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PINKUBALA PANWAR
M.SC NURSING PRVIOUS YEAR
INTRODUCTION
Attitude is a specific mental state of an individual
towards something according to which his behavior
towards it is molded.
Attitude is a way we perceive, think, feel and react
more or less permanently in relation to something.
Attitude influences the behavior of a person, it may
be negative or positive
Definition
An attitude is an individual's degree of like
or dislike for something (an idea, object or
person).An attitude is a readiness to
respond in such a way that behavior is
given a certain direction.-
Travers
Nature of Attitudes
Attitude are universal they are either positive or negative
and are found toward social as well as non social aspect of
the environment.
Attitude are not innate they are acquired are learn by
individual.
It implies subject-object relationship.
Attitude related to image, thought and external object.
Attitude guide the behavior of the individual in one
particular direction.
Reactions towards attitude objects
There are four possible reactions towards attitude they are as
follows;
Positive Attitude: The predisposition that results in desirable
outcomes for individuals and organizations.
Negative Attitude: The tendency of a person that result in an
undesirable outcome for individuals and organizations
Dual Attitude: It refers to the idea that an individual can have
two different attitudes about something.
Indifference: Indifference attitude is the absence of feeling for
or against the person, idea or event.
Components of Attitudes
An attitude has three components:
Cognitive: It refers to the thinking that brings about
the development of a belief about the object.
Affective: How he feels about it; the emotional
component i.e. feelings or emotions associated with an
attitude object.
Behavioral: tendency both verbal and nonverbal
towards the object. Act
Development of Attitudes/Formation of Attitudes
• Family is the first place for formation of attitudes.
Parents begin the information flow that forms beliefs
and attitudes about things
• Peers: As we grow, we tend to be influenced by other
sources such as friends and group members.
• They serve as reference group in the
development of attitudes.
• Group affiliation help in the formation of individuals
attitudes
Development of attitudes
These are parents, peers, school, cultural norms, our
motives, our emotional conflicts, mass media etc.
Attitudes are formed in the context of the
individual's wants, information, group affiliation and
responsibility development.
Many of our attitudes are acquired by us as a result of the
pressure from others, or may be the outcome of some
experience.
Development and formation of attitudes
• Association and reinforcement
• Imitation/Identification
• Classical conditioning
• Social/Observational
• Cognitive dissonance
• Unconscious motivation
• Rational analysis
• Other factors
1.Association and Reinforcement
The child is exposed to certain things about the world.
He / She is reinforced for expressing some cognitions or
attitudes or for actual acting; on the basis of this,
they learn them.
2.Imitation/Identification
is important in the learning process. A child spends a
great deal of time with their parents and after a while
begins to believe as they do simply by copying them, even
when they do not deliberately try to influence him / her
Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning involves involuntary response
and is acquired through the pairing of two stimuli.
Two events that repeatedly occur close together in
time become fused and before long the person
responds in the same way to both events.
Social/Observational
Social (observational) learning is based on modeling. We
observe others. If they are getting reinforced for certain
behaviors or expression of certain attitudes, it makes it
more likely that we too will behave in this manner or
express the same attitude.
Cognitive Dissonance
When two contradictory feelings, beliefs or behaviors
exist, it creates a state of tension and the person tries to
reduce tension by changing their feelings, beliefs or
behaviors.
Rational Analysis
Rational analysis involves the careful wing of evidence
against a particular attitude.
The nurse giving health education to sick will influence
their attitude for personal hygiene when informing about
rationale of hygienic conditions.
Other Factors
Even after a child develops attitudes, he / continues to be
exposed primarily to information that supports it. At this
stage, various socio economic factors determine what he
she hears. His / Her neighbore hood, newspaper, school,
friends, etc. tend to be more homogeneous than the
rest of the world.
CHARACTERISTICS OF ATTITUDE
Attitudes are related to the needs and problems of the
person Unconscious mind plays an important role in the
formation of attitudes.
A series of emotional experiences is attached to attitudes.
Attitude direct the activities or actions of person
The reaction of a person toward an object, issue or
environment can be predicted by knowing a person's
attitudes
Attitudes are related to some thoughts, images and
external objects.
