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Big Data Governance as a 
Corporate Governance Imperative 
A guide for Boards of Directors and the C-Suite 
Guy Pearce 
REData Performance Consulting guyp@redata.ca 
(SlideShare Version) 
National Privacy & Data Governance Congress 
Calgary, 16 October 2014 
© REData Performance Consulting 2014
Accountable to 
shareholders for 
performance, risk 
and sustainability 
Introduction: Organizational Scope 
Accountable to the 
board of directors for 
performance, risk 
and sustainability 
Accountable to the 
CEO for functional 
performance, risk 
and sustainability 
Board of 
Directors 
CEO 
C-Suite 
Operational 
Executives 
Organizational Governance 
© REData Performance Consulting 2014
Introduction: Big Data - a different class of data to operational data 
Sensor data 
(incl 
wearables) 
Customer 
Data 
“Small” 
structured 
ext data 
Data Lake 
(Hadoop) 
ODS / DW Operations 
(RDBMS) 
Conceptual, integrated data architecture 
Social 
media 
Reporting 
& 
Analytics 
Decisioning 
Big Data 
Analytics 
Business 
Organize Processes 
Analyze 
Operationalize Insights 
Organize 
Data fusion and/or integration 
between big data and regular 
operational data 
Basic 
corporate 
operational 
data cycle 
Unstructured 
int & ext data 
Big Data 
© REData Performance Consulting 2014
Corporate 
Business 
Model 
Corporate 
Operating 
Model 
Introduction: Selected operational data risk drivers 
5. Quality 
Data Governance Landscape (ex big data) 
© REData Performance Consulting 2014
Corporate 
Business 
Model 
Corporate 
Operating 
Model 
Introduction: Selected big data risk drivers 
Unstructured 
int & ext data 
Organize 
Data Lake 
(Hadoop) 
? 
Social 
media 
Sensor data 
(incl 
wearables) 
Operations 
Decisioning 
Big Data 
Analytics 
Data Governance Landscape (big data) 
© REData Performance Consulting 2014
Reputation risk concerns threats to the good name or standing of 
an entity. It is the number one risk on the board’s agenda. Deloitte 
Firms are vulnerable to reputation damage because: 
• Firms with good reputations are perceived as providing more 
value, which results in more loyal customers buying a broader 
ranges of products and services, often at a premium 
• The market believes they deliver sustained earnings & growth, 
resulting in higher PEs, market caps and lower costs of capital 
• 70% to 80% of market cap comes from intangible assets 
HBR 
It takes 20 years to build a reputation and 5 minutes to ruin it. If you think about 
that, you'll do things differently. 
Warren Buffett 
Let’s see how poor data governance 
affects reputation risk
3.1 trillion reasons 
Why Data Governance (Quality)? 
Annual dollar cost to the US economy of poor quality. Of this, 
$600 billion is the cost of poor data quality to companies
589 million reasons 
Why Data Governance (Breach)? 
The financial cost to date of the Target data breach (lost profit and corrective action)
Data-Stealing Malware 
Stolen Credentials 
Backdoor Malware 
RAM Scraping 
Phishing 
How do data breaches happen (Access)?
669 million reasons 
Why Data Governance (Privacy)? 
The number of private records compromised in data breaches in the US since 2005
Why Data Governance? 
Five key big data privacy and data protection challenges 
Dr Waël Hassan
• 97% of data breaches are avoidable 
Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA) 
• 94% of breaches are detected by a 3rd party, 
an average of 416 days after the event 
How do most data breaches occur? 
HP
Who is accountable? 
BMO as but one example
Trends in Corporate Governance: 
Cybersecurity 
• Expect lawsuits targeting boards for data breach and 
investor loss 
• Expect greater risk regulation and spends for 
financial service companies and non-banks 
• Expect lawsuits and increasing regulation for risk 
management laggards 
Yes, the board is accountable 
Dr R Leblanc; Associate Professor; Law, Governance & Ethics; York University. 
