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Improving transparency: Implementing MRV of livestock NAMAS to meet NDC and finance needs

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Side event at SBSTA48 on May 8 2018 in Bonn.
Theme: Countries require sub-national projects to fulfil NDC commitments, but project accounting, often driven by donors or investors, rarely links to national accounting systems for mitigation and other benefits. Livestock projects in Latin America may reveal how to connect NAMAs and national MRV systems.
More about the event is available at: https://ccafs.cgiar.org/bonn-climate-change-conference-2018-improving-transparency-linking-mrv-and-finance-livestock-namas#.WvK3SC-B2LI
Presenters: Hayden Montgomery (GRA), Meryl Richards (CCAFS), Joao Lampreia (Carbon Trust Brazil), Ericka Lucero (Ministry of Environment, Guatemala), Walter Oyhantcabal (Ministry of Agriculture, Uruguay).
Facilitators: Lini Wollenberg (CCAFS), Martial Bernoux (FAO)

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Improving transparency: Implementing MRV of livestock NAMAS to meet NDC and finance needs

  1. 1. SBSTA 48 Side Event May 8, 2018, 11:30 -13:00, Bonn Room Implementing MRV of livestock NAMAS to meet NDC and finance needs
  2. 2. Why MRV of livestock emissions? Livestock systems: ~14.5% of global emissions, 7.1 Gt CO2e • Latin America and the Caribbean have the highest regional emissions, ~1.3 Gt CO2e • Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Uruguay include livestock in their NDC mitigation targets • LA is pioneering livestock NAMAs Yet most countries are still designing their MRV
  3. 3. MRV of NAMAs: Linking subnational and national needs Implementing MRV will require NAMA and national MRV systems to “talk to each other” How can NAMAs assess their policy and project’s mitigation impacts? - to meet both finance and NDC accounting needs - to integrate local and national information systems ` - in ways that are transparent, consistent, comparable, complete, and accurate, based on IPCC guidelines …and cost efficient?
  4. 4. Agenda Program Speaker Welcome (5 minutes) Lini Wollenberg, CCAFS The challenge (10 minutes) MRV of livestock to meet NAMA finance & national NDC reporting to UNFCCC Hayden Montgomery, Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA) MRV resources and needs Meryl Richards, CCAFS and the U. of Vermont Experiences from 3 NAMAs in Latin America: (30 minutes) Brazil João Lampreia, Carbon Trust, Brazil Guatemala Ericka Lucero, Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Guatemala Uruguay Walter Oyhantcabal, Sustainability and Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery, Uruguay Chat show (20 minutes) Problem solve and find paths forward Discussion and questions from audience (20 minutes) Final remarks and the way forward (5 minutes) Martial Bernoux, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
  5. 5. Agenda Program Speaker Welcome (5 minutes) Lini Wollenberg, CCAFS The challenge (10 minutes) MRV of livestock to meet NAMA finance & national NDC reporting to UNFCCC Hayden Montgomery, Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA) MRV resources and needs Meryl Richards, CCAFS and the U. of Vermont Experiences from 3 NAMAs in Latin America: (30 minutes) Brazil João Lampreia, Senior Manager, Carbon Trust, Brazil Guatemala Ericka Lucero, Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Guatemala Uruguay Walter Oyhantcabal, Sustainability and Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery, Uruguay Chat show (20 minutes) Problem solve and find paths forward Discussion and questions from audience (20 minutes) Final remarks and the way forward (5 minutes) Martial Bernoux, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
  6. 6. SBSTA 48 Side Event May 8, 2018, 11:30 -13:00, Bonn Room The Reporting Challenge: Meeting Finance and NDC needs Hayden Montgomery, Global Research Alliance for Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA)
  7. 7. Livestock mitigation potential • For a given level of production, livestock emissions could be reduced by between 18 and 30 percent, if producers in a given system, region and climate adopted the practices currently applied by the 10 to 25 percent of producers with the lowest emission intensity. Grazing land management holds additional promises for mitigation through soil carbon sequestration.
  8. 8. Mitigation in the context of sustainable development • GHG emissions represent losses of energy, nitrogen and organic matter for the livestock sector, there is thus a strong link between emission intensity and resource use efficiency. • Much of the mitigation potential in the sector is achievable by using available practices that improve production efficiency, which can reduce emissions while supporting social and economic goals such as food security and income generation. • Actions identified in NDCs and in development plans include, e.g., • animal management • manure management • nutrient management • livestock heath • livestock productivity • improved grassland management • improved animal breeding
  9. 9. However…. most countries are still working on improving their inventories of livestock emissions • Accurate national GHG inventories established in accordance with the IPCC Inventory Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), provide critical support for national mitigation policies by establishing GHG emission baselines for sectors and for identifying possible emission reduction pathways. • Improved inventories unlock climate finance for NAMAs and can allow more effective targeting of national investment. State of MRV of livestock emissions Wilkes et al. 2017 • 119 out of 140 developing countries are using approaches (Tier 1) that generally do not capture mitigation via routinely showing changes in productivity and efficiency of livestock systems (Tier 2).
  10. 10. Advantage of Tier 2 vs. Tier 1 • Reflect a country’s national circumstances and actual production systems • Allow reporting of trends in emissions intensity as well as absolute emissions • Provide robust information to underpin NDCs and NAMAs • Increase range of mitigation options available by also capturing reductions of emissions resulting from increases in productivity and improved management • Can be used to support other work, e.g. agricultural development plans, sector support programmes, management of other environmental issues, e.g. water quality • It’s about continuous improvement – learning to live with uncertainty
  11. 11. SBSTA 48 Side Event May 8, 2018, 11:30 -13:00, Bonn Room MRV resources and needs Meryl Richards, CCAFS
  12. 12. Recommendations for supporting MRV in the livestock sector • Review existing tools, guidance, and platforms for MRV in the agriculture sector • Share examples and case studies of how countries are improving their national MRV systems
  13. 13. Types of guidance and tools available • Guidelines for national inventories • General guidance on MRV systems
  14. 14. Types of guidance and tools available • Carbon credit methodologies (CDM, VCS, Gold Standard) • Greenhouse gas calculators & lifecycle assessment models • Comparisons of methods for field measurement
  15. 15. What are the gaps? • Practical solutions for filling data gaps (e.g. in activity data) • Comprehensive database/platform for emissions factors for livestock in developing countries • Guidance on prioritizing improvements to keep costs low • Examples of how to link project-level with national MRV
  16. 16. AgMRV Knowledge Platform Welcome! This site is designed to support practitioners with the measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) of livestock greenhouse gas emissionsand mitigation actions.
  17. 17. Resources to share? Want to hear about the launch of the platform? meryl.richards@uvm.edu www.linkedin.com/company/cgiar-climate/
  18. 18. Agenda Program Speaker Welcome (5 minutes) Lini Wollenberg, CCAFS The challenge (10 minutes) MRV of livestock to meet NAMA finance & national NDC reporting to UNFCCC Hayden Montgomery, Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA) MRV resources and needs Meryl Richards, CCAFS and the U. of Vermont Experiences from 3 NAMAs in Latin America: (30 minutes) Brazil João Lampreia, Senior Manager, Carbon Trust, Brazil Guatemala Ericka Lucero, Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Guatemala Uruguay Walter Oyhantcabal, Sustainability and Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery, Uruguay Chat show (20 minutes) Problem solve and find paths forward Discussion and questions from audience (20 minutes) Final remarks and the way forward (5 minutes) Martial Bernoux, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
  19. 19. SBSTA 48 Side Event May 8, 2018, 11:30 -13:00, Bonn Room Brazil: Beef Supply Chain Resource Efficiency Programme João Lampreia Senior Manager, Carbon Trust Brazil
  20. 20. Programme Approach Summary Objective: To support a significant sample of medium-sized players in the beef supply chain (ranchers, processing facilities and retailers) to implement low-carbon best practice, demonstrating these make economic and environmental sense. € 40 milhões reembolsáveis € 11 milhões não reembolsáveis Attractive loans: So end-users effectively invest in best practice. 1 2 3 4 € 4 M grant € 40 M loans € 11 M grant Risk Sharing: To reduce guarantee requirements and unlock investments. Technical assistance: To build a pipeline of low risk projects, enable finance to flow and see projects through implementation. Awareness raising: To generate interest for the programme’s support.