EFFECTS OF ATTITUDES ON BEHAVIOR
Attitudes manifest the nature of person and they direct the
behavior of person.
positive attitudes (kindness, service and assistance)
are the indicators of good behaviour negative attitudes (hatred,
noncooperation, selfishness,) express the bad behavior of a
person. It is easy to provide nursing to the patients having
favorable attitude toward hospital, while the behavior of
patients with negative attitudes toward hospital, may create
obstacles in their nursing treatment. Similarly, nurses and
doctors should adopt a professional attitude
toward the patients.
CHANGE ATTITUDE
Change perceptions by new experiences and factual
knowledge.
Control emotions and motivational factors in early
childhood, when most of the daily attitudes are
formed
Tap the various formative agencies.
1.Congruent change: For example, negative attitude will
increase too negatively or positive attitude will increase
too positively, i.e. change in the same direction.
2. Incongruent change: For example. change in attitude
from positive to negative or from negative to positive.
In other words, the change will be in the same direction.
Change of Attitude
Once the attitudes and beliefs have been formed, they have a
tendency to persist or continue. Therefore, it is difficult to
change the attitudes that have been established. There are
many reasons of our inability that I cannot be changed easily.
One of the reasons is that a person do not want to change on ac
count of the social support he/she has acquired For them in
order to change attitudes and beliefs, they should:. Change
perceptions by new experiences and factual knowledge Control
emotions and motivational factors in early childhood,
when most of the daily attitudes are formed .
3.The basic concept of the balance is that a tendency
exists for individuals to restore balance to attitude, which
are not of the same sign.
4. Heider's P-O-X model explains situations in which there
are two person, a perceiver 'P' and another 'O; each of
whom might have an attitude toward a given object 'X’
5. If 'P' likes 'O; the assumption is that O's attitude toward
'X' should be the same as P's. For example, two staff
nurses might share a common positive attitude
COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY
1. Festinger (1957) states that when related
cognitions, feelings or behaviors are in
consistent or contradictory, it creates an
unpleasant state of tension that motivates
people to reduce their dissonance by changing
their cognitions, feeling or behavior.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
2. For instance, a person who starts with a negative
attitude toward marijuana and finds himself/herself
enjoying the experience
3. The dissonance they experience is thus likely to
motivate to change their attitude toward marijuana or to
stop using marijuana.
Assessment Of Attitude
Attitude can be assessed in two different ways;
Direct method
Indirect method
Direct Assessment Method
Differential Scale
Likert Scale
Guttman Scale
Semantic Differential Scale
Indirect Assessment Method
Inferring attitude directly from the verbal report or expressed opinion
has many limitations.
Certain projective tests are used to assess the attitude indirectly.1
LIKERT SCALE: -The most popular attitude scale type.
It was given by Ren s is Likert (1932).
It is also known as Summated rating scale.
THURSTONE SCALE: -
It is the first formal method designed to measure attitude.
It was developed by Louis Leon thurstone in 1928.It is
also known as method of equal appearing interval.
It is made up of statements about the particular issues.
consists of statements which have a range of weights
from high (usually 11) to low (usually 1)
Subjects select the attitudinal statements they
agree with most.
BOGARDUS SOCIAL DISTANCE SCALE
1Bogardus ES developed an attitude scale in 1933, called social
distance scale, which become a classic instrument to measure
attitudes toward ethnic group.
2 He was the first person to design a technique for the specific
purposes of measuring and comparing attitudes toward
different nationalities, particularly measuring tolerance of
outgroup.
3. The subject is asked to indicate the extent of his/her
willingness to accept members of different social groups into
various social institutions.
ATTITUDE AND NURSE
While giving nursing services in the hospital, the nurse has
to deal with patients having all kinds of attitudes
simultaneously he/she also has to adjust with the
personal and professional attitudes.
A nurse should try to understand the patient's attitudes.
Some of them enter hospital ready and
willing to cooperate;
1. Ambition to do the task.
2 Conformity with the rules and regulations of the profession for which nurse is
preparing.
3 Willingness to work and to work with effectiveness.
4Cheerfulness and optimism.
5. Interest in the problems and difficulties of other people.
6. Cooperativeness, industriousness, respect for the opinion and judgment of
others.
7. Interest in increasing the fund of knowledge underlying effective nursing care.
8. Determination to grow professionally.
9. Maintenance of poise and self-control in all professional situations.
10. Maintaining a consistent pride in their profession.
11. Arising to the unexpected without undue panic.
12. Determination to make the patient comfortable by giving attention to small de-
tails that mean so much to the patient's well
ATTITUDE (1).pdf
ATTITUDE (1).pdf
ATTITUDE (1).pdf
ATTITUDE (1).pdf
ATTITUDE (1).pdf

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ATTITUDE (1).pdf

  • 2. INTRODUCTION Attitude is a specific mental state of an individual towards something according to which his behavior towards it is molded. Attitude is a way we perceive, think, feel and react more or less permanently in relation to something. Attitude influences the behavior of a person, it may be negative or positive
  • 3. Definition An attitude is an individual's degree of like or dislike for something (an idea, object or person).An attitude is a readiness to respond in such a way that behavior is given a certain direction.- Travers
  • 4. Nature of Attitudes Attitude are universal they are either positive or negative and are found toward social as well as non social aspect of the environment. Attitude are not innate they are acquired are learn by individual. It implies subject-object relationship. Attitude related to image, thought and external object. Attitude guide the behavior of the individual in one particular direction.
  • 5. Reactions towards attitude objects There are four possible reactions towards attitude they are as follows; Positive Attitude: The predisposition that results in desirable outcomes for individuals and organizations. Negative Attitude: The tendency of a person that result in an undesirable outcome for individuals and organizations Dual Attitude: It refers to the idea that an individual can have two different attitudes about something. Indifference: Indifference attitude is the absence of feeling for or against the person, idea or event.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8. Components of Attitudes An attitude has three components: Cognitive: It refers to the thinking that brings about the development of a belief about the object. Affective: How he feels about it; the emotional component i.e. feelings or emotions associated with an attitude object. Behavioral: tendency both verbal and nonverbal towards the object. Act
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. Development of Attitudes/Formation of Attitudes • Family is the first place for formation of attitudes. Parents begin the information flow that forms beliefs and attitudes about things • Peers: As we grow, we tend to be influenced by other sources such as friends and group members. • They serve as reference group in the development of attitudes. • Group affiliation help in the formation of individuals attitudes
  • 13.
  • 14. Development of attitudes These are parents, peers, school, cultural norms, our motives, our emotional conflicts, mass media etc. Attitudes are formed in the context of the individual's wants, information, group affiliation and responsibility development. Many of our attitudes are acquired by us as a result of the pressure from others, or may be the outcome of some experience.
  • 15.
  • 16. Development and formation of attitudes • Association and reinforcement • Imitation/Identification • Classical conditioning • Social/Observational • Cognitive dissonance • Unconscious motivation • Rational analysis • Other factors
  • 17. 1.Association and Reinforcement The child is exposed to certain things about the world. He / She is reinforced for expressing some cognitions or attitudes or for actual acting; on the basis of this, they learn them. 2.Imitation/Identification is important in the learning process. A child spends a great deal of time with their parents and after a while begins to believe as they do simply by copying them, even when they do not deliberately try to influence him / her
  • 18. Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning involves involuntary response and is acquired through the pairing of two stimuli. Two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused and before long the person responds in the same way to both events.
  • 19. Social/Observational Social (observational) learning is based on modeling. We observe others. If they are getting reinforced for certain behaviors or expression of certain attitudes, it makes it more likely that we too will behave in this manner or express the same attitude.
  • 20. Cognitive Dissonance When two contradictory feelings, beliefs or behaviors exist, it creates a state of tension and the person tries to reduce tension by changing their feelings, beliefs or behaviors.
  • 21. Rational Analysis Rational analysis involves the careful wing of evidence against a particular attitude. The nurse giving health education to sick will influence their attitude for personal hygiene when informing about rationale of hygienic conditions.
  • 22. Other Factors Even after a child develops attitudes, he / continues to be exposed primarily to information that supports it. At this stage, various socio economic factors determine what he she hears. His / Her neighbore hood, newspaper, school, friends, etc. tend to be more homogeneous than the rest of the world.
  • 23.
  • 24. CHARACTERISTICS OF ATTITUDE Attitudes are related to the needs and problems of the person Unconscious mind plays an important role in the formation of attitudes. A series of emotional experiences is attached to attitudes. Attitude direct the activities or actions of person The reaction of a person toward an object, issue or environment can be predicted by knowing a person's attitudes Attitudes are related to some thoughts, images and external objects.
  • 25. EFFECTS OF ATTITUDES ON BEHAVIOR Attitudes manifest the nature of person and they direct the behavior of person. positive attitudes (kindness, service and assistance) are the indicators of good behaviour negative attitudes (hatred, noncooperation, selfishness,) express the bad behavior of a person. It is easy to provide nursing to the patients having favorable attitude toward hospital, while the behavior of patients with negative attitudes toward hospital, may create obstacles in their nursing treatment. Similarly, nurses and doctors should adopt a professional attitude toward the patients.
  • 26.
  • 27. CHANGE ATTITUDE Change perceptions by new experiences and factual knowledge. Control emotions and motivational factors in early childhood, when most of the daily attitudes are formed Tap the various formative agencies.
  • 28. 1.Congruent change: For example, negative attitude will increase too negatively or positive attitude will increase too positively, i.e. change in the same direction. 2. Incongruent change: For example. change in attitude from positive to negative or from negative to positive. In other words, the change will be in the same direction.
  • 29. Change of Attitude Once the attitudes and beliefs have been formed, they have a tendency to persist or continue. Therefore, it is difficult to change the attitudes that have been established. There are many reasons of our inability that I cannot be changed easily. One of the reasons is that a person do not want to change on ac count of the social support he/she has acquired For them in order to change attitudes and beliefs, they should:. Change perceptions by new experiences and factual knowledge Control emotions and motivational factors in early childhood, when most of the daily attitudes are formed .
  • 30.
  • 31. 3.The basic concept of the balance is that a tendency exists for individuals to restore balance to attitude, which are not of the same sign. 4. Heider's P-O-X model explains situations in which there are two person, a perceiver 'P' and another 'O; each of whom might have an attitude toward a given object 'X’ 5. If 'P' likes 'O; the assumption is that O's attitude toward 'X' should be the same as P's. For example, two staff nurses might share a common positive attitude
  • 32.
  • 33. COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY 1. Festinger (1957) states that when related cognitions, feelings or behaviors are in consistent or contradictory, it creates an unpleasant state of tension that motivates people to reduce their dissonance by changing their cognitions, feeling or behavior.
  • 34. Cognitive Dissonance Theory 2. For instance, a person who starts with a negative attitude toward marijuana and finds himself/herself enjoying the experience 3. The dissonance they experience is thus likely to motivate to change their attitude toward marijuana or to stop using marijuana.
  • 35. Assessment Of Attitude Attitude can be assessed in two different ways; Direct method Indirect method Direct Assessment Method Differential Scale Likert Scale Guttman Scale Semantic Differential Scale Indirect Assessment Method Inferring attitude directly from the verbal report or expressed opinion has many limitations. Certain projective tests are used to assess the attitude indirectly.1
  • 36. LIKERT SCALE: -The most popular attitude scale type. It was given by Ren s is Likert (1932). It is also known as Summated rating scale.
  • 37. THURSTONE SCALE: - It is the first formal method designed to measure attitude. It was developed by Louis Leon thurstone in 1928.It is also known as method of equal appearing interval. It is made up of statements about the particular issues. consists of statements which have a range of weights from high (usually 11) to low (usually 1) Subjects select the attitudinal statements they agree with most.
  • 38.
  • 39. BOGARDUS SOCIAL DISTANCE SCALE 1Bogardus ES developed an attitude scale in 1933, called social distance scale, which become a classic instrument to measure attitudes toward ethnic group. 2 He was the first person to design a technique for the specific purposes of measuring and comparing attitudes toward different nationalities, particularly measuring tolerance of outgroup. 3. The subject is asked to indicate the extent of his/her willingness to accept members of different social groups into various social institutions.
  • 40. ATTITUDE AND NURSE While giving nursing services in the hospital, the nurse has to deal with patients having all kinds of attitudes simultaneously he/she also has to adjust with the personal and professional attitudes. A nurse should try to understand the patient's attitudes. Some of them enter hospital ready and willing to cooperate;
  • 41. 1. Ambition to do the task. 2 Conformity with the rules and regulations of the profession for which nurse is preparing. 3 Willingness to work and to work with effectiveness. 4Cheerfulness and optimism. 5. Interest in the problems and difficulties of other people. 6. Cooperativeness, industriousness, respect for the opinion and judgment of others. 7. Interest in increasing the fund of knowledge underlying effective nursing care. 8. Determination to grow professionally. 9. Maintenance of poise and self-control in all professional situations. 10. Maintaining a consistent pride in their profession. 11. Arising to the unexpected without undue panic. 12. Determination to make the patient comfortable by giving attention to small de- tails that mean so much to the patient's well