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1Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016w w w . r e a l i r m . c o m LEADING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE VALUE™
Approaches to Business Architecture
An Introduction …….
This is an abridged version of the EA Forum presentation
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“Interest in business architecture is growing dramatically. During the past
two years both IT and business leaders have joined the discussion about the
need for a well-defined business architecture.
Though there is a great deal of discussion, there is little consensus about
what business architecture is, how it should be pursued, and what value it
delivers.
Business architects in IT as well as in the business have started developing
business-unit-wide and enterprise-wide business architectures, learning
as they go. Their ultimate goals are to improve business decision-making
and facilitate better alignment between IT and the business units it supports.
Architecture teams that want to play a leading role in business architecture
development must start soon or be left
behind.”
Jeff Scott, Forrester Research, 2008
Approaches to Business Architecture
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The Open Groups view (O-BA Part I) …
“The formalised description of how an organisation
uses its essential competencies for realizing its
strategic intent and objectives.”
What is Business Architecture?
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Business Architecture Working Groups updated ….
“A Business Architecture is a formal blueprint of governance
structures, business semantics and value streams across the extended
enterprise. It articulates the structure of an enterprise in terms of its
capabilities, governance structure, business processes, and information.
The business capability is “what” the organisation does, the business
processes, are “how” the organisation executes its capabilities.
It includes “articulating the governance and information” of the
organisation and, “In defining the structure of the enterprise, business
architecture considers customers, finances, and the ever-changing
market to align strategic goals and objectives with decisions regarding
products and services; partners and suppliers; organisations;
capabilities; and key initiatives.”
What is Business Architecture?
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The architecture of an architecture framework …
What is a Business Architecture Framework?
BA Conceptual
Model
(Metamodel)
BA Methodology BA Tools
BA Models
Requirements
Solutions
Design
Industry
Ontology
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BA Conceptual Model
 Is a metamodel or modelling language
 Offers modelling constructs that cover fully or partially, the business
domains of an enterprise
 The core of the conceptual model can be presented in a business
capability map and high level business process models, using
business goals and strategies as input and IT strategy and application
portfolio contents as output.
 The constructs are applied in BA models (i.e. instances of the
conceptual model) in the context of a real world enterprise
What is a Business Architecture Framework?
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BA Conceptual Model is not a “Business Model”
What is a Business Architecture Framework?
“A Business Model is a conceptual tool that
contains a set of elements and their
relationships and allows expressing a
companies logic of earning money.”
Osterwalder 2004
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BA Methodology
Describes:
 The development process of BA models
 The techniques that are used in the specific context in which BA is
applied
In a Process Model or Structured Procedure:
 The methodology explains the responsibilities to be defined
 The activities to be executed
 The principles to be considered
 The methodology would include design principles, best practices,
reference models and use case scenarios
What is Business Architecture?
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BA Tools
Business Architecture Tools support:
 The engineering (design & construction) of the BA models
 The BA methods used in the enterprise
They should provide the functionality to develop, to visualise, analyse,
and eventually simulate aspects of the BA.
What is Business Architecture?
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BA Frameworks
BIZBOK and O-BA
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Business Architecture in an EA Context
Strategy
Business
Model
Business
Architecture
Application
Architecture
Business
Architecture
Data
Architecture
Technology
Architecture
Enterprise
Architecture
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A Guide to the Business Architecture body
Of Knowledge (BIZBOK)
The Business Architecture Guild
Business Architecture Frameworks
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A framework is used to build the business architecture
concepts, to combine and relate them in meaningful
ways.
The Business Architecture Framework
Business Architecture
Knowledgebase : Part 5
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The Architecture Toolbox
Blueprints
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 Business Architecture is Principle driven
 Each major section has a set of principles that guide actions
associated with individual blueprints and related practice areas
 Core principles include:
1. Business architecture is about the business
2. Business architectures scope is the scope of the business
3. Business architecture is not prescriptive
4. Business architecture is iterative
5. Business architecture is reusable
6. Business architecture is not about the deliverables
Business Architecture Principles
Business Architecture
Knowledgebase
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Part 1: Introduction
Part 2: Business Architecture Blueprints
Part 3: Business Architecture Practice
Part 4: Business Architecture Scenarios
Part 5: The Business Architecture Knowledge Base
Part 6: Business Architecture and IT Architecture alignment
Part 7: Business Architecture Case Studies
Part 8: Business Architecture Reference Models
Part 9: Feedback Structure
Components of the BIZBOK Framework
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The Open Group
Open-Business Architecture: Part 1
O-BA Part 1 Preliminary Standard
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Introduction to the Preliminary Standard
Part I :
• Provides a Business Architecture Framework with a focus
on decision making and direction setting
Part II:
• Provides practice context, business architecture process,
contribution to enterprise transformation, views and
viewpoints
Part III:
• Provides Techniques & Guidelines
Open Group: O-BA
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Part I describes an approach to the practice of business
architecture in the decision-making and direction-setting
phase of transformations to enterprises and
organizations. Three transformation challenges have been
considered in the development of this standard:
O-BA: Objectives
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• This standard defines an approach for taking a holistic view of the
organization.