  21. 21. 21 BEFORE AFTER Ranching best practice consists basically in enhancing soil and herd productivity. It enables ranches to increase stocking rates by three-fold; increase productivity by 3-5 fold; decrease slaughter age by 1/3; halve CO2 emissions per hectare; slash 9/10 of CO2 emissions per kg beef; and increase gross margins/hectare by nine-fold. Programme Approach Summary
  22. 22. Scale, reach and impact REACH Avoid EUR 335 M in resource costs Directly mitigate ~7.5 MtCO2e Indirectly mitigate ~20 MtCO2 Leverage another EUR 20 M in private finance EUR 40 M in loans EUR 4 M in loan guarantees EUR 11 M in grants for TA, de-risking, admin 44,000 hectares of degraded pastures recovered into climate- smart best practice ranching 10 processing facilities retrofitted to high efficiency standards 200 truck drivers trained for greater logistic efficiency 10 retail stores retrofitted to high efficiency standards IMPACT
  23. 23. Target region
  24. 24. Most relevant Brazilian NDC targets by 2030 Source: Federal decree nº 7,390/10 Targets Indicator 15 million hectares of degraded pastureland recovered into low carbon best practice pastures • Área (ha) of pasture recovery • GHG mitigation (total & per hectare) 5 million hectares of degraded pastureland recovered into crop- livestock-forestry systems • Área (ha) of pasture recovery • GHG mitigation (total & per hectare) 12 million hectares of deforestation recovered into native forests • Área (ha) of forest recovery • GHG mitigation (total & per hectare) Zero illegal deforestation • Área (ha) illegal deforestation identified and/or avoided. GHG emissions from legal deforestation must be compensated.
  25. 25. Brazilian agri-related NDC monitoring levels NATIONAL RURAL PROPERTIES National agricultural GHG emissions monitoring platform Geospatial WebGis landscape assessment database AgroTag App being designed by ABC platform as a means to enable the submition of standardized data on rural property conditions and enable GHG estimates
  26. 26. Overview of Programme MRV We will train and accredit ~50 TA agents to provide standardized TA as well as to measure and verify results using the AgroTag tool AGROTAG
  27. 27. GHG sources and sinks Data gathered Data collection method Emission Factor Herd Number of heads per category: bulls, cows, heifers, steers and calves Sanitary records (Reported yearly to Government Animal Sanitation Office) Tier 2 Brazilian Government http://sirene.mcti.gov.br/public acoes Pasture Conditions condition Pasture area per category: degraded, stable, recovered or well-managed Visual interpretation coupled with soil samplings Tier 2 Scientific literature; Soil measurements Farm Inputs & Outputs Inputs: lime, nitrogen fertilizer, diesel oil Outputs: kg beef, grains, etc. Purchase receipts and trade records Tier 1 (IPCC, 2006) Land Use Characterization Productive areas (pasture or agriculture) Legal Reserves, Riparian Zones and Agriculture Geospatial analysis Tier 2 Land Use Change Brazilian Government http://sirene.mcti.gov.br/publicac oes Overview of Programme MRV Every 6 months our accredited TA team will assess:
  28. 28. IMAFLORA aggregates data produced by TA team, performs sample checks to increase accuracy and submits aggregated figures to ABC platform annually including: • Farm land use and production status: total property area; conditions (hectares); farm output (t of meat, grain, timber, other) • GHG emissions balance by source: o Production system (animals + inputs + soil); o Forest system (native vegetarion recovery); o Land use area (animals + inputs + soil + native vegetarion recovered); • GHG emissions indicators (tCO2e / ha; tCO2e / product) • Gathers GHG estimates from multiple agri- related programmes • Performs 2nd party M&V and produces regional statistics, benchmarks, etc. • Joins up emission reporting from all sectors to produce the national inventory. • Submits official figures to IPCC Clear link between local MRV system and national system meets government and financiers’ needs
  29. 29. Lessons learned & conclusions for future NAMA and MRV design • Brazil’s agri-related NDC targets are ambitious. It is fundamental that the government fully sets up the ABC platform ASAP. • Data submitted by NAMAs can support national platforms to improve tools, such as the AgroTag app and as well as their to enhance their role in gathering and disseminating statistics, regional land-use profiles and benchmarks. • Mitigation initiatives must ‘speak the same language’ and submit standardized data to national platforms. The Agrotag app is fundamental to enable this standardization. • Verification by the ABC platform through sample checks via satellite and on the ground can seek to ensure that data provided through Agrotag is accurate.
  30. 30. Guatemala: National climate change actions and the proposed livestock NAMA Ericka Lucero Head, Department of Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change Direction, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Republic of Guatemala
  31. 31. Current status MINISTERIO DE AMBIENTE Y RECURSOS NATURALES Implications of climate change in Guatemala The Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, reports that Guatemala is one of the countries with the most "extensive risk." In 2014, a rainfall deficit increased malnutrition in Guatemala’s most vulnerable population. Affected were: • 210 communities • 251 thousand families • US$84.5 million in losses Hydrometeriological history Historical map of hurricane trajectories and storms since 1842
  32. 32. Current status GHG emissions Guatemala has conducted 4 national GHG emission inventories: 1990, 1994, 2000, 2005 The most recent inventory found that Guatemala emitted 31.45 million tCO2e in the energy sector, industry, agriculture, waste, and land use, land use change and forestry. Guatemala applied growth trends to project that 2030 emissions would be 53.85 million tCO2e. According to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and current capacities, Guatemala plans to reduce emissions by 11.2%. With news and conditional technical and financial support from international public and private resources, Guatemala could increase its goal to a reduction of 22.6% by 2030. NDC
  33. 33. Legal and institutional framework Framework Law on Climate Change (July 2013) National Climate Change Policy (2009) K´atun 2032 (National Development Plan) NDC LEDS NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CLIMATE CHANGE Republic President Government Chamber of Commerce National Association of Municipalities Association of Mayors and Indigenous Authorities NGOs San Carlos University of Guatemala Representative from private universities Clmate change units created in: MAGA – Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food CONAP – National Council for Protected Areas INAB – National Forestry Institute National Action Plan for Climate Change (PANCC)
  34. 34. Description of NAMA and Mitigation Actions K´atun 2032 NDCPANCC Influence a transformational change within the economic sector towards low carbon growth, which combines the development and mitigation of climate change. NAMA: Sustainable Bovine Livestock with Low Emissions National Policy of Bovine Livestock National Strategy for Sustainable Livestock with Low Emissions National Funds -MAGA- Project for the support of the implementation of the NAMA (not refundable) Implementation Other international cooperation (donations and loans) Presentation of the NAMA proposal to decision-makers by the Livestock Board, which consists of the Bovine Livestock Producers of Meat and Milk and chaired by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food.
  35. 35. Reduce the carbon footprint of the national production of milk and meat. Model developed and tested for sustainable bovine production with low emissions in a priority area Can be replicated Model adopted by producer families reduces GHG emissions and increases CO2 removals Increasing the competitiveness of milk and meat production in markets Adoption of technological packages through training and Technical Assistance Productivity and profitability of bovine production systems in farms increased Access to financial mechanisms (credit and / or forest incentives) National capacity created in public and private sectors to give continuous AT Impact Results Products Livestock in Guatemala Generates employment Long tradition Empirical estimates indicate that at least 30,000 families are linked to primary production in rural areas Small-scale livestock represents a livelihood contributing to food and nutrition security of those families Competitiveness (2000-2010)
  36. 36. Actors MAGA, MARN INAB, MINFIN CATIE CAMAGRO ASODEL FEGAGUATE Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootécnia/USAC Cámara de productores de leche Technical Steering Committee Implementing Unit Livestock Table - Institutional / Political Cooperativas y Asociaciones de Productores y Productores(as) CATIE Entidades financieras
  37. 37. NAMA: Sustainable Bovine Livestock with Low Emissions Phase 1: Support Project for the Implementation of the NAMA / NAMA Facility Duration: 5 years Intervention in priority regions in North: Izabal, Peten and Alta Verapaz 300 productive units 40,000 ha pasture Phase 2: Duration: 5 years Intervention in North 825 productive units 110,000 ha pasture Phase 3: Duration: 5 years Intervention in the Eastern South Region (Jalapa, Jutiapa and Santa Rosa) Intervention in South West Region (Retalhuleu and San Marcos) Intervention in Chiquimula, Zacapa 1,125 productive units 100,000 ha pasture
  38. 38. Staff for implementing unit Technical activities: Promotion,, Training, Field Schools, Research, Extension and Communication Materials, Consulting, Studies, Monitoring and Evaluation, Knowledge Management Equipment Operating costs Budget items Requested from NAMA Facility: Euro 9,300,000 (non-refundable) Pending approval Private investments in practices and technologies in 300 farms Proposed Credit: Euro 7,500,000 Forest incentives for silvopastoral systems in 300 farms Proposed National Funds: Euro 1,200,000
  39. 39. Main indicators NSP (5 years) Capacity established in public and private sectors to implement the NAMA in the next 10 years (phases 2 and 3 of the National Strategy of Sustainable Bovine Livestock with Low Emissions, with national funds). Main indicators for the National Strategy for Sustainable Bovine Livestock with Low Emissions, at 15 years Reduction in the carbon footprint of milk from 5.8 to 2.2 kg CO2e/kg of milk. Reduction in the carbon footprint of meat from 16.5 a 7.9 kg CO2e/kg of meat. Reduced emissions and carbon sequestration: 4.9 milliion tCO2e. Represents the 12% reduction proposed in the NDC (2015), based on additional funds from International cooperation. Main indicators for the period 2020-2030
  40. 40. Aims to collect, systematize, process and make available different types of information related to the management of climate change adaptation and mitigation to climate change to decision- makers Management recently approved, Climate Technology Center and Network MRV National Information System on Climate Change Assigned to MARN through the Information and Climate Change Unit Inter-institutional and multi-sectoral linkage through the National Council on Climate Change Contributions from international cooperation will be managed for its implementation IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING OF THE NDC 2017 and 2018 2017 and 2018: socialization of the NDC in Guatemala in priority sectors and definition of monitoring mechanisms and multisectoral institutionalization are being carried out. Roadmap is in development Reports to CMNUNCC Department of Science and Metrics for Climate Change at MARN
  41. 41. What is needed to link national and local MRV? • Definition of information protocols • Socialization and development of local capacities • Structure and arrangement of sectoral monitoring technical tables
  42. 42. Gracias por su atención sjorellana@marn.gob.gt Ing. Silvia Zuniga, Directora de Cambio Climatico sperez@marn.gob.gt Ing. Saul Perez, Jefe del Departamento de Mitigación al Cambio Climatico elucero@marn.gob.gt Ing. Ericka Lucero, Jefe del Departamento de Vulnerabilidad y Adaptación al Cambio Climatico +502 24230500
  43. 43. Uruguay – NDC and MRV in livestock sector of Uruguay Walter Oyhantcabal, Director of the Sustainability and Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery, Uruguay
  44. 44. Livestock sector explain the majority of GHG emissions in Uruguay. misiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero directo – r sector (2010) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Agricultura Energía Desechos Procesos Industriales 75,4 17,3 5,8 1,5 % emisiones Agro GHG emissions (%) in Uruguay per sector (2010) Methane (Gg) Nitrous Oxide (Gg) Total 756 36 Livestock 636 23 84% 63% CH4 and N2O emissions (2010)
  45. 45. Uruguay´s NDC: mitigation targets in terms of emissions intensity in the beef sector (per kg beef) 2030 vs. 1990 own effort 2030 vs 1990 with MOI 2010 vs 1990 CH4 33% less 46% less 23% less N2O 31% less 41% less 28% less
  46. 46. Rebuildin g SOC Less SOC
  47. 47. Simple practices but knowledge intensive
  48. 48. Basis for an MRV system (for all Tiers) Step 1: Divide the livestock population into subgroups and characterize each subgroup preferably using annual averages (production cycles and seasonal influences on population numbers. Step 2: Estimate emission factors for each subgroup in kg CH4/animal/yr Step 3: Multiply the subgroup emission factors by the subgroup populations to estimate subgroup emission, and sum across the subgroups to estimate total emission. 4 8
  49. 49. Activity data are key: National Livestock Information System High quality updated livestock statistics system (not originally built for GHG MRV) 100% traceability of the cattle herd, with electronic and visual tags
  50. 50. IPCC Tier 2 (Dynamic) method for enteric fermentation and N2O • Using spatially disaggregated information (juridisctional) on cattle herd by category and diet quality and composition. • Dynamic C-S EF for enteric fermentation, including Tier 2 MCF • Tier 2 N2O from manure on grasslands
  51. 51. Key variables to estimate EFs • Body weight by category, • Weight gain • Milk production of cows • Pregnacy rate, • Digestibility of intake • Crude protein in the diet
  52. 52. PASTURE RESOURCE-BASE: NATURAL GRASSLAND Source: DICOSE, 2012
  53. 53. ANIMAL NUTRITION: AVERAGE COMPOSITION & QUALITY OF DIETS Cow-calf Complete cycle 1 Complete cycle 2 Average digestibility of ration (%) 56.4 56.4 56.3 Nitrogen content of ration (g/kg DM) 16.6 16.6 16.4
  54. 54. A long term cattle farms platform to validate practices, build the toolbox for MRV and inform policy design to scale-up. Proyecto Co- innovando en Rocha INIA Adaptation Fund project CSLM platform: GEF-FAO UFFIP Project with N. Zealand Time line Up-scaling
  55. 55. Agenda Program Speaker Welcome (5 minutes) Lini Wollenberg, CCAFS The challenge (10 minutes) MRV of livestock to meet NAMA finance & national NDC reporting to UNFCCC Hayden Montgomery, Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA) MRV resources and needs Meryl Richards, CCAFS and the U. of Vermont Experiences from 3 NAMAs in Latin America: (30 minutes) Brazil João Lampreia, Carbon Trust, Brazil Guatemala Ericka Lucero, Climate Chante Unit, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Guatemala Uruguay Walter Oyhantcabal, Director of the Sustainability and Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery, Uruguay Chat show (20 minutes) Problem solve and find paths forward Discussion and questions from audience (20 minutes) Final remarks and the way forward (5 minutes) Martial Bernoux, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
  56. 56. Chat show and discussion Source: http://aea365.org/blog/wp- content/uploads/2011/10/Chaplowe2.jpg
  57. 57. Thank you! Resources on livestock MRV are available on the SBSTA side event page or on the CCAFS event page. www.ccafs.cgiar.org/events Includes this presentation, and: • Benefits of advanced inventories • MRV of livestock greenhouse gas emissions by developing countries in the UNFCCC: Current practices and opportunities for improvement. Soon available in French and Spanish. • Country reports on low-cost strategies for low emissions development in the livestock sector for: Argentina; Bangladesh; Ethiopia; Kenya; Sri Lanka; and Uruguay

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