 12. The oral cavity represents a unique environment succession of different ecological situations with age corresponds with the changes in the composition of normal floraFriday, March 23, 2012
  13. 13. Haemophilus Corynebacterium Neisseria S. mitis S. mitis Staphylococcus S. pneumoniae Streptococcus Actinomyces S. pyogenes Fusobacterium S. salivarius Porphyromonas Candida Streptococcus FIG.2 SITE SPECIFICITY OF MICROBIAL ADHERENCE & COLONIZATIONFriday, March 23, 2012
  14. 14. at birth the oral cavity is composed solely of the soft tissues of the lips, cheeks, soft palate and tongue. kept moist by the salivary secretionsFriday, March 23, 2012
  15. 15. Friday, March 23, 2012
  16. 16. Friday, March 23, 2012
  17. 17. other species of streptococci adhere strongly to gums and soft tissues with the creation of gingival crevice area increases the habitat for the variety of anaerobic species complexity continues to increase with timeFriday, March 23, 2012
  18. 18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOST AND MICROFLORAFriday, March 23, 2012
  19. 19. does not have a passive relationship Beneficial association contributes directly and indirectly to the normal development physiology nutrition defenseFriday, March 23, 2012
  20. 20. Microbial colonization of all environmentally accessible surfaces begins at birth Exposed to wide range of microorganisms Each surface is suitable for colonization by a proportion of these microbes Acquisition, selection and natural development of diverse but characteristic microfloraFriday, March 23, 2012
  21. 21. Microbial flora exists in a harmonious relationship with the host if this relationship breaks down, disease can occur in mouth this relationship is more prone to breakdown than other parts of the bodyFriday, March 23, 2012
  22. 22. Breakdown is usually associated with major changes to the biology of mouth from exogenous sources presence of the microorganisms at sites not normally accessible to them such microorganisms are termed as ‘opportunistic pathogens’Friday, March 23, 2012
  23. 23. Many oral microorganisms have capacity to behave as opportunistic pathogens Common clinical manifestations of oral microflora imbalance are Dental Caries Periodontal diseasesFriday, March 23, 2012
  24. 24. Dental Caries ‘is the dissolution of enamel or root surfaces (demineralization) by acid produced primarily by fermentation of carbohydrates in the diet by bacteria colonizing the tooth surface (dental plaque).’Friday, March 23, 2012
  25. 25. Periodontal diseasesFriday, March 23, 2012
  26. 26. MICROBIAL ECOLOGYFriday, March 23, 2012
  27. 27. DISEASE SUSCEPTIBLE KEY ORAL HOST MICROORGANISM ENVIRONMENTAL TRIGGER THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS THAT LEAD TO ORAL DISEASE.Friday, March 23, 2012
  28. 28. SALIVA LIFESTYLE ORAL MICROBIAL ECOLOGY HOST MICROFLORA DEFENSES INTER-RELATIONSHIPS THAT INFLUENCE THE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE MOUTH IN HEALTH & DISEASEFriday, March 23, 2012
  29. 29. THE ORAL MICROFLORA AND GENERAL HEALTHFriday, March 23, 2012
  30. 30. Newer evidence is accumulating suggests that periodontal diseases have an impact on general health.Friday, March 23, 2012
  31. 31. PRETERM LABOR DIABETES/ GLYCEMIC ENTER BLOOD STREAM CONTROL PRETERM LOW BIRTH TRANSIENT BACTERAEMIAS WEIGHT ATHEROSCLEROSIS CORONARY HEART DISEASEFriday, March 23, 2012
  32. 32. RESERVOIR FOR HELICOBACTER PYLORI OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGENS (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX) ASPIRATION OF THESE PATHOGENS INTO LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT CAN LEAD TO SERIOUS LUNG DETECTED IN DENTAL PLAQUE INFECTION LINKED WITH DEEP PERIODONTAL POCKETS CHRONIC GASTRITIS & STOMACH ULCERSFriday, March 23, 2012
  33. 33. References Philip D Marsh and Michael V Martin.”Introduction” in Oral Microbiology, 5th Edition. Churchil Livingstone, 2009, pp 1-7. Todar’s Online Textbook of Bacteriology, Internet: http://textbookofbacteriology.net/normalflora.html [Mar 3, 2012] Fig 1. http://www.shutterstock.com/pic-51438295/stock-vector-oral-cavity.html Fig 2. “Complex Communities” in Oral Microbiology at a Glance, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. pp 28.Friday, March 23, 2012

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