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Biodiversity in CEE countries
CBD challenges and opportunities for implementation
in CEE Countries
PARIS CO-OP4CBD TRAINING
18-19 March 2024
CBD and its
Protocols
Convention bodies
• Conference of the Parties (COP) -
1 to 15 is the governing body of
the Convention
• Subsidiary Body on Scientific,
Technical and Technological
Advice (SBSTTA)
• Subsidiary Body on
Implementation
• Working Group on Article 8(j)
IPLC
• Ad Hoc Open-ended Working
Group on Protected Areas
COP Bureau MEMBERS
President
His Excellency Mr. Huang Runqiu
China Represented by: Ms. Guomei Zhou China
Africa
Ms. Hlobsile Sikhosana, Mbabane, Eswatini
Mr. Abderahmane Zino Izourar, Algiers,
Algeria
COP-MOP Nagoya Protocol substitute for
Algeria:
Mr. Moustafa Fouda, Cairo, Egypt
Asia&Pacific
Mr. Krishneel Nand, Suva, Fiji
Ms. Somaly Chan, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
CEE
Ms. Teona Karchava, Tbilisi, Georgia
COP-MOP Nagoya Protocol substitute for
Georgia:
Mr. Sino Tohirzoda, Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Ms. Angela Lozan, Chisinau, Republic of
Moldova
GRULAG
Ms. Gillian Guthrie, Kingston , Jamaica
COP-MOP Nagoya Protocol substitute for
Jamaica:
Mr. Jesus Guerra Bell, Havana, Cuba
Ms. Maria Teresa Becerra Ramirez,
Bogota, Colombia
COP-MOP Nagoya Protocol substitute for
Colombia:
Ms. Corina Sarli, Buenos Aires,
Argentina
WEOG
Mr. Eric Schauls, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Mr. Norbert Bärlocher, Berne,
Switzerland
EX-OFFICIO: SBSTTA Chair - Ms. Senka
SBSTTA Bureau
Chair
Ms. Senka Barudanovic, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Africa
• Mr. Jean Bruno Mikissa, Gabon
• Mr. Kenneth Uiseb, Namibia
Asia & Pacific
• Mr. Bilal Qtishat, Jordan
• Mr. Md. Jahidul Kabir,
Bangladesh
CEE
• Prof. Taulant Bino, Albania
• Mr. Jan Plesnik, Czechia
• GRULAC
• Ms. Aria St.Louis, Grenada
• Ms. Mariela Cánepa Montalvo,
Peru
• Substitute for Nagoya Protocol
for Grenada
• Mr. Francis O. Reyes Polanco,
Dominican Republic
• WEOG
• Mrs. Marina Von Weissenberg,
Finland
• Mr. Scott Wilson, Canada
• Substitute for the Nagoya and
Cartagena Protocols for Canada
• Ms. Jane Stratford, United
Kingdom
Platforms for CEE
participations/science and
regulation
• COP-COP/MOPs – each 2 years
• SBSTTA
• SBI
• Compliance committees
• Liaison Group
• Coordination Meeting for Governments and Organizations
Implementing and/or Funding Biosafety Capacity-building Activities
• CEE regional group meetings under the
COP/COP/MOPs/SBSTTA`/regional statements
• Contact groups, Friend of the chair
• AHTEGs
• On-line forums under the CHM: BCH on BCH forum, RA&RM, Sampling,
Detection and Identification, BCH IAC.