Canadian Lawyer Magazine; Feb 3 2014
Quality 
Data 
Governance 
Security and 
Access 
Privacy 
Lifecycle 
Management 
Because of overlaps, good data governance 
means integrated data governance 
© REData Performance Consulting 2014
Governance (Corporate, IT, Data) 
IT 
Governance is 
an element of 
Corporate 
Governance 
Data 
Governance is 
an element of 
IT 
Governance 
Risk (IT, Data) 
Security is 
one type of 
risk. So is 
privacy and 
compliance 
Compliance (Data) 
A 
u 
d 
i 
t 
Privacy is one element of Compliance 
Data governance in a GRC context 
© REData Performance Consulting 2014
Poor data governance increases the likelihood of 
• a negative impact on brand equity 
• Specifically security, privacy and quality 
• a negative impact on market capitalization 
• Specifically security, compliance (regulatory fines & penalties) 
• a negative impact on credit rating, 
• All aspects of data governance as operating risk mitigation 
all of which are the outcomes of reputation risk, which is 
the top risk on the board’s agenda 
Data governance is a corporate governance 
imperative because it’s about reputation risk
• Lack of board or senior executive ERM leadership, 30% 
• Competing priorities, chosen by 51% of respondents 
• Perception ERM adds bureaucracy, 33% 
• Lack of perceived value, 41% 
• Insufficient resources, 43% 
Reward must be considered in a risk-return context. Poor 
alignment between strategy and risk is a reason for most 
perceived barriers to effective risk management 
Barriers to effective risk management 
CGMA survey 2014, n=446
• No control over the source and its sustainability 
• Slow-to-mature legislative context 
Impossible to mature given continued explosive growth? 
• Quality is an unknown 
• IoT (incl. wearables) 
• Data fusion 
• Cloud 
How does Data Governance change in 
the presence of Big Data? 
© REData Performance Consulting 2014
COBIT / ISO38500 Diagnostics 
How to identify data governance weaknesses: 
Step 1
REData IT Governance and Data Governance Diagnostics 
Perspective 
Scope 
Enterprise 
CObIT version 4.0 
© REData Performance Consulting 2014 
Governance diagnostics expose weaknesses 
Diagnostics hot spots often reinforce each other, for example, inconsistencies in 
sections 2, 5 and 8 dealing with Outsourcing, Security and Incidents
Business Process Analysis 
Diagnostics directs which processes to prioritize for 
BPR, and for integrated data governance 
How to identify data governance weaknesses: 
Step 2
How to identify data governance weaknesses: 
Step 2 
Processes improvements 
generate cost savings that 
can be used to improve 
lifecycle management, 
quality, security and privacy. 
Improved processes also 
reduce risk by minimizing 
the number of points where 
quality, security and privacy 
risks can manifest 
An example of risk 
reduction by BPR 
Example from www.gerke.com
• Data governance is risk management 
• Poor data governance incurs reputation risk, which means 
data governance has corporate governance implications 
• Full scope data governance = ƒ(security, privacy, quality, 
data lifecycle management) 
• It is unacceptable for the Board to be ignorant of its 
accountability for data risk, given its fiduciary duty of risk 
oversight 
• Diagnostic tools can help identify weak spots and improve 
end-to-end data governance, while BPR conducted with 
data governance in mind can significantly reduce risk 
Conclusion

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Big data governance as a corporate governance imperative

  • 1. Big Data Governance as a Corporate Governance Imperative A guide for Boards of Directors and the C-Suite Guy Pearce REData Performance Consulting guyp@redata.ca (SlideShare Version) National Privacy & Data Governance Congress Calgary, 16 October 2014 © REData Performance Consulting 2014
  • 2. Accountable to shareholders for performance, risk and sustainability Introduction: Organizational Scope Accountable to the board of directors for performance, risk and sustainability Accountable to the CEO for functional performance, risk and sustainability Board of Directors CEO C-Suite Operational Executives Organizational Governance © REData Performance Consulting 2014
  • 3. Introduction: Big Data - a different class of data to operational data Sensor data (incl wearables) Customer Data “Small” structured ext data Data Lake (Hadoop) ODS / DW Operations (RDBMS) Conceptual, integrated data architecture Social media Reporting & Analytics Decisioning Big Data Analytics Business Organize Processes Analyze Operationalize Insights Organize Data fusion and/or integration between big data and regular operational data Basic corporate operational data cycle Unstructured int & ext data Big Data © REData Performance Consulting 2014
  • 4. Corporate Business Model Corporate Operating Model Introduction: Selected operational data risk drivers 5. Quality Data Governance Landscape (ex big data) © REData Performance Consulting 2014
  • 5. Corporate Business Model Corporate Operating Model Introduction: Selected big data risk drivers Unstructured int & ext data Organize Data Lake (Hadoop) ? Social media Sensor data (incl wearables) Operations Decisioning Big Data Analytics Data Governance Landscape (big data) © REData Performance Consulting 2014
  • 6. Reputation risk concerns threats to the good name or standing of an entity. It is the number one risk on the board’s agenda. Deloitte Firms are vulnerable to reputation damage because: • Firms with good reputations are perceived as providing more value, which results in more loyal customers buying a broader ranges of products and services, often at a premium • The market believes they deliver sustained earnings & growth, resulting in higher PEs, market caps and lower costs of capital • 70% to 80% of market cap comes from intangible assets HBR It takes 20 years to build a reputation and 5 minutes to ruin it. If you think about that, you'll do things differently. Warren Buffett Let’s see how poor data governance affects reputation risk
  • 7. 3.1 trillion reasons Why Data Governance (Quality)? Annual dollar cost to the US economy of poor quality. Of this, $600 billion is the cost of poor data quality to companies
  • 8. 589 million reasons Why Data Governance (Breach)? The financial cost to date of the Target data breach (lost profit and corrective action)
  • 9. Data-Stealing Malware Stolen Credentials Backdoor Malware RAM Scraping Phishing How do data breaches happen (Access)?
  • 10. 669 million reasons Why Data Governance (Privacy)? The number of private records compromised in data breaches in the US since 2005
  • 11. Why Data Governance? Five key big data privacy and data protection challenges Dr Waël Hassan
  • 12. • 97% of data breaches are avoidable Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA) • 94% of breaches are detected by a 3rd party, an average of 416 days after the event How do most data breaches occur? HP
  • 13. Who is accountable? BMO as but one example
  • 14. Trends in Corporate Governance: Cybersecurity • Expect lawsuits targeting boards for data breach and investor loss • Expect greater risk regulation and spends for financial service companies and non-banks • Expect lawsuits and increasing regulation for risk management laggards Yes, the board is accountable Dr R Leblanc; Associate Professor; Law, Governance & Ethics; York University. Canadian Lawyer Magazine; Feb 3 2014
  • 15. Quality Data Governance Security and Access Privacy Lifecycle Management Because of overlaps, good data governance means integrated data governance © REData Performance Consulting 2014
  • 16. Governance (Corporate, IT, Data) IT Governance is an element of Corporate Governance Data Governance is an element of IT Governance Risk (IT, Data) Security is one type of risk. So is privacy and compliance Compliance (Data) A u d i t Privacy is one element of Compliance Data governance in a GRC context © REData Performance Consulting 2014
  • 17. Poor data governance increases the likelihood of • a negative impact on brand equity • Specifically security, privacy and quality • a negative impact on market capitalization • Specifically security, compliance (regulatory fines & penalties) • a negative impact on credit rating, • All aspects of data governance as operating risk mitigation all of which are the outcomes of reputation risk, which is the top risk on the board’s agenda Data governance is a corporate governance imperative because it’s about reputation risk
  • 18. • Lack of board or senior executive ERM leadership, 30% • Competing priorities, chosen by 51% of respondents • Perception ERM adds bureaucracy, 33% • Lack of perceived value, 41% • Insufficient resources, 43% Reward must be considered in a risk-return context. Poor alignment between strategy and risk is a reason for most perceived barriers to effective risk management Barriers to effective risk management CGMA survey 2014, n=446
  • 19. • No control over the source and its sustainability • Slow-to-mature legislative context Impossible to mature given continued explosive growth? • Quality is an unknown • IoT (incl. wearables) • Data fusion • Cloud How does Data Governance change in the presence of Big Data? © REData Performance Consulting 2014
  • 20. COBIT / ISO38500 Diagnostics How to identify data governance weaknesses: Step 1
  • 21. REData IT Governance and Data Governance Diagnostics Perspective Scope Enterprise CObIT version 4.0 © REData Performance Consulting 2014 Governance diagnostics expose weaknesses Diagnostics hot spots often reinforce each other, for example, inconsistencies in sections 2, 5 and 8 dealing with Outsourcing, Security and Incidents
  • 22. Business Process Analysis Diagnostics directs which processes to prioritize for BPR, and for integrated data governance How to identify data governance weaknesses: Step 2
  • 23. How to identify data governance weaknesses: Step 2 Processes improvements generate cost savings that can be used to improve lifecycle management, quality, security and privacy. Improved processes also reduce risk by minimizing the number of points where quality, security and privacy risks can manifest An example of risk reduction by BPR Example from www.gerke.com
  • 24. • Data governance is risk management • Poor data governance incurs reputation risk, which means data governance has corporate governance implications • Full scope data governance = ƒ(security, privacy, quality, data lifecycle management) • It is unacceptable for the Board to be ignorant of its accountability for data risk, given its fiduciary duty of risk oversight • Diagnostic tools can help identify weak spots and improve end-to-end data governance, while BPR conducted with data governance in mind can significantly reduce risk Conclusion