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SBSTA 48 Side Event
May 8, 2018, 11:30 -13:00, Bonn Room
Implementing MRV of livestock
NAMAS to meet NDC and
finance needs
Why MRV of livestock emissions?
Livestock systems: ~14.5% of global emissions, 7.1 Gt
CO2e
• Latin America and the Caribbean have the highest
regional emissions, ~1.3 Gt CO2e
• Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico, and
Uruguay include livestock in their NDC mitigation
targets
• LA is pioneering livestock NAMAs
Yet most countries are still
designing their MRV
MRV of NAMAs: Linking subnational and
national needs
Implementing MRV will require NAMA and national MRV systems
to “talk to each other”
How can NAMAs assess their policy and project’s mitigation
impacts?
- to meet both finance and NDC accounting needs
- to integrate local and national information
systems
` - in ways that are transparent, consistent, comparable,
complete, and accurate, based on IPCC guidelines
…and cost efficient?
Agenda
Program Speaker
Welcome (5 minutes) Lini Wollenberg, CCAFS
The challenge (10 minutes)
MRV of livestock to meet
NAMA finance & national
NDC reporting to UNFCCC
Hayden Montgomery, Global Research Alliance on
Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA)
MRV resources and needs Meryl Richards, CCAFS and the U. of Vermont
Experiences from 3 NAMAs in Latin America: (30 minutes)
Brazil João Lampreia, Carbon Trust, Brazil
Guatemala Ericka Lucero, Climate Change Unit, Ministry of
Environment and Natural Resources, Guatemala
Uruguay Walter Oyhantcabal, Sustainability and Climate
Change Unit, Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and
Fishery, Uruguay
Chat show (20 minutes) Problem solve and find paths forward
Discussion and questions from audience (20 minutes)
Final remarks and the way
forward (5 minutes)
Martial Bernoux, Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations (FAO)
Agenda
Program Speaker
Welcome (5 minutes) Lini Wollenberg, CCAFS
The challenge (10 minutes)
MRV of livestock to meet
NAMA finance & national
NDC reporting to UNFCCC
Hayden Montgomery, Global Research Alliance on
Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA)
MRV resources and needs Meryl Richards, CCAFS and the U. of Vermont
Experiences from 3 NAMAs in Latin America: (30 minutes)
Brazil João Lampreia, Senior Manager, Carbon Trust, Brazil
Guatemala Ericka Lucero, Climate Change Unit, Ministry of
Environment and Natural Resources, Guatemala
Uruguay Walter Oyhantcabal, Sustainability and Climate
Change Unit, Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and
Fishery, Uruguay
Chat show (20 minutes) Problem solve and find paths forward
Discussion and questions from audience (20 minutes)
Final remarks and the way
forward (5 minutes)
Martial Bernoux, Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations (FAO)
SBSTA 48 Side Event
May 8, 2018, 11:30 -13:00, Bonn Room
The Reporting Challenge:
Meeting Finance and NDC
needs
Hayden Montgomery, Global Research Alliance for Agricultural
Greenhouse Gases (GRA)
Livestock mitigation potential
• For a given level of production, livestock emissions could be reduced by
between 18 and 30 percent, if producers in a given system, region and
climate adopted the practices currently applied by the 10 to 25 percent of
producers with the lowest emission intensity. Grazing land management
holds additional promises for mitigation through soil carbon sequestration.
Mitigation in the context of sustainable
development
• GHG emissions represent losses of energy, nitrogen and organic
matter for the livestock sector, there is thus a strong link between
emission intensity and resource use efficiency.
• Much of the mitigation potential in the sector is achievable by using
available practices that improve production efficiency, which can
reduce emissions while supporting social and economic goals such
as food security and income generation.
• Actions identified in NDCs and in development plans include, e.g.,
• animal management
• manure management
• nutrient management
• livestock heath
• livestock productivity
• improved grassland
management
• improved animal breeding
However…. most countries are still working on
improving their inventories of livestock emissions
• Accurate national GHG inventories established in accordance with the
IPCC Inventory Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), provide critical support for
national mitigation policies by establishing GHG emission baselines for
sectors and for identifying possible emission reduction pathways.
• Improved inventories unlock climate finance for NAMAs and can allow
more effective targeting of national investment.
State of MRV of livestock emissions
Wilkes et al. 2017
• 119 out of 140 developing countries are using
approaches (Tier 1) that generally do not capture
mitigation via routinely showing changes in productivity
and efficiency of livestock systems (Tier 2).
Advantage of Tier 2 vs. Tier 1
• Reflect a country’s national circumstances and actual production systems
• Allow reporting of trends in emissions intensity as well as absolute
emissions
• Provide robust information to underpin NDCs and NAMAs
• Increase range of mitigation options available by also capturing reductions
of emissions resulting from increases in productivity and improved
management
• Can be used to support other work, e.g. agricultural development plans,
sector support programmes, management of other environmental issues,
e.g. water quality
• It’s about continuous improvement – learning to live with uncertainty
SBSTA 48 Side Event
May 8, 2018, 11:30 -13:00, Bonn Room
MRV resources and needs
Meryl Richards, CCAFS
Recommendations
for supporting MRV
in the livestock
sector
• Review existing tools,
guidance, and platforms for
MRV in the agriculture
sector
• Share examples and case
studies of how countries
are improving their national
MRV systems
Types of guidance and tools available
• Guidelines for
national inventories
• General guidance
on MRV systems
Types of guidance and tools available
• Carbon credit methodologies
(CDM, VCS, Gold Standard)
• Greenhouse gas
calculators & lifecycle
assessment models
• Comparisons of
methods for field
measurement
What are the gaps?
• Practical solutions for filling data gaps (e.g. in
activity data)
• Comprehensive database/platform for emissions
factors for livestock in developing countries
• Guidance on prioritizing improvements to keep
costs low
• Examples of how to link project-level with national
MRV
AgMRV Knowledge Platform
Welcome! This site is designed to support practitioners with the
measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) of livestock greenhouse
gas emissionsand mitigation actions.
Resources to share?
Want to hear about the launch of the platform?
meryl.richards@uvm.edu
www.linkedin.com/company/cgiar-climate/
Agenda
Program Speaker
Welcome (5 minutes) Lini Wollenberg, CCAFS
The challenge (10 minutes)
MRV of livestock to meet
NAMA finance & national
NDC reporting to UNFCCC
Hayden Montgomery, Global Research Alliance on
Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA)
MRV resources and needs Meryl Richards, CCAFS and the U. of Vermont
Experiences from 3 NAMAs in Latin America: (30 minutes)
Brazil João Lampreia, Senior Manager, Carbon Trust, Brazil
Guatemala Ericka Lucero, Climate Change Unit, Ministry of
Environment and Natural Resources, Guatemala
Uruguay Walter Oyhantcabal, Sustainability and Climate
Change Unit, Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and
Fishery, Uruguay
Chat show (20 minutes) Problem solve and find paths forward
Discussion and questions from audience (20 minutes)
Final remarks and the way
forward (5 minutes)
Martial Bernoux, Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations (FAO)
SBSTA 48 Side Event
May 8, 2018, 11:30 -13:00, Bonn Room
Brazil: Beef Supply Chain
Resource Efficiency Programme
João Lampreia
Senior Manager, Carbon Trust Brazil
Programme Approach Summary
Objective: To support a significant sample of medium-sized players in the beef
supply chain (ranchers, processing facilities and retailers) to implement low-carbon
best practice, demonstrating these make economic and environmental sense.
€ 40 milhões
reembolsáveis
€ 11 milhões
não reembolsáveis
Attractive loans: So end-users effectively invest in
best practice.
1
2
3
4
€ 4 M
grant
€ 40 M
loans
€ 11 M
grant
Risk Sharing: To reduce guarantee requirements and
unlock investments.
Technical assistance: To build a pipeline of low risk
projects, enable finance to flow and see projects through
implementation.
Awareness raising: To generate interest for the
programme’s support.
21
BEFORE AFTER
Ranching best practice consists basically in enhancing soil and herd
productivity. It enables ranches to increase stocking rates by three-fold; increase
productivity by 3-5 fold; decrease slaughter age by 1/3; halve CO2 emissions per
hectare; slash 9/10 of CO2 emissions per kg beef; and increase gross
margins/hectare by nine-fold.
Programme Approach Summary
Scale, reach and impact
REACH
Avoid
EUR 335 M
in resource costs
Directly mitigate
~7.5 MtCO2e
Indirectly mitigate
~20 MtCO2
Leverage another
EUR 20 M in
private finance
EUR 40 M
in loans
EUR 4 M
in loan guarantees
EUR 11 M in grants
for TA, de-risking,
admin
44,000 hectares of
degraded pastures
recovered into climate-
smart best practice
ranching
10 processing
facilities
retrofitted to high
efficiency
standards
200 truck drivers
trained for
greater logistic
efficiency
10 retail stores
retrofitted to
high efficiency
standards
IMPACT
Target region
Most relevant Brazilian NDC targets by 2030
Source: Federal decree nº 7,390/10
Targets Indicator
15 million hectares of degraded
pastureland recovered into low
carbon best practice pastures
• Área (ha) of pasture recovery
• GHG mitigation (total & per
hectare)
5 million hectares of degraded
pastureland recovered into crop-
livestock-forestry systems
• Área (ha) of pasture recovery
• GHG mitigation (total & per
hectare)
12 million hectares of
deforestation recovered into
native forests
• Área (ha) of forest recovery
• GHG mitigation (total & per
hectare)
Zero illegal deforestation • Área (ha) illegal deforestation
identified and/or avoided. GHG
emissions from legal
deforestation must be
compensated.
Brazilian agri-related NDC monitoring levels
NATIONAL
RURAL PROPERTIES
National agricultural GHG
emissions monitoring
platform Geospatial
WebGis landscape
assessment database
AgroTag App being designed by ABC
platform as a means to enable the
submition of standardized data on
rural property conditions and enable
GHG estimates
Overview of Programme MRV
We will train and accredit ~50 TA agents to provide standardized
TA as well as to measure and verify results using the AgroTag tool
AGROTAG
GHG
sources and sinks
Data gathered Data collection
method
Emission Factor
Herd Number of heads per
category: bulls, cows,
heifers, steers and
calves
Sanitary records
(Reported yearly to
Government Animal
Sanitation Office)
Tier 2
Brazilian
Government
http://sirene.mcti.gov.br/public
acoes
Pasture Conditions
condition
Pasture area per
category: degraded,
stable, recovered or
well-managed
Visual
interpretation
coupled with soil
samplings
Tier 2
Scientific literature;
Soil measurements
Farm Inputs & Outputs Inputs: lime, nitrogen
fertilizer, diesel oil
Outputs: kg beef,
grains, etc.
Purchase
receipts and
trade records
Tier 1
(IPCC, 2006)
Land Use Characterization Productive areas
(pasture or agriculture)
Legal Reserves,
Riparian Zones and
Agriculture
Geospatial
analysis
Tier 2
Land Use Change
Brazilian
Government
http://sirene.mcti.gov.br/publicac
oes
Overview of Programme MRV
Every 6 months our accredited TA team will assess:
IMAFLORA aggregates data produced by TA
team, performs sample checks to increase
accuracy and submits aggregated figures to
ABC platform annually including:
• Farm land use and production status:
total property area; conditions (hectares);
farm output (t of meat, grain, timber, other)
• GHG emissions balance by source:
o Production system (animals + inputs + soil);
o Forest system (native vegetarion recovery);
o Land use area (animals + inputs + soil +
native vegetarion recovered);
• GHG emissions indicators (tCO2e / ha;
tCO2e / product)
• Gathers GHG
estimates from
multiple agri-
related
programmes
• Performs 2nd
party M&V and
produces
regional
statistics,
benchmarks,
etc.
• Joins up
emission
reporting from
all sectors to
produce the
national
inventory.
• Submits
official figures
to IPCC
Clear link between local MRV system and national
system meets government and financiers’ needs
Lessons learned & conclusions for future
NAMA and MRV design
• Brazil’s agri-related NDC targets are ambitious. It is
fundamental that the government fully sets up the ABC
platform ASAP.
• Data submitted by NAMAs can support national platforms
to improve tools, such as the AgroTag app and as well as
their to enhance their role in gathering and disseminating
statistics, regional land-use profiles and benchmarks.
• Mitigation initiatives must ‘speak the same language’ and
submit standardized data to national platforms. The
Agrotag app is fundamental to enable this standardization.
• Verification by the ABC platform through sample checks via
satellite and on the ground can seek to ensure that data
provided through Agrotag is accurate.
Guatemala: National climate change
actions and the proposed livestock
NAMA
Ericka Lucero
Head, Department of Vulnerability and
Adaptation to Climate Change Direction,
Ministry of Environment and
Natural Resources,
Government of the Republic of Guatemala
Current status
MINISTERIO DE AMBIENTE Y RECURSOS NATURALES
Implications of climate change in
Guatemala
The Global Assessment Report on
Disaster Risk Reduction, reports that
Guatemala is one of the countries with
the most "extensive risk."
In 2014, a rainfall deficit increased malnutrition
in Guatemala’s most vulnerable population.
Affected were:
• 210 communities
• 251 thousand families
• US$84.5 million in losses
Hydrometeriological history
Historical map of hurricane trajectories and storms since 1842
Current status
GHG emissions
Guatemala has conducted 4 national GHG
emission inventories: 1990, 1994, 2000, 2005
The most recent inventory found that
Guatemala emitted 31.45 million tCO2e in the
energy sector, industry, agriculture, waste,
and land use, land use change and forestry.
Guatemala applied growth trends to project
that 2030 emissions would be 53.85 million
tCO2e.
According to the principle of common but
differentiated responsibilities and current
capacities, Guatemala plans to reduce
emissions by 11.2%.
With news and conditional technical and
financial support from international public and
private resources, Guatemala could increase
its goal to a reduction of 22.6% by 2030.
NDC
Legal and institutional framework
Framework Law on Climate Change (July 2013)
National Climate Change Policy (2009)
K´atun 2032
(National
Development
Plan)
NDC LEDS
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CLIMATE CHANGE
Republic President
Government
Chamber of Commerce
National Association of Municipalities
Association of Mayors and Indigenous Authorities
NGOs
San Carlos University of Guatemala
Representative from private universities
Clmate change units created in:
MAGA – Ministry of Agriculture,
Livestock and Food
CONAP – National Council for
Protected Areas
INAB – National Forestry Institute
National
Action Plan
for Climate
Change
(PANCC)
Description of NAMA and Mitigation
Actions
K´atun 2032 NDCPANCC
Influence a
transformational
change within the
economic sector
towards low carbon
growth, which
combines the
development and
mitigation of climate
change.
NAMA:
Sustainable Bovine Livestock with Low Emissions
National Policy of
Bovine Livestock
National Strategy
for Sustainable
Livestock with
Low Emissions
National
Funds
-MAGA-
Project for the support
of the implementation
of the NAMA (not
refundable)
Implementation
Other international
cooperation (donations
and loans)
Presentation of the NAMA proposal to
decision-makers by the Livestock Board, which
consists of the Bovine Livestock Producers of
Meat and Milk and chaired by the Ministry of
Agriculture, Livestock and Food.
Reduce the carbon footprint of the national production of milk and meat.
Model developed and tested for
sustainable bovine production
with low emissions in a priority
area
Can be replicated
Model adopted by producer families
reduces GHG emissions and
increases CO2 removals
Increasing the competitiveness of
milk and meat production in
markets
Adoption of technological
packages through
training and Technical
Assistance
Productivity and
profitability of bovine
production systems in
farms increased
Access to financial
mechanisms
(credit and / or
forest incentives)
National capacity
created in public and
private sectors to
give continuous AT
Impact
Results
Products
Livestock in Guatemala
Generates employment
Long tradition
Empirical estimates indicate that at least 30,000 families are linked to primary
production in rural areas
Small-scale livestock represents a livelihood contributing to food and nutrition
security of those families
Competitiveness (2000-2010)
Actors
MAGA, MARN
INAB, MINFIN
CATIE
CAMAGRO
ASODEL
FEGAGUATE
Facultad de Medicina
Veterinaria y
Zootécnia/USAC
Cámara de productores de
leche
Technical Steering
Committee
Implementing Unit
Livestock Table -
Institutional /
Political
Cooperativas y
Asociaciones de
Productores y
Productores(as)
CATIE
Entidades
financieras
NAMA: Sustainable Bovine Livestock with Low Emissions
Phase 1: Support Project for the Implementation of the NAMA / NAMA
Facility
Duration: 5 years
Intervention in
priority regions in
North: Izabal,
Peten and Alta
Verapaz
300 productive
units
40,000 ha pasture
Phase 2:
Duration: 5 years
Intervention in
North
825 productive
units
110,000 ha
pasture
Phase 3:
Duration: 5 years
Intervention in the Eastern South
Region (Jalapa, Jutiapa and
Santa Rosa)
Intervention in South West
Region (Retalhuleu and San
Marcos)
Intervention in Chiquimula,
Zacapa
1,125 productive units
100,000 ha pasture
Staff for implementing unit
Technical activities:
Promotion,, Training, Field Schools, Research,
Extension and Communication Materials,
Consulting, Studies, Monitoring and Evaluation,
Knowledge Management
Equipment
Operating costs
Budget items
Requested from NAMA Facility:
Euro 9,300,000 (non-refundable)
Pending approval
Private investments in practices and technologies in 300 farms
Proposed Credit:
Euro 7,500,000
Forest incentives for silvopastoral systems in 300
farms
Proposed
National Funds:
Euro 1,200,000
Main indicators NSP (5 years)
Capacity established in public and private sectors to implement the NAMA
in the next 10 years (phases 2 and 3 of the National Strategy of
Sustainable Bovine Livestock with Low Emissions, with national funds).
Main indicators for the National Strategy for Sustainable Bovine Livestock
with Low Emissions, at 15 years
Reduction in the carbon footprint of milk from 5.8 to 2.2 kg CO2e/kg of milk.
Reduction in the carbon footprint of meat from 16.5 a 7.9 kg CO2e/kg of
meat.
Reduced emissions and carbon sequestration: 4.9 milliion tCO2e.
Represents the 12% reduction proposed in the NDC (2015), based on additional
funds from International cooperation.
Main indicators for the period 2020-2030
Aims to collect, systematize, process and make available different types of information related
to the management of climate change adaptation and mitigation to climate change to decision-
makers
Management recently approved, Climate Technology Center and Network
MRV
National Information System on Climate Change
Assigned to MARN through the Information and Climate
Change Unit
Inter-institutional and multi-sectoral linkage through the
National Council on Climate Change
Contributions from international cooperation will be
managed for its implementation
IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING OF
THE NDC 2017 and 2018
2017 and 2018: socialization of the NDC in
Guatemala in priority sectors and definition of
monitoring mechanisms and multisectoral
institutionalization are being carried out.
Roadmap is in development
Reports to
CMNUNCC
Department of
Science and
Metrics for Climate
Change at MARN
What is needed to link national and local
MRV?
• Definition of information protocols
• Socialization and development of local capacities
• Structure and arrangement of sectoral monitoring technical
tables
Gracias por su atención
sjorellana@marn.gob.gt
Ing. Silvia Zuniga, Directora de Cambio Climatico
sperez@marn.gob.gt
Ing. Saul Perez, Jefe del Departamento de Mitigación al Cambio Climatico
elucero@marn.gob.gt
Ing. Ericka Lucero, Jefe del Departamento de Vulnerabilidad y Adaptación al
Cambio Climatico
+502 24230500
Uruguay – NDC and MRV in livestock
sector of Uruguay
Walter Oyhantcabal, Director of the
Sustainability and Climate Change Unit,
Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery,
Uruguay
Livestock sector explain the majority of
GHG emissions in Uruguay.
misiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero directo –
r sector (2010)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Agricultura Energía Desechos Procesos Industriales
75,4
17,3
5,8
1,5
% emisiones
Agro
GHG emissions (%) in Uruguay per sector
(2010)
Methane
(Gg)
Nitrous Oxide
(Gg)
Total 756 36
Livestock
636 23
84% 63%
CH4 and N2O emissions (2010)
Uruguay´s NDC: mitigation targets in terms of
emissions intensity in the beef sector (per kg
beef)
2030 vs.
1990 own
effort
2030 vs
1990
with MOI
2010 vs 1990
CH4 33% less 46% less 23% less
N2O 31% less 41% less 28% less
Rebuildin
g SOC
Less
SOC
Simple practices but knowledge intensive
Basis for an MRV system (for all Tiers)
Step 1: Divide the
livestock population into
subgroups and
characterize each
subgroup preferably using
annual averages
(production cycles and
seasonal influences on
population numbers.
Step 2: Estimate emission
factors for each subgroup
in kg CH4/animal/yr
Step 3: Multiply the subgroup
emission factors by the subgroup
populations to estimate subgroup
emission, and sum across the
subgroups to estimate total
emission.
4
8
Activity data are key: National
Livestock Information System
High quality updated livestock
statistics system (not originally built
for GHG MRV)
100% traceability of the cattle herd, with electronic
and visual tags
IPCC Tier 2 (Dynamic) method for
enteric fermentation and N2O
• Using spatially disaggregated information
(juridisctional) on cattle herd by category and
diet quality and composition.
• Dynamic C-S EF for enteric fermentation,
including Tier 2 MCF
• Tier 2 N2O from manure on grasslands
Key variables to estimate EFs
• Body weight by category,
• Weight gain
• Milk production of cows
• Pregnacy rate,
• Digestibility of intake
• Crude protein in the diet
PASTURE RESOURCE-BASE: NATURAL GRASSLAND
Source: DICOSE, 2012
ANIMAL NUTRITION: AVERAGE COMPOSITION & QUALITY OF DIETS
Cow-calf Complete cycle 1 Complete cycle 2
Average digestibility of ration (%) 56.4 56.4 56.3
Nitrogen content of ration (g/kg
DM)
16.6 16.6 16.4
A long term cattle farms platform to validate
practices, build the toolbox for MRV and inform
policy design to scale-up.
Proyecto
Co-
innovando
en Rocha
INIA
Adaptation
Fund
project
CSLM platform: GEF-FAO
UFFIP
Project
with N.
Zealand
Time line
Up-scaling
Agenda
Program Speaker
Welcome (5 minutes) Lini Wollenberg, CCAFS
The challenge (10 minutes)
MRV of livestock to meet
NAMA finance & national
NDC reporting to UNFCCC
Hayden Montgomery, Global Research Alliance on
Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA)
MRV resources and needs Meryl Richards, CCAFS and the U. of Vermont
Experiences from 3 NAMAs in Latin America: (30 minutes)
Brazil João Lampreia, Carbon Trust, Brazil
Guatemala Ericka Lucero, Climate Chante Unit, Ministry of
Environment and Natural Resources, Guatemala
Uruguay Walter Oyhantcabal, Director of the Sustainability and
Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture
and Fishery, Uruguay
Chat show (20 minutes) Problem solve and find paths forward
Discussion and questions from audience (20 minutes)
Final remarks and the way
forward (5 minutes)
Martial Bernoux, Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations (FAO)
Chat show and discussion
Source: http://aea365.org/blog/wp-
content/uploads/2011/10/Chaplowe2.jpg
Thank you!
Resources on livestock MRV are available on the SBSTA side event page or
on the CCAFS event page. www.ccafs.cgiar.org/events
Includes this presentation, and:
• Benefits of advanced inventories
• MRV of livestock greenhouse gas emissions by developing countries
in the UNFCCC: Current practices and opportunities for improvement.
Soon available in French and Spanish.
• Country reports on low-cost strategies for low emissions development in
the livestock sector for: Argentina; Bangladesh; Ethiopia; Kenya; Sri Lanka;
and Uruguay

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Improving transparency: Implementing MRV of livestock NAMAS to meet NDC and finance needs

  • 1. SBSTA 48 Side Event May 8, 2018, 11:30 -13:00, Bonn Room Implementing MRV of livestock NAMAS to meet NDC and finance needs
  • 2. Why MRV of livestock emissions? Livestock systems: ~14.5% of global emissions, 7.1 Gt CO2e • Latin America and the Caribbean have the highest regional emissions, ~1.3 Gt CO2e • Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Uruguay include livestock in their NDC mitigation targets • LA is pioneering livestock NAMAs Yet most countries are still designing their MRV
  • 3. MRV of NAMAs: Linking subnational and national needs Implementing MRV will require NAMA and national MRV systems to “talk to each other” How can NAMAs assess their policy and project’s mitigation impacts? - to meet both finance and NDC accounting needs - to integrate local and national information systems ` - in ways that are transparent, consistent, comparable, complete, and accurate, based on IPCC guidelines …and cost efficient?
  • 4. Agenda Program Speaker Welcome (5 minutes) Lini Wollenberg, CCAFS The challenge (10 minutes) MRV of livestock to meet NAMA finance & national NDC reporting to UNFCCC Hayden Montgomery, Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA) MRV resources and needs Meryl Richards, CCAFS and the U. of Vermont Experiences from 3 NAMAs in Latin America: (30 minutes) Brazil João Lampreia, Carbon Trust, Brazil Guatemala Ericka Lucero, Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Guatemala Uruguay Walter Oyhantcabal, Sustainability and Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery, Uruguay Chat show (20 minutes) Problem solve and find paths forward Discussion and questions from audience (20 minutes) Final remarks and the way forward (5 minutes) Martial Bernoux, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
  • 5. Agenda Program Speaker Welcome (5 minutes) Lini Wollenberg, CCAFS The challenge (10 minutes) MRV of livestock to meet NAMA finance & national NDC reporting to UNFCCC Hayden Montgomery, Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA) MRV resources and needs Meryl Richards, CCAFS and the U. of Vermont Experiences from 3 NAMAs in Latin America: (30 minutes) Brazil João Lampreia, Senior Manager, Carbon Trust, Brazil Guatemala Ericka Lucero, Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Guatemala Uruguay Walter Oyhantcabal, Sustainability and Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery, Uruguay Chat show (20 minutes) Problem solve and find paths forward Discussion and questions from audience (20 minutes) Final remarks and the way forward (5 minutes) Martial Bernoux, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
  • 6. SBSTA 48 Side Event May 8, 2018, 11:30 -13:00, Bonn Room The Reporting Challenge: Meeting Finance and NDC needs Hayden Montgomery, Global Research Alliance for Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA)
  • 7. Livestock mitigation potential • For a given level of production, livestock emissions could be reduced by between 18 and 30 percent, if producers in a given system, region and climate adopted the practices currently applied by the 10 to 25 percent of producers with the lowest emission intensity. Grazing land management holds additional promises for mitigation through soil carbon sequestration.
  • 8. Mitigation in the context of sustainable development • GHG emissions represent losses of energy, nitrogen and organic matter for the livestock sector, there is thus a strong link between emission intensity and resource use efficiency. • Much of the mitigation potential in the sector is achievable by using available practices that improve production efficiency, which can reduce emissions while supporting social and economic goals such as food security and income generation. • Actions identified in NDCs and in development plans include, e.g., • animal management • manure management • nutrient management • livestock heath • livestock productivity • improved grassland management • improved animal breeding
  • 9. However…. most countries are still working on improving their inventories of livestock emissions • Accurate national GHG inventories established in accordance with the IPCC Inventory Guidelines (IPCC, 2006), provide critical support for national mitigation policies by establishing GHG emission baselines for sectors and for identifying possible emission reduction pathways. • Improved inventories unlock climate finance for NAMAs and can allow more effective targeting of national investment. State of MRV of livestock emissions Wilkes et al. 2017 • 119 out of 140 developing countries are using approaches (Tier 1) that generally do not capture mitigation via routinely showing changes in productivity and efficiency of livestock systems (Tier 2).
  • 10. Advantage of Tier 2 vs. Tier 1 • Reflect a country’s national circumstances and actual production systems • Allow reporting of trends in emissions intensity as well as absolute emissions • Provide robust information to underpin NDCs and NAMAs • Increase range of mitigation options available by also capturing reductions of emissions resulting from increases in productivity and improved management • Can be used to support other work, e.g. agricultural development plans, sector support programmes, management of other environmental issues, e.g. water quality • It’s about continuous improvement – learning to live with uncertainty
  • 11. SBSTA 48 Side Event May 8, 2018, 11:30 -13:00, Bonn Room MRV resources and needs Meryl Richards, CCAFS
  • 12. Recommendations for supporting MRV in the livestock sector • Review existing tools, guidance, and platforms for MRV in the agriculture sector • Share examples and case studies of how countries are improving their national MRV systems
  • 13. Types of guidance and tools available • Guidelines for national inventories • General guidance on MRV systems
  • 14. Types of guidance and tools available • Carbon credit methodologies (CDM, VCS, Gold Standard) • Greenhouse gas calculators & lifecycle assessment models • Comparisons of methods for field measurement
  • 15. What are the gaps? • Practical solutions for filling data gaps (e.g. in activity data) • Comprehensive database/platform for emissions factors for livestock in developing countries • Guidance on prioritizing improvements to keep costs low • Examples of how to link project-level with national MRV
  • 16. AgMRV Knowledge Platform Welcome! This site is designed to support practitioners with the measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) of livestock greenhouse gas emissionsand mitigation actions.
  • 17. Resources to share? Want to hear about the launch of the platform? meryl.richards@uvm.edu www.linkedin.com/company/cgiar-climate/
  • 18. Agenda Program Speaker Welcome (5 minutes) Lini Wollenberg, CCAFS The challenge (10 minutes) MRV of livestock to meet NAMA finance & national NDC reporting to UNFCCC Hayden Montgomery, Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA) MRV resources and needs Meryl Richards, CCAFS and the U. of Vermont Experiences from 3 NAMAs in Latin America: (30 minutes) Brazil João Lampreia, Senior Manager, Carbon Trust, Brazil Guatemala Ericka Lucero, Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Guatemala Uruguay Walter Oyhantcabal, Sustainability and Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery, Uruguay Chat show (20 minutes) Problem solve and find paths forward Discussion and questions from audience (20 minutes) Final remarks and the way forward (5 minutes) Martial Bernoux, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
  • 19. SBSTA 48 Side Event May 8, 2018, 11:30 -13:00, Bonn Room Brazil: Beef Supply Chain Resource Efficiency Programme João Lampreia Senior Manager, Carbon Trust Brazil
  • 20. Programme Approach Summary Objective: To support a significant sample of medium-sized players in the beef supply chain (ranchers, processing facilities and retailers) to implement low-carbon best practice, demonstrating these make economic and environmental sense. € 40 milhões reembolsáveis € 11 milhões não reembolsáveis Attractive loans: So end-users effectively invest in best practice. 1 2 3 4 € 4 M grant € 40 M loans € 11 M grant Risk Sharing: To reduce guarantee requirements and unlock investments. Technical assistance: To build a pipeline of low risk projects, enable finance to flow and see projects through implementation. Awareness raising: To generate interest for the programme’s support.
  • 21. 21 BEFORE AFTER Ranching best practice consists basically in enhancing soil and herd productivity. It enables ranches to increase stocking rates by three-fold; increase productivity by 3-5 fold; decrease slaughter age by 1/3; halve CO2 emissions per hectare; slash 9/10 of CO2 emissions per kg beef; and increase gross margins/hectare by nine-fold. Programme Approach Summary
  • 22. Scale, reach and impact REACH Avoid EUR 335 M in resource costs Directly mitigate ~7.5 MtCO2e Indirectly mitigate ~20 MtCO2 Leverage another EUR 20 M in private finance EUR 40 M in loans EUR 4 M in loan guarantees EUR 11 M in grants for TA, de-risking, admin 44,000 hectares of degraded pastures recovered into climate- smart best practice ranching 10 processing facilities retrofitted to high efficiency standards 200 truck drivers trained for greater logistic efficiency 10 retail stores retrofitted to high efficiency standards IMPACT
  • 24. Most relevant Brazilian NDC targets by 2030 Source: Federal decree nº 7,390/10 Targets Indicator 15 million hectares of degraded pastureland recovered into low carbon best practice pastures • Área (ha) of pasture recovery • GHG mitigation (total & per hectare) 5 million hectares of degraded pastureland recovered into crop- livestock-forestry systems • Área (ha) of pasture recovery • GHG mitigation (total & per hectare) 12 million hectares of deforestation recovered into native forests • Área (ha) of forest recovery • GHG mitigation (total & per hectare) Zero illegal deforestation • Área (ha) illegal deforestation identified and/or avoided. GHG emissions from legal deforestation must be compensated.
  • 25. Brazilian agri-related NDC monitoring levels NATIONAL RURAL PROPERTIES National agricultural GHG emissions monitoring platform Geospatial WebGis landscape assessment database AgroTag App being designed by ABC platform as a means to enable the submition of standardized data on rural property conditions and enable GHG estimates
  • 26. Overview of Programme MRV We will train and accredit ~50 TA agents to provide standardized TA as well as to measure and verify results using the AgroTag tool AGROTAG
  • 27. GHG sources and sinks Data gathered Data collection method Emission Factor Herd Number of heads per category: bulls, cows, heifers, steers and calves Sanitary records (Reported yearly to Government Animal Sanitation Office) Tier 2 Brazilian Government http://sirene.mcti.gov.br/public acoes Pasture Conditions condition Pasture area per category: degraded, stable, recovered or well-managed Visual interpretation coupled with soil samplings Tier 2 Scientific literature; Soil measurements Farm Inputs & Outputs Inputs: lime, nitrogen fertilizer, diesel oil Outputs: kg beef, grains, etc. Purchase receipts and trade records Tier 1 (IPCC, 2006) Land Use Characterization Productive areas (pasture or agriculture) Legal Reserves, Riparian Zones and Agriculture Geospatial analysis Tier 2 Land Use Change Brazilian Government http://sirene.mcti.gov.br/publicac oes Overview of Programme MRV Every 6 months our accredited TA team will assess:
  • 28. IMAFLORA aggregates data produced by TA team, performs sample checks to increase accuracy and submits aggregated figures to ABC platform annually including: • Farm land use and production status: total property area; conditions (hectares); farm output (t of meat, grain, timber, other) • GHG emissions balance by source: o Production system (animals + inputs + soil); o Forest system (native vegetarion recovery); o Land use area (animals + inputs + soil + native vegetarion recovered); • GHG emissions indicators (tCO2e / ha; tCO2e / product) • Gathers GHG estimates from multiple agri- related programmes • Performs 2nd party M&V and produces regional statistics, benchmarks, etc. • Joins up emission reporting from all sectors to produce the national inventory. • Submits official figures to IPCC Clear link between local MRV system and national system meets government and financiers’ needs
  • 29. Lessons learned & conclusions for future NAMA and MRV design • Brazil’s agri-related NDC targets are ambitious. It is fundamental that the government fully sets up the ABC platform ASAP. • Data submitted by NAMAs can support national platforms to improve tools, such as the AgroTag app and as well as their to enhance their role in gathering and disseminating statistics, regional land-use profiles and benchmarks. • Mitigation initiatives must ‘speak the same language’ and submit standardized data to national platforms. The Agrotag app is fundamental to enable this standardization. • Verification by the ABC platform through sample checks via satellite and on the ground can seek to ensure that data provided through Agrotag is accurate.
  • 30. Guatemala: National climate change actions and the proposed livestock NAMA Ericka Lucero Head, Department of Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change Direction, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Republic of Guatemala
  • 31. Current status MINISTERIO DE AMBIENTE Y RECURSOS NATURALES Implications of climate change in Guatemala The Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, reports that Guatemala is one of the countries with the most "extensive risk." In 2014, a rainfall deficit increased malnutrition in Guatemala’s most vulnerable population. Affected were: • 210 communities • 251 thousand families • US$84.5 million in losses Hydrometeriological history Historical map of hurricane trajectories and storms since 1842
  • 32. Current status GHG emissions Guatemala has conducted 4 national GHG emission inventories: 1990, 1994, 2000, 2005 The most recent inventory found that Guatemala emitted 31.45 million tCO2e in the energy sector, industry, agriculture, waste, and land use, land use change and forestry. Guatemala applied growth trends to project that 2030 emissions would be 53.85 million tCO2e. According to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and current capacities, Guatemala plans to reduce emissions by 11.2%. With news and conditional technical and financial support from international public and private resources, Guatemala could increase its goal to a reduction of 22.6% by 2030. NDC
  • 33. Legal and institutional framework Framework Law on Climate Change (July 2013) National Climate Change Policy (2009) K´atun 2032 (National Development Plan) NDC LEDS NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CLIMATE CHANGE Republic President Government Chamber of Commerce National Association of Municipalities Association of Mayors and Indigenous Authorities NGOs San Carlos University of Guatemala Representative from private universities Clmate change units created in: MAGA – Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food CONAP – National Council for Protected Areas INAB – National Forestry Institute National Action Plan for Climate Change (PANCC)
  • 34. Description of NAMA and Mitigation Actions K´atun 2032 NDCPANCC Influence a transformational change within the economic sector towards low carbon growth, which combines the development and mitigation of climate change. NAMA: Sustainable Bovine Livestock with Low Emissions National Policy of Bovine Livestock National Strategy for Sustainable Livestock with Low Emissions National Funds -MAGA- Project for the support of the implementation of the NAMA (not refundable) Implementation Other international cooperation (donations and loans) Presentation of the NAMA proposal to decision-makers by the Livestock Board, which consists of the Bovine Livestock Producers of Meat and Milk and chaired by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food.
  • 35. Reduce the carbon footprint of the national production of milk and meat. Model developed and tested for sustainable bovine production with low emissions in a priority area Can be replicated Model adopted by producer families reduces GHG emissions and increases CO2 removals Increasing the competitiveness of milk and meat production in markets Adoption of technological packages through training and Technical Assistance Productivity and profitability of bovine production systems in farms increased Access to financial mechanisms (credit and / or forest incentives) National capacity created in public and private sectors to give continuous AT Impact Results Products Livestock in Guatemala Generates employment Long tradition Empirical estimates indicate that at least 30,000 families are linked to primary production in rural areas Small-scale livestock represents a livelihood contributing to food and nutrition security of those families Competitiveness (2000-2010)
  • 36. Actors MAGA, MARN INAB, MINFIN CATIE CAMAGRO ASODEL FEGAGUATE Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootécnia/USAC Cámara de productores de leche Technical Steering Committee Implementing Unit Livestock Table - Institutional / Political Cooperativas y Asociaciones de Productores y Productores(as) CATIE Entidades financieras
  • 37. NAMA: Sustainable Bovine Livestock with Low Emissions Phase 1: Support Project for the Implementation of the NAMA / NAMA Facility Duration: 5 years Intervention in priority regions in North: Izabal, Peten and Alta Verapaz 300 productive units 40,000 ha pasture Phase 2: Duration: 5 years Intervention in North 825 productive units 110,000 ha pasture Phase 3: Duration: 5 years Intervention in the Eastern South Region (Jalapa, Jutiapa and Santa Rosa) Intervention in South West Region (Retalhuleu and San Marcos) Intervention in Chiquimula, Zacapa 1,125 productive units 100,000 ha pasture
  • 38. Staff for implementing unit Technical activities: Promotion,, Training, Field Schools, Research, Extension and Communication Materials, Consulting, Studies, Monitoring and Evaluation, Knowledge Management Equipment Operating costs Budget items Requested from NAMA Facility: Euro 9,300,000 (non-refundable) Pending approval Private investments in practices and technologies in 300 farms Proposed Credit: Euro 7,500,000 Forest incentives for silvopastoral systems in 300 farms Proposed National Funds: Euro 1,200,000
  • 39. Main indicators NSP (5 years) Capacity established in public and private sectors to implement the NAMA in the next 10 years (phases 2 and 3 of the National Strategy of Sustainable Bovine Livestock with Low Emissions, with national funds). Main indicators for the National Strategy for Sustainable Bovine Livestock with Low Emissions, at 15 years Reduction in the carbon footprint of milk from 5.8 to 2.2 kg CO2e/kg of milk. Reduction in the carbon footprint of meat from 16.5 a 7.9 kg CO2e/kg of meat. Reduced emissions and carbon sequestration: 4.9 milliion tCO2e. Represents the 12% reduction proposed in the NDC (2015), based on additional funds from International cooperation. Main indicators for the period 2020-2030
  • 40. Aims to collect, systematize, process and make available different types of information related to the management of climate change adaptation and mitigation to climate change to decision- makers Management recently approved, Climate Technology Center and Network MRV National Information System on Climate Change Assigned to MARN through the Information and Climate Change Unit Inter-institutional and multi-sectoral linkage through the National Council on Climate Change Contributions from international cooperation will be managed for its implementation IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING OF THE NDC 2017 and 2018 2017 and 2018: socialization of the NDC in Guatemala in priority sectors and definition of monitoring mechanisms and multisectoral institutionalization are being carried out. Roadmap is in development Reports to CMNUNCC Department of Science and Metrics for Climate Change at MARN
  • 41. What is needed to link national and local MRV? • Definition of information protocols • Socialization and development of local capacities • Structure and arrangement of sectoral monitoring technical tables
  • 42. Gracias por su atención sjorellana@marn.gob.gt Ing. Silvia Zuniga, Directora de Cambio Climatico sperez@marn.gob.gt Ing. Saul Perez, Jefe del Departamento de Mitigación al Cambio Climatico elucero@marn.gob.gt Ing. Ericka Lucero, Jefe del Departamento de Vulnerabilidad y Adaptación al Cambio Climatico +502 24230500
  • 43. Uruguay – NDC and MRV in livestock sector of Uruguay Walter Oyhantcabal, Director of the Sustainability and Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery, Uruguay
  • 44. Livestock sector explain the majority of GHG emissions in Uruguay. misiones de Gases de Efecto Invernadero directo – r sector (2010) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Agricultura Energía Desechos Procesos Industriales 75,4 17,3 5,8 1,5 % emisiones Agro GHG emissions (%) in Uruguay per sector (2010) Methane (Gg) Nitrous Oxide (Gg) Total 756 36 Livestock 636 23 84% 63% CH4 and N2O emissions (2010)
  • 45. Uruguay´s NDC: mitigation targets in terms of emissions intensity in the beef sector (per kg beef) 2030 vs. 1990 own effort 2030 vs 1990 with MOI 2010 vs 1990 CH4 33% less 46% less 23% less N2O 31% less 41% less 28% less
  • 47. Simple practices but knowledge intensive
  • 48. Basis for an MRV system (for all Tiers) Step 1: Divide the livestock population into subgroups and characterize each subgroup preferably using annual averages (production cycles and seasonal influences on population numbers. Step 2: Estimate emission factors for each subgroup in kg CH4/animal/yr Step 3: Multiply the subgroup emission factors by the subgroup populations to estimate subgroup emission, and sum across the subgroups to estimate total emission. 4 8
  • 49. Activity data are key: National Livestock Information System High quality updated livestock statistics system (not originally built for GHG MRV) 100% traceability of the cattle herd, with electronic and visual tags
  • 50. IPCC Tier 2 (Dynamic) method for enteric fermentation and N2O • Using spatially disaggregated information (juridisctional) on cattle herd by category and diet quality and composition. • Dynamic C-S EF for enteric fermentation, including Tier 2 MCF • Tier 2 N2O from manure on grasslands
  • 51. Key variables to estimate EFs • Body weight by category, • Weight gain • Milk production of cows • Pregnacy rate, • Digestibility of intake • Crude protein in the diet
  • 52. PASTURE RESOURCE-BASE: NATURAL GRASSLAND Source: DICOSE, 2012
  • 53. ANIMAL NUTRITION: AVERAGE COMPOSITION & QUALITY OF DIETS Cow-calf Complete cycle 1 Complete cycle 2 Average digestibility of ration (%) 56.4 56.4 56.3 Nitrogen content of ration (g/kg DM) 16.6 16.6 16.4
  • 54. A long term cattle farms platform to validate practices, build the toolbox for MRV and inform policy design to scale-up. Proyecto Co- innovando en Rocha INIA Adaptation Fund project CSLM platform: GEF-FAO UFFIP Project with N. Zealand Time line Up-scaling
  • 55. Agenda Program Speaker Welcome (5 minutes) Lini Wollenberg, CCAFS The challenge (10 minutes) MRV of livestock to meet NAMA finance & national NDC reporting to UNFCCC Hayden Montgomery, Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA) MRV resources and needs Meryl Richards, CCAFS and the U. of Vermont Experiences from 3 NAMAs in Latin America: (30 minutes) Brazil João Lampreia, Carbon Trust, Brazil Guatemala Ericka Lucero, Climate Chante Unit, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Guatemala Uruguay Walter Oyhantcabal, Director of the Sustainability and Climate Change Unit, Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery, Uruguay Chat show (20 minutes) Problem solve and find paths forward Discussion and questions from audience (20 minutes) Final remarks and the way forward (5 minutes) Martial Bernoux, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
  • 56. Chat show and discussion Source: http://aea365.org/blog/wp- content/uploads/2011/10/Chaplowe2.jpg
  • 57. Thank you! Resources on livestock MRV are available on the SBSTA side event page or on the CCAFS event page. www.ccafs.cgiar.org/events Includes this presentation, and: • Benefits of advanced inventories • MRV of livestock greenhouse gas emissions by developing countries in the UNFCCC: Current practices and opportunities for improvement. Soon available in French and Spanish. • Country reports on low-cost strategies for low emissions development in the livestock sector for: Argentina; Bangladesh; Ethiopia; Kenya; Sri Lanka; and Uruguay