• Country’s submissions on topics
• Country National reporting, thematic reporting, recordings to CHM
Portal /BCH/ABS CH
Scientific and technical expert meetings
• Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Indicators for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework
• Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Benefit-sharing from the Use of Digital Sequence Information on
Genetic Resources
• Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Risk Assessment
• Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Synthetic Biology to Support the Process for Broad and Regular Horizon
Scanning, Monitoring and Assessment
• Informal Advisory Group on Benefit-sharing from the Use of Digital Sequence Information on Genetic Resources
• Informal discussions on digital sequence information on genetic resources
• Informal Advisory Group on Technical and Scientific Cooperation
• Informal Advisory Committee to the Access and Benefit-sharing Clearing-House
• Informal Advisory Committee on Resource Mobilization
• Compliance Committee under the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing
• Compliance Committee under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
• Subregional dialogue on national biodiversity strategies and action plans
• Liaison Group on the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
Mechanisms for Implementation
National Biodiversity
Strategies and Action
Plans (NBSAPs)
National Reports
Cooperation and
Partnerships
Financial Resources
and Mechanism
Clearing-House
Mechanism
Biosafety Clearing-
House
LifeWeb for Financing
Protected Areas
COP 15 CBD Decisions
Decision 15/4 Kunming-Montreal Global
Biodiversity Framework
Decision 15/5 Monitoring framework for the
Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework
Decision 15/7 Resource mobilization
Decision 15/9 Digital sequence information on
genetic resources
Decision 15/16 Knowledge management and the
clearing-house mechanism
Decision 15/23 Sustainable wildlife management
Decision 15/24 Conservation and sustainable use of
marine and coastal biodiversity
Decision 15/27 Invasive alien species
Decision 15/28 Biodiversity and agriculture
Decision 15/30 Biodiversity and climate change
Decision 15/31 Synthetic biology
COP/MOPs
Decisions
COP/MOP 10 Cartagena
Protocol
Decision 10/5
Operation and
activities of the
Biosafety Clearing-
House (Article 20)
Decision 10/10 Risk
assessment and risk
management (Articles
15 and 16)
Decision 10/11
Detection and
identification of
living modified
organisms
Decision 10/12 Socio-
economic
considerations
(Article 26)
Decision 10/13 Nagoya
– Kuala Lumpur
Supplementary Protocol
on Liability and
COP/MOP 4 ABS Nagoya
Protocol
Decision 4/4 Access
and Benefit-sharing
Clearing-House and
information sharing
(Article 14)
Decision 4/6 Digital
sequence information
on genetic resources
Decision 4/7 Measures
to assist in capacity-
building and
development (Article
22) and awareness-
raising (Article 21)
Decision 4/10 Global
multilateral benefit-
sharing mechanism
(Article 10)
Central
and
Eastern
European
Region -23
countries
Albania Estonia Republic of Moldova
Armenia Georgia Romania
Azerbaijan Hungary Russian Federation
Belarus Latvia Serbia
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Lithuania Slovakia
Bulgaria Montenegro Slovenia
Croatia
North
Macedonia
Ukraine
Czechia Poland
CEE Parties to the CBD, CPB, ABS,
NKSPLR
• CBD – 23 countries
• CPB – 22 countries
• ABS – 11 countries
• NKSPLR - 11 countries
CEE and CBD
statistics
• NBSAP 2020 – 100% submissions
• 6th NR – 11 countries submission,
47.8%
• 4th NR Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
– 22 submissions, 100%
• Interim National reports on ABS – 10
submissions, 90,9%
• ABS procedures implemented just in 1
CEE country
CEE region nature capital
• The CEE region includes a wide range of ecosystems: polar desert,
tundra, forest tundra, taiga, mixed and broad-leaved forest, steppe,
semi-desert and subtropical
• Forests cover 850 million hectares, over 20% of the global area
• The region’s 230 million hectares of croplands are vital to global
food supplies
• Peatlands cover 226 million hectares and represent one of the world’s
largest carbon stocks
• Lakes and wetlands cover 15% of the region and are connected by
120,000 rivers
• The Carpathians and the Caucasus are among the most biologically
rich regions on Earth
• Nearly half the land in the ecoregion has already been transformed
and is under severe pressure from human activities
• The CEE region primarily contains upper middle-income countries, with
a few lower middle- and high-income countries
• The populations of CEE countries are expected to decrease
Quick facts CEE
• One sixth of the region degraded. An estimated baseline of
269 million hectares of land in the CEE region experienced
degradation in the period from 2000 to 2015, or 16.5% of the
total area
• While forest cover has increased across the CEE region,
satellite observations indicate growing losses in recent
years. Between 2000 and 2019, a total of 67 million hectares
of tree cover was lost
• Primary forest in some Eastern European countries is being
lost at an alarming rate.
• Semi-natural and natural grassland is decreasing, driven by
conversion to arable land and forest
• The analysis shows that, as of 2020, the total area covered
by ecosystem restoration commitments in CEE countries is
nearly 13.5 million hectares, equivalent to 5% of the
degraded area in the region.
Protected Areas - Quick data
• Between 2000-2019, coverage of nationally protected areas more
than doubled in Republic of Moldova and Azerbaijan, increased
substantially in Ukraine (75 %), and expanded to a lesser extent
in Georgia (37 %), Armenia (26 %) and Belarus (17 %).
• With European Union (EU) and Council of Europe support, 561
Emerald sites have been created, covering 12.3 % of the Eastern
Partnership countries’ territories.
• The designations used to create protected areas vary significantly
across these countries due to different national legislative
frameworks, making regional comparisons of the level of protection
challenging.
• Although countries have made substantial efforts to report data
under international reporting obligations, monitoring still needs
to be improved.
KMGBF 2030
• The vision of the Kunming-Montreal Global
Biodiversity Framework is a world of living in
harmony with nature where “by 2050,
biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and
wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services,
sustaining a healthy planet and delivering
benefits essential for all people.”
• The mission of the Framework for the period up
to 2030, towards the 2050 vision is: To take
urgent action to halt and reverse
biodiversity loss to put nature on a path to
recovery for the benefit of people and planet
by conserving and sustainably using
biodiversity and by ensuring the fair and
KMGBF 2030 - Reducing threats to
biodiversity
• loss of areas of high biodiversity importance, close to 0, by 2030
• effective restoration, at least 30%, by 2030
• protected areas of particular importance for biodiversity and
ecosystem functions and services, are effectively conserved and
managed at least to 30%, by 2030
• reduce extinction of known threatened species, recovery and
conservation of species
• harvesting and trade of wild species is sustainable, safe and
legal, preventing overexploitation
• reduce and or mitigate the impacts of invasive alien species on
biodiversity
• reduce pollution risks and the negative impact of pollution
• minimize the impact of climate change on biodiversity and increase
its resilience through adaptation, ecosystem-based approaches
KMGBF 2030 - Meeting people’s
needs through sustainable use and
benefit-sharing
• management and use of wild species are sustainable
• areas under agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry are
managed sustainably (food security)
• ecosystem functions and services, ecosystem services
• access to, and benefits from green and blue spaces in urban areas
is sustainable
• ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits that arise from
the utilization of genetic resources and from digital sequence
information on genetic resources (13)
KMGBF 2030 – Tools and solutions
for implementation and
mainstreaming
• full integration of biodiversity and its multiple values into
policies.
• by 2030, reduce the global footprint of consumption,reducing
overconsumption.
• strengthen capacity for biosafety measures and measures for the
handling of biotechnology and distribution of its benefits
• increase resource mobilization to implement national
biodiversity strategies and action plans
• communication, awareness-raising, education, monitoring, research
and knowledge management and, also in this context, traditional
knowledge, innovations
• effective and gender-responsive representation and participation
and gender-responsive approach
Protected areas
– Natura
2000/Emerald
network
Decision 15/23 Sustainable
wildlife management
Decision 15/24 Conservation and
sustainable use of marine and
coastal biodiversity
• Natura 2000 datahub
• Natura 2000 viewer
• Emerald Barometer
• Emerald Viewer
• EU Habitat and Birds Directives
• Laws on wild animals, plant
conservation, protected areas,
Red books, forestry codes
Decision 15/27 Invasive
alien species
• Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
in its 2019 Global Assessment Report
• Invasive alien species are a major threat to nature, nature’s contributions to
people, and good quality of life
• Alien species are being introduced by human activities to all regions and biomes
of the world at unprecedented rates. Some become invasive, causing negative and in
some cases irreversible impacts on nature, including loss of uniqueness of
biological communities
• Policies and their implementation have been insufficient in managing biological
invasions and preventing and controlling invasive alien species
• Prevention and preparedness are the most cost-effective options and thus crucial
for managing the threats from invasive alien species
• Eradication has been successful, especially for small and slow-spreading
populations of invasive alien species in isolated ecosystems
• Containment and control can be an effective option
• The recovery of ecosystem functions can be achieved through adaptive management,
including ecosystem restoration in terrestrial and closed water systems
• DRAFT METHODS FOR COST-BENEFIT AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS WHICH BEST APPLY TO THE MANAGEMENT OF INVASIVE ALIEN
SPECIES
• Risk assessment and risk management/Multi-criteria decision-making
• Capacity building needs for CEE: Policy framework/List of IAS/Early detection/
Identification (DSI)/ adaptive management, including
prevention/eradication/containment and control/ecosystem restoration/public
information and gender
Cartagena Protocol
on Biosafety
• Number of countries that have in place national biosafety legislation and
implementing guidelines – CEE 81%
• How many people in your country have been trained in risk assessment, risk
management and monitoring of LMOs?Is this number adequate – 0
• Decision 10/10 Risk assessment and risk management (Articles 15 and 16)
• Voluntary Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms (stacked
genes/abiotic/trees/mosquitos/gene drives
• Training Manual on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms in the context
of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
• Decision 10/11 Detection and identification of living modified organisms
• Training Manual on the Detection and Identification of Living Modified
Organisms
• Online Network of Laboratories for the Detection and Identification of Living
Modified Organisms
• Decision 10/12 Socio-economic considerations (Article 26)
• voluntary Guidance on the Assessment of Socio-Economic Considerations in the
Context of Article 26 of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
• Decision 10/13 Nagoya – Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and
Redress
• Response measures’ as reasonable actions to prevent, minimize, contain,
mitigate or otherwise avoid damage, as appropriate, or reasonable actions to
Digital sequence information on
genetic resources (DSI)
• Decision 15/9 Digital sequence information on
genetic resources
Decision 4/6 Digital sequence information on
genetic resources
• Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Benefit-sharing from
the Use of DSI on Genetic Resources
• PROPOSED POLICY OPTIONS ON BENEFIT-SHARING FROM
THE USE OF DIGITAL SEQUENCE INFORMATION ON
GENETIC RESOURCES
• Proposal for the establishment of a
multilateral benefit-sharing mechanism
Decision 15/31 Synthetic
biology
• Broad and regular horizon scanning, monitoring and
assessing of the most recent technological developments
is needed for reviewing new information regarding the
potential positive and potential negative impacts of
synthetic biology vis-à-vis the three objectives of the
Convention and those of the Cartagena Protocol on
Biosafety and the Nagoya Protocol on Access and
Benefit-sharing
• Establishes a process for broad and regular horizon
scanning, monitoring and assessment of the most recent
technological developments in synthetic biology
• Establishes a multidisciplinary ad hoc technical expert
group on synthetic biology to support the process for
broad and regular horizon scanning, monitoring and
Access to genetic resources and
benefit sharing
• Only 1 country in the CEE – Belarus – reported the
establishment of procedures
• National Authority
• Check points
• MAT- COMPLIANCE WITH MUTUALLY AGREED TERMS
• Registers
• Internationally recognized certificates
• MONETARY AND NON-MONETARY BENEFITS
• Access and Benefit-sharing ClearingHouse,
CHM, BCH, ABS CH
Decision 15/16 Knowledge management and the
clearing-house mechanism
Decision 10/5 Operation and activities of the
Biosafety Clearing-House (Article 20)
Decision 4/4 Access and Benefit-sharing
Clearing-House and information sharing
(Article 14)
Capacity building
• EU4ENV – Biodiversity and Emerald Network (CEE)
• UNDP global ABS project (Belarus)
• UNEP/GBFs Enabling activity (NBSAPs 2030) (CEE)
• UNEP/ national reporting to CBD/CBP/ABS
• CoE Emerald Network project (Phase I and II) (CEE)
• UNEP Global NBF Biosafety implementation
• Swedish CEE project Green Agenda for Armenia, Georgia, Moldova
and Ukraine
• WCMC project Establish Biodiversity Informational System to
implement KMGBFs
• BBI project CEE on DSI (Belarus), EbA (Moldova), Detection of LMOs
and invasive species (Belarus)
• EU Life project on Emerald Network (2024) MD_UKR
• EU project Protected areas in the Eastern Partnership countries
• One Health Agenda (WHO)
Future policy needs
• The EU’s biodiversity strategy for 2030 is a comprehensive,
ambitious and long-term plan to protect nature and reverse the
degradation of ecosystems.
• The European Green Deal was designed as the EU’s compass to
achieve a clean, resource-efficient, and competitive economy
goals. It aims to restoring and protecting ecosystems.
• Updated NBSAPs under the KMGBF 2030
• EU acquisition under EU Association or Candidate status (Ukraine,
Moldova, Georgia, Armenia)
• Mainstreaming Biodiversity into sectorial policies – Agriculture,
Fishery, Aquaculture, Energy, Transportation, Mining, Trade,
Health Care etc.
Available
resources/reports/analyzers/links
-CBD
CBD:
• The 6th national reports available
at: https://chm.cbd.int/database?schema_s=nationalReport6
• Documents prepared for the latest COP-15 available
at: https://www.cbd.int/meetings/COP-15
• GBO 5 accessible here: https://www.cbd.int/gbo5
CPB:
• BCH: Country Profiles page and use CEE regional filter or go to Search and
select the CEE region filter.
• Matrix view in the Search ,generate graphs and charts (this video explains
how the Matrix works)
• Report Analyzer tool (https://bch.cbd.int/en/reports) for the 4th national
report.
• Analysis for the latest assessment and review and final evaluation of the
Strategic Plan 2011-2020
CBD/SBI/3/3 and CBD/SBI/3/3/Add.1), CBD/CP/MOP/10/INF/2).
• ABS:
• ABSCH: Country Profiles page and the Matrix.
• Report Analyzer tool. Interim National Report of the Nagoya Protocol,
all CEE countries can be filtered (https://absch.cbd.int/en/reports).
Interim national reports was made available for COP-MOP-3 (including
graphs) : https://www.cbd.int/doc/c/767b/a3b0/e4934613a1a3fd1116b1c89a/sbi-
02-inf-03-en.pdf.
• Meeting of the compliance committee
https://www.cbd.int/doc/c/b9f8/21d7/4bfb7e2798f970482a7ab776/np-cc-04-
03-add1-en.pdf (all meeting
Angela Lozan, PhD
Ministry of Environment
NOIEP
Bd. Stefan cel Mare 162
Chisinau
Republic of Moldova
email: angela.lozan@onipm.gov.md

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Biodiversity in CEE countries CBD challenges and opportunities for implementation in CEE Countries. Angela Lozan.

  • 1. Biodiversity in CEE countries CBD challenges and opportunities for implementation in CEE Countries PARIS CO-OP4CBD TRAINING 18-19 March 2024
  • 3.
  • 4. Convention bodies • Conference of the Parties (COP) - 1 to 15 is the governing body of the Convention • Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) • Subsidiary Body on Implementation • Working Group on Article 8(j) IPLC • Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Protected Areas
  • 5. COP Bureau MEMBERS President His Excellency Mr. Huang Runqiu China Represented by: Ms. Guomei Zhou China Africa Ms. Hlobsile Sikhosana, Mbabane, Eswatini Mr. Abderahmane Zino Izourar, Algiers, Algeria COP-MOP Nagoya Protocol substitute for Algeria: Mr. Moustafa Fouda, Cairo, Egypt Asia&Pacific Mr. Krishneel Nand, Suva, Fiji Ms. Somaly Chan, Phnom Penh, Cambodia CEE Ms. Teona Karchava, Tbilisi, Georgia COP-MOP Nagoya Protocol substitute for Georgia: Mr. Sino Tohirzoda, Dushanbe, Tajikistan Ms. Angela Lozan, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova GRULAG Ms. Gillian Guthrie, Kingston , Jamaica COP-MOP Nagoya Protocol substitute for Jamaica: Mr. Jesus Guerra Bell, Havana, Cuba Ms. Maria Teresa Becerra Ramirez, Bogota, Colombia COP-MOP Nagoya Protocol substitute for Colombia: Ms. Corina Sarli, Buenos Aires, Argentina WEOG Mr. Eric Schauls, Luxembourg, Luxembourg Mr. Norbert Bärlocher, Berne, Switzerland EX-OFFICIO: SBSTTA Chair - Ms. Senka
  • 6. SBSTTA Bureau Chair Ms. Senka Barudanovic, Bosnia and Herzegovina Africa • Mr. Jean Bruno Mikissa, Gabon • Mr. Kenneth Uiseb, Namibia Asia & Pacific • Mr. Bilal Qtishat, Jordan • Mr. Md. Jahidul Kabir, Bangladesh CEE • Prof. Taulant Bino, Albania • Mr. Jan Plesnik, Czechia • GRULAC • Ms. Aria St.Louis, Grenada • Ms. Mariela Cánepa Montalvo, Peru • Substitute for Nagoya Protocol for Grenada • Mr. Francis O. Reyes Polanco, Dominican Republic • WEOG • Mrs. Marina Von Weissenberg, Finland • Mr. Scott Wilson, Canada • Substitute for the Nagoya and Cartagena Protocols for Canada • Ms. Jane Stratford, United Kingdom
  • 7. Platforms for CEE participations/science and regulation • COP-COP/MOPs – each 2 years • SBSTTA • SBI • Compliance committees • Liaison Group • Coordination Meeting for Governments and Organizations Implementing and/or Funding Biosafety Capacity-building Activities • CEE regional group meetings under the COP/COP/MOPs/SBSTTA`/regional statements • Contact groups, Friend of the chair • AHTEGs • On-line forums under the CHM: BCH on BCH forum, RA&RM, Sampling, Detection and Identification, BCH IAC. • Country’s submissions on topics • Country National reporting, thematic reporting, recordings to CHM Portal /BCH/ABS CH
  • 8. Scientific and technical expert meetings • Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Indicators for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework • Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Benefit-sharing from the Use of Digital Sequence Information on Genetic Resources • Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Risk Assessment • Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Synthetic Biology to Support the Process for Broad and Regular Horizon Scanning, Monitoring and Assessment • Informal Advisory Group on Benefit-sharing from the Use of Digital Sequence Information on Genetic Resources • Informal discussions on digital sequence information on genetic resources • Informal Advisory Group on Technical and Scientific Cooperation • Informal Advisory Committee to the Access and Benefit-sharing Clearing-House • Informal Advisory Committee on Resource Mobilization • Compliance Committee under the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing • Compliance Committee under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety • Subregional dialogue on national biodiversity strategies and action plans • Liaison Group on the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
  • 9. Mechanisms for Implementation National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) National Reports Cooperation and Partnerships Financial Resources and Mechanism Clearing-House Mechanism Biosafety Clearing- House LifeWeb for Financing Protected Areas
  • 10. COP 15 CBD Decisions Decision 15/4 Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework Decision 15/5 Monitoring framework for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework Decision 15/7 Resource mobilization Decision 15/9 Digital sequence information on genetic resources Decision 15/16 Knowledge management and the clearing-house mechanism Decision 15/23 Sustainable wildlife management Decision 15/24 Conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal biodiversity Decision 15/27 Invasive alien species Decision 15/28 Biodiversity and agriculture Decision 15/30 Biodiversity and climate change Decision 15/31 Synthetic biology
  • 11. COP/MOPs Decisions COP/MOP 10 Cartagena Protocol Decision 10/5 Operation and activities of the Biosafety Clearing- House (Article 20) Decision 10/10 Risk assessment and risk management (Articles 15 and 16) Decision 10/11 Detection and identification of living modified organisms Decision 10/12 Socio- economic considerations (Article 26) Decision 10/13 Nagoya – Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and COP/MOP 4 ABS Nagoya Protocol Decision 4/4 Access and Benefit-sharing Clearing-House and information sharing (Article 14) Decision 4/6 Digital sequence information on genetic resources Decision 4/7 Measures to assist in capacity- building and development (Article 22) and awareness- raising (Article 21) Decision 4/10 Global multilateral benefit- sharing mechanism (Article 10)
  • 12. Central and Eastern European Region -23 countries Albania Estonia Republic of Moldova Armenia Georgia Romania Azerbaijan Hungary Russian Federation Belarus Latvia Serbia Bosnia and Herzegovina Lithuania Slovakia Bulgaria Montenegro Slovenia Croatia North Macedonia Ukraine Czechia Poland
  • 13. CEE Parties to the CBD, CPB, ABS, NKSPLR • CBD – 23 countries • CPB – 22 countries • ABS – 11 countries • NKSPLR - 11 countries
  • 14. CEE and CBD statistics • NBSAP 2020 – 100% submissions • 6th NR – 11 countries submission, 47.8% • 4th NR Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety – 22 submissions, 100% • Interim National reports on ABS – 10 submissions, 90,9% • ABS procedures implemented just in 1 CEE country
  • 15. CEE region nature capital • The CEE region includes a wide range of ecosystems: polar desert, tundra, forest tundra, taiga, mixed and broad-leaved forest, steppe, semi-desert and subtropical • Forests cover 850 million hectares, over 20% of the global area • The region’s 230 million hectares of croplands are vital to global food supplies • Peatlands cover 226 million hectares and represent one of the world’s largest carbon stocks • Lakes and wetlands cover 15% of the region and are connected by 120,000 rivers • The Carpathians and the Caucasus are among the most biologically rich regions on Earth • Nearly half the land in the ecoregion has already been transformed and is under severe pressure from human activities • The CEE region primarily contains upper middle-income countries, with a few lower middle- and high-income countries • The populations of CEE countries are expected to decrease
  • 16. Quick facts CEE • One sixth of the region degraded. An estimated baseline of 269 million hectares of land in the CEE region experienced degradation in the period from 2000 to 2015, or 16.5% of the total area • While forest cover has increased across the CEE region, satellite observations indicate growing losses in recent years. Between 2000 and 2019, a total of 67 million hectares of tree cover was lost • Primary forest in some Eastern European countries is being lost at an alarming rate. • Semi-natural and natural grassland is decreasing, driven by conversion to arable land and forest • The analysis shows that, as of 2020, the total area covered by ecosystem restoration commitments in CEE countries is nearly 13.5 million hectares, equivalent to 5% of the degraded area in the region.
  • 17. Protected Areas - Quick data • Between 2000-2019, coverage of nationally protected areas more than doubled in Republic of Moldova and Azerbaijan, increased substantially in Ukraine (75 %), and expanded to a lesser extent in Georgia (37 %), Armenia (26 %) and Belarus (17 %). • With European Union (EU) and Council of Europe support, 561 Emerald sites have been created, covering 12.3 % of the Eastern Partnership countries’ territories. • The designations used to create protected areas vary significantly across these countries due to different national legislative frameworks, making regional comparisons of the level of protection challenging. • Although countries have made substantial efforts to report data under international reporting obligations, monitoring still needs to be improved.
  • 18. KMGBF 2030 • The vision of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework is a world of living in harmony with nature where “by 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people.” • The mission of the Framework for the period up to 2030, towards the 2050 vision is: To take urgent action to halt and reverse biodiversity loss to put nature on a path to recovery for the benefit of people and planet by conserving and sustainably using biodiversity and by ensuring the fair and
  • 19. KMGBF 2030 - Reducing threats to biodiversity • loss of areas of high biodiversity importance, close to 0, by 2030 • effective restoration, at least 30%, by 2030 • protected areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, are effectively conserved and managed at least to 30%, by 2030 • reduce extinction of known threatened species, recovery and conservation of species • harvesting and trade of wild species is sustainable, safe and legal, preventing overexploitation • reduce and or mitigate the impacts of invasive alien species on biodiversity • reduce pollution risks and the negative impact of pollution • minimize the impact of climate change on biodiversity and increase its resilience through adaptation, ecosystem-based approaches
  • 20. KMGBF 2030 - Meeting people’s needs through sustainable use and benefit-sharing • management and use of wild species are sustainable • areas under agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry are managed sustainably (food security) • ecosystem functions and services, ecosystem services • access to, and benefits from green and blue spaces in urban areas is sustainable • ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits that arise from the utilization of genetic resources and from digital sequence information on genetic resources (13)
  • 21. KMGBF 2030 – Tools and solutions for implementation and mainstreaming • full integration of biodiversity and its multiple values into policies. • by 2030, reduce the global footprint of consumption,reducing overconsumption. • strengthen capacity for biosafety measures and measures for the handling of biotechnology and distribution of its benefits • increase resource mobilization to implement national biodiversity strategies and action plans • communication, awareness-raising, education, monitoring, research and knowledge management and, also in this context, traditional knowledge, innovations • effective and gender-responsive representation and participation and gender-responsive approach
  • 22. Protected areas – Natura 2000/Emerald network Decision 15/23 Sustainable wildlife management Decision 15/24 Conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal biodiversity • Natura 2000 datahub • Natura 2000 viewer • Emerald Barometer • Emerald Viewer • EU Habitat and Birds Directives • Laws on wild animals, plant conservation, protected areas, Red books, forestry codes
  • 23. Decision 15/27 Invasive alien species • Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in its 2019 Global Assessment Report • Invasive alien species are a major threat to nature, nature’s contributions to people, and good quality of life • Alien species are being introduced by human activities to all regions and biomes of the world at unprecedented rates. Some become invasive, causing negative and in some cases irreversible impacts on nature, including loss of uniqueness of biological communities • Policies and their implementation have been insufficient in managing biological invasions and preventing and controlling invasive alien species • Prevention and preparedness are the most cost-effective options and thus crucial for managing the threats from invasive alien species • Eradication has been successful, especially for small and slow-spreading populations of invasive alien species in isolated ecosystems • Containment and control can be an effective option • The recovery of ecosystem functions can be achieved through adaptive management, including ecosystem restoration in terrestrial and closed water systems • DRAFT METHODS FOR COST-BENEFIT AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS WHICH BEST APPLY TO THE MANAGEMENT OF INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES • Risk assessment and risk management/Multi-criteria decision-making • Capacity building needs for CEE: Policy framework/List of IAS/Early detection/ Identification (DSI)/ adaptive management, including prevention/eradication/containment and control/ecosystem restoration/public information and gender
  • 24. Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety • Number of countries that have in place national biosafety legislation and implementing guidelines – CEE 81% • How many people in your country have been trained in risk assessment, risk management and monitoring of LMOs?Is this number adequate – 0 • Decision 10/10 Risk assessment and risk management (Articles 15 and 16) • Voluntary Guidance on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms (stacked genes/abiotic/trees/mosquitos/gene drives • Training Manual on Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms in the context of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety • Decision 10/11 Detection and identification of living modified organisms • Training Manual on the Detection and Identification of Living Modified Organisms • Online Network of Laboratories for the Detection and Identification of Living Modified Organisms • Decision 10/12 Socio-economic considerations (Article 26) • voluntary Guidance on the Assessment of Socio-Economic Considerations in the Context of Article 26 of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety • Decision 10/13 Nagoya – Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress • Response measures’ as reasonable actions to prevent, minimize, contain, mitigate or otherwise avoid damage, as appropriate, or reasonable actions to
  • 25. Digital sequence information on genetic resources (DSI) • Decision 15/9 Digital sequence information on genetic resources Decision 4/6 Digital sequence information on genetic resources • Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Benefit-sharing from the Use of DSI on Genetic Resources • PROPOSED POLICY OPTIONS ON BENEFIT-SHARING FROM THE USE OF DIGITAL SEQUENCE INFORMATION ON GENETIC RESOURCES • Proposal for the establishment of a multilateral benefit-sharing mechanism
  • 26. Decision 15/31 Synthetic biology • Broad and regular horizon scanning, monitoring and assessing of the most recent technological developments is needed for reviewing new information regarding the potential positive and potential negative impacts of synthetic biology vis-à-vis the three objectives of the Convention and those of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing • Establishes a process for broad and regular horizon scanning, monitoring and assessment of the most recent technological developments in synthetic biology • Establishes a multidisciplinary ad hoc technical expert group on synthetic biology to support the process for broad and regular horizon scanning, monitoring and
  • 27. Access to genetic resources and benefit sharing • Only 1 country in the CEE – Belarus – reported the establishment of procedures • National Authority • Check points • MAT- COMPLIANCE WITH MUTUALLY AGREED TERMS • Registers • Internationally recognized certificates • MONETARY AND NON-MONETARY BENEFITS • Access and Benefit-sharing ClearingHouse,
  • 28. CHM, BCH, ABS CH Decision 15/16 Knowledge management and the clearing-house mechanism Decision 10/5 Operation and activities of the Biosafety Clearing-House (Article 20) Decision 4/4 Access and Benefit-sharing Clearing-House and information sharing (Article 14)
  • 29. Capacity building • EU4ENV – Biodiversity and Emerald Network (CEE) • UNDP global ABS project (Belarus) • UNEP/GBFs Enabling activity (NBSAPs 2030) (CEE) • UNEP/ national reporting to CBD/CBP/ABS • CoE Emerald Network project (Phase I and II) (CEE) • UNEP Global NBF Biosafety implementation • Swedish CEE project Green Agenda for Armenia, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine • WCMC project Establish Biodiversity Informational System to implement KMGBFs • BBI project CEE on DSI (Belarus), EbA (Moldova), Detection of LMOs and invasive species (Belarus) • EU Life project on Emerald Network (2024) MD_UKR • EU project Protected areas in the Eastern Partnership countries • One Health Agenda (WHO)
  • 30. Future policy needs • The EU’s biodiversity strategy for 2030 is a comprehensive, ambitious and long-term plan to protect nature and reverse the degradation of ecosystems. • The European Green Deal was designed as the EU’s compass to achieve a clean, resource-efficient, and competitive economy goals. It aims to restoring and protecting ecosystems. • Updated NBSAPs under the KMGBF 2030 • EU acquisition under EU Association or Candidate status (Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia) • Mainstreaming Biodiversity into sectorial policies – Agriculture, Fishery, Aquaculture, Energy, Transportation, Mining, Trade, Health Care etc.
  • 31. Available resources/reports/analyzers/links -CBD CBD: • The 6th national reports available at: https://chm.cbd.int/database?schema_s=nationalReport6 • Documents prepared for the latest COP-15 available at: https://www.cbd.int/meetings/COP-15 • GBO 5 accessible here: https://www.cbd.int/gbo5 CPB: • BCH: Country Profiles page and use CEE regional filter or go to Search and select the CEE region filter. • Matrix view in the Search ,generate graphs and charts (this video explains how the Matrix works) • Report Analyzer tool (https://bch.cbd.int/en/reports) for the 4th national report. • Analysis for the latest assessment and review and final evaluation of the Strategic Plan 2011-2020 CBD/SBI/3/3 and CBD/SBI/3/3/Add.1), CBD/CP/MOP/10/INF/2). • ABS: • ABSCH: Country Profiles page and the Matrix. • Report Analyzer tool. Interim National Report of the Nagoya Protocol, all CEE countries can be filtered (https://absch.cbd.int/en/reports). Interim national reports was made available for COP-MOP-3 (including graphs) : https://www.cbd.int/doc/c/767b/a3b0/e4934613a1a3fd1116b1c89a/sbi- 02-inf-03-en.pdf. • Meeting of the compliance committee https://www.cbd.int/doc/c/b9f8/21d7/4bfb7e2798f970482a7ab776/np-cc-04- 03-add1-en.pdf (all meeting
  • 32. Angela Lozan, PhD Ministry of Environment NOIEP Bd. Stefan cel Mare 162 Chisinau Republic of Moldova email: angela.lozan@onipm.gov.md