• It considers the contribution of the outer boxes
• It develops artifacts for the 3 domains which are considered of equal
importance and inter-dependent.
O-BA:Overview
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3.1 Process
3.2 Relationship to the TOGAF Standard
Section 3: Approach
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 A business architecture practice should address the full cycle of
transformations to an enterprise or organization.
 Part I focuses on the decision-making and direction-setting phase of an
enterprise transformation.
 It defines a structured process for alignment of business strategy with
business structure and the operational context.
 Part II of the standard elaborates the process in further detail as well as
addressing the design/develop/implement phase.
Section 3: Approach
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3.1 Process:
A 3 step process is defined to deliver value:
1. Capturing Insights – analysis of trend or market situation
to provide stakeholders a global and traceable
understanding of how impacting elements fit together
2. Alignment & Governance – create a holistic view and
integrate representations of business strategy, business
structure and operations via common natural language
3. Communication / Direction and Enabling Means –
output of first 2 steps is applied to the business structure
and operational context domain.
Section 3: Approach
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3.2 Relationship to the TOGAF Standard
• The standard can be used with the TOGAF ADM during
the first 3 Phases
• That will set the context and direction for Phases B to H,
• And when required, explicitly develops the transformation
roadmap and transformation governance
• The TOGAF 9 Content Framework has been
expanded to accommodate a common language
Section 3: Approach
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3.2 Relationship to the TOGAF Standard
• The extensible content concept of the TOGAF 9 Content Framework,
can be used to add content-type elements.
• Most additions will extend the Motivation Extension.
• A handover model is needed between the decision-making and
alignment phase and the development phase to ensure consistent
communication between stakeholder roles
Section 3: Approach
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4.1 Enterprise Context and Today’s challenges
4.2 Business Architecture Practices
Section 4: Challenges Addressed by the Standard
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4.1 The Enterprise Context and Todays challenges
• Organisations are continuously in flux
• New technology trends cause strategic change
• Structural and persisted challenges occur in enterprise
transformations and change initiatives. The 4 traditional
approaches used, shown
in the diagram, have often
failed
Section 4: Challenges Addressed by the Standard
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4.2 Business Architecture Practices
• The notion of business is: “anything that relates to organizing the
exchange of goods and services by a business, a governmental institution,
or an agency”.
• And business architecture is defined as a: “formalized description of how
an organization uses business competencies essential to realizing
strategic intent and objectives”.
• The boundaries of the practice range from:
1. Business understanding and business strategy to the implications for
operations
2. Large business transformations to small change initiatives
3. Initiative ideas to deploying the target structure and operations
• This standard supports and complements the TOGAF vocabulary with
additional concepts for understanding, capturing, and describing business
architectures.
Section 4: Challenges Addressed by the Standard
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5.1 The Added Value of Business Architecture
5.2 Success Factors
5.3 Requirements of a Standardised Practice
Section 5: A Standard Business Architecture Paradigm
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5.1 The Added Value of Business Architecture
A holistic view combining strategy, operations, and technology as shown
in the diagram is key to achieving a resolution
Section 5: A Standard Business Architecture Paradigm
Specifically this standard provides:
• A strong means for
communicating business strategy and needs
to all managerial levels and disciplines
• Consistent communication of the holistic
and traceable understanding of how elements
fit together in business domains
·
• A means to mitigate risks through a transparent view of both the inter-
dependencies between business entities and vertical view between strategy and
operations
• Stewardship of understanding business implications caused by substantial
changes in technology and/or environmental aspects
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5.2 Success Factors
• A Business Architect is able to provide reference of business needs
and priorities for decision-making on transformation or changes.
• Embeds the BA role in governance processes. They are most
effective if they can do homework first, and then apply it many
times at different transformation initiatives
• Uses a common language to remove ambiguity in the
communication.
• Avoids project failure by engaging the business architect as early
as possible in the lifecycle.
• Ensures that traceability from strategy needs to operations and
cross-domain can be communicated easily.
Section 5: A Standard Business Architecture Paradigm
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5.3 Requirements of a Standardized Practice
In order to address the challenges of organizational transformations and
change initiatives, six requirements are defined for the Business Architecture
Practice
1. Common language to discuss, share, and communicate consistently the
holistic view and business strategy (optional)
2. Vertical traceability between business strategy, business structure, and
operations
3. Horizontal traceability between different parts of a business
4. Holistic view to assure alignment of all relevant factors
5. Alignment of various stakeholders with differing interests and concerns
6. Integration of the transformation process and the method to assure that
content preparation and decision-making are just enough and just in time
Section 5: A Standard Business Architecture Paradigm
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5.3.1 Remove ambiguity by using a Common Language
For unambiguous communication of business vision and strategy a common natural
language is recommended; a natural language since the audience consists of many
disciplines and management levels; and a common language since in a rapidly changing
world iterations and feedback from operations to structural or strategic level are critical.
• The common language assures easier and better communication about implications
of trends or events. This standard includes a set of concepts that constitute a
reference for the common language. These concepts are explicitly defined and more
importantly are integrated with the way of thinking, way of modeling, way of
organizing, and way of working.
• Natural language facilitates conversation of technical and non-technical stakeholders.
However, with respect to information technology, more technical modeling techniques
are required for translating business needs into information, application, or
technology requirements. To achieve this it is necessary to complement the O-BA
Standard with other architecture frameworks such as the TOGAF framework and
visual representation notations such as the ArchiMate® modeling language
Section 5: A Standard Business Architecture Paradigm
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5.3.2 Ensure Vertical Traceability
• Vertical traceability assures transparency and enables alignment and
governance
• It enables the analysis and identification of the implications of industry
developments and business strategy for the business structure and
operations.
Section 5: A Standard Business Architecture Paradigm
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5.3.3 Ensure Horizontal Traceability
Horizontal traceability is needed to identify which elements must be
included to adhere to a principle, or realize a competence or
capability. It is critical for understanding cross-domain dependencies
and investments
Section 5: A Standard Business Architecture Paradigm
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Views Required By The standard
1. Strategy view
2. Structure view
3. Operational Context view
Altogether the deliverables developed in the three views represent
a holistic view of the enterprise and the challenges ahead.
In general, the following views should be included:
• External vision, strategic intent, strategic priorities
• Structure description business capability overview, including
horizontal and vertical traceability
• Operational context and implications for the change area
Section 7: BA Views and Viewpoints
References
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7.1 Critical Views
7.1.1 Strategy Views – typically narratives, which describe:
• The External Vision – the market situation and
implications
• The Strategic Intent – what the organisation wants to
achieve and the key mechanism for accomplishing it
• The Strategic Priorities – for each business aspect
(Customer, Market, Product etc.)
• A Competence Map – the maturity level needed to
accomplish the strategic intent
Section 7: BA Views and Viewpoints
References
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7.2 Views: Strategy
7.2.2 Strategic Intent: Key Competence Map
Section 7: BA Views and Viewpoints
References
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7.1 Critical Views
7.1.2 Structure Views – typically narratives, which describe:
• The business Capability Map or Capability Hierarchy –
a decomposition of the mission of the enterprise
• A Value Chain – the total value produced by the end user
and consists of value activities and margin
• The Capability Map or Capability Hierarchy – shows
how business capabilities are arranged
• Competences – a system property that is required to
emerge from the business system
Section 7: BA Views and Viewpoints
References
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• 7.3 View: Structure
• 7.3.1 Capability Map: Capability Hierarchy and Key
Competence Mapping
Section 7: BA Views and Viewpoints
References
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7.1 Critical Views
7.1.3 Operational Context Views
• An Operational Context View – for integration of all
aspects at operational level
• A Business Service – the value of a capability that
enables the fulfilment of the need of a consumer service
• Enabling means contribute to the accomplishment of the
goal and performance of a business capability
Section 7: BA Views and Viewpoints
References
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• 7.4 View: Operational Context
Section 7: BA Views and Viewpoints
References
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Where do we place the BA
capability?
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Where does Business Architecture fit?
• The Business Solutions Frameworks – Strategic
Planning, Business Model Management, Business
Architecture, Enterprise Architecture, Systems
Development, Project and Program Management, IT
Operations Management, Capability Management,
Change Management, Funding and Procurement will
need to be integrated.
• Where Business Architecture sits will most likely be a
journey. It may start in one place and move later, as it
is seen to be delivering value, and business and IT
executives come on board, but always subject to the
maturity, constraints and politics of the organisation.
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The starting point is a set of Engagement Principles:
1. Understand the organization.
2. Gain executive sponsorship.
3. Interact with stakeholders.
4. Communicate the architecture.
5. Demonstrate value.
6. Establish a sustainable proposition.
So we want to set up an Architecture Practice
…
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The Seven Building Blocks of Business Architecture
So we want to set up an Architecture Practice
…
1. Determine business objectives, governance and engagement models
2. Deploy team based on agreed governance structure
3. Establish foundational knowledgebase
4. Focus on top business priorities
5. Initiate projects / mature knowledgebase
6. Fine tune engagement model
7. Refine efforts through iterative projects
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Major Roles Required
– Business Sponsor
– Business Architecture Team Leader
– Business Architecture Team Subject Matter Experts
– Architecture Mapping Expert
– Mentoring Expertise
Common approaches to getting started …
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Where are they reporting now?
Business Architecture reports into :
 The Enterprise Architecture Function (IT)
 CIO (IT)
 CTO (IT)
 COO (Bus)
 GM or Head of Change Management; Transformation, Business
Strategy or Business Improvement (Bus)
Setting Up the BA Capability
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Where in the organisation does the Business
Architecture Capability Sit?
Physical:
“Most Business Architecture Practices reside in the IT
Function, reporting to the CIO, CTO or another role
within that function.”
Setting Up the BA Capability
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Where in the organisation does the Business
Architecture Capability Sit?
Virtual / Matrix: BIZBOK
“A team attempting to build executive support for
business architecture could approach an executive
steering committee, senior portfolio team or a team of
business executives that own the role of strategic
planning and transformation”
Setting Up the BA Capability
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Where in the Organisation does the BA Capability Sit?
Centre of Excellence
Setting Up the BA Capability
CEO
COOBU
VP’s
CIOCFO
Business
Strategy &
Transformation
Core
Participants
Business Architecture
COE
IT
Architecture
Team
Business Units
52Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016
“The premise for a COE approach for Business Architecture is that
it delivers cross-functional, cross-disciplinary transparency to the
enterprise and such an endeavour, by definition, requires a central
point of collaboration”
Such an approach provides:
• A centralised focal point for best practice adoption,
customisation and deployment
• A collaborative rather than command and control approach –
the COE is not in a position to dictate policy or solutions, as this
is an executive responsibility
• The platform to leverage industry best practices and
organisational knowledge to effectively deliver business
transparency, support business analysis and planning efforts,
and collaborate with all relevant and affected parties as
required to deliver bottom line business value.
A Centre of Excellence Approach
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IT Based Business Architecture Team
• Generally focus on delivering business requirements for
funded or planned IT initiatives – flushing out
requirements for IT related projects rather than
investigating, understanding and providing solutions to
business problems.
+++ Strong collaborative relationships with the
application and data architects
--- They serve an IT master and not the business and
this undermines the very pretext for business
architecture.
Options for BA teams …
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Business Unit, Business Architecture Team
Typically evolve within a line of business specific division,
agency or department.
• Are constrained to working within that department, though
they do collaborate with other business units and with IT.
• Approach can offer good value if the business unit is self
contained and does not share common customers, partners,
capabilities, processes and information with other business
units. If it does then its BA will reflect an incomplete and
potentially misleading view of the business.
Options for BA teams …
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The Free Floating Business Architect
Has no team structure or COE to work through or co-ordinate with
and is on their own to service their respective business units.
• This is often the first step to formalising a Business Architecture
capability.
• Many of them came from a Business Analysis background and
took on the role of Business Architect because of the perceived
need for such a role.
• In many instances these folk are used as a one man COE but
most are used by managers to research business requirements
and co-ordinate with IT on those requirements – in other words
they are not Business Architects at all.
Options for BA teams …
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The Independent Enterprise Architecture Team
This approach involves moving the entire EA function ,
with the domain architecture teams, out of IT and out
from under the CIO. Such a team would have a
Business Architecture COE that reported to a VP of EA
+++ Business Architecture gets to deal with business
issues
---- The application, data and technology architects are
separated from their home in IT
Options for BA teams …
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The Independent Business Architecture COE
This is a team that:
– has horizontal views of the enterprise
– is not beholden to any single business unit or
special interest, and
– is independent form the IT organisation
The group collaborates with business unit specific
business architects and teams and works very
closely with application and data architects from the
IT EA team.
Options for BA teams …
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The Ideal Business Architecture Organization Structure
CEO
CFO COO CIOCEO
CEO
CEO
CEO
VP’s
Business Units
Business Units
Business Units
Business Units
Business Units
Business
Strategy &
Transformation
IT
Architecture
Team
Business Application
Centre of Excellence
Core
Participants
Virtual
Participants
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• The BA-COE placed in a neutral role, with access
to horizontal business requirements and
strategies
• It has direct access to execs setting and funding
cross functional business issues
• It should have access to BU’s through BU specific
architectures and to IT through Data and
Application architecture teams
The Ideal Business Architecture Organization Structure
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The Business Analyst and the
Business Architect
A Taste of the Conflict ….
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Jeff Scott’s (Forrester Research) 6 Competencies for a Busiess
Architect
1. A Sound Understanding of Business Principles and
Concepts
2. An ability to think about business processes outside the
technology context
3. A really strong consulting mindset
4. A Strategic Point of View
5. Good at Design Thinking
6. A Catalyst for Change
Who is the Business Architect
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The Business Architects Role
• Whelan identified 4 levels to which Business Architecture can be applied:
– Macro: establishing the vision and desired target state and the benefits the organization
brings to its stakeholders.
– Strategic: supplementing the vision with target capabilities, supporting principles and
policies and a current state environmental assessment to provide contextual rationale.
– Segment/programme: translating the strategic activities into delivery-focused change
initiatives at the segment or programme level.
– Project: engaging with projects to communicate the architecture and oversee alignment to
it.
• A Business Architect may operate at one or more of these levels
• Operating at all 4 is unlikely
• All four are required though
Who is the Business Architect
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Another Business Oriented View …
“Not every Business Architect requires in depth knowledge of every area.”
• Ability to communicate with business professionals and business executives,
understand their requirements and help these individuals visualize the rot
cause and potential solutions to priority business requirements
• Capacity to help the business assimilate and visualize complex and possibly
conflicting information in ways that can hide or expose the details when and
where required.
• Knowledge of organisational culture and governance structures needed to
adapt and refine business architecture best practices.
• Knowledge of business capability, organisational governance, value stream,
business process and business semantic representation needed to facilitate
the mapping, aggregation, decomposition and visualization of current and
target state views of the business
Who is the Business Architect
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Another Business Oriented View …
• Creative capacity to evolve and customise business
architecture metrics and visualisations to support value
proposition related objectives against performance.
• Ability to customise repository templates needed to establish a
business architecture knowledgebase to enable the collection,
aggregation and decomposition of business artifacts.
• Capacity to communicate and collaborate with IT application
and data architects as required for business and IT mapping,
strategic planning and roadmap creation.
• Organisational and governance skills necessary to sustain a
viable business architecture capability within the enterprise
Who is the Business Architect
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The Business Architect vs The Business Analyst
Who is the Business Architect
According to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge (BABOK®), a
Business Analyst is:
“… any person who performs business analysis activities, no matter what
their job title or organizational role may be. Business analysis practitioners
include not only people with the job title of business analyst, but may also
include business systems analysts, systems analysts, requirements
engineers, process analysts, product managers, product owners, enterprise
analysts, business architects, management consultants, or any other person
who performs the tasks described in the BABOK® Guide, including those
who also perform related disciplines such as project management, software
development, quality assurance, and interaction design.”1
In other words, regardless of title, if you are doing business analysis, you
are a Business Analyst.
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The Business Architect vs The Business Analyst
“The difference between the business architect and the business analyst
is a matter of intent, breadth of coverage, disciplines employed and on-
the-ground realities”
In practice, generally, Business Analysts
• Rarely leverage architectural disciplines
• Typically have business unit or divisional constraints on their domain
of analysis
• Focus on gathering and developing requirements for IT
That said, generally you need all three disciplines – Business Architects,
Business Analysts and IT Architects (Solution, Information and
Technology)
Who is the Business Architect
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The Business Architect vs The Business Analyst
“The difference between the business architect and the business analyst
is a matter of intent, breadth of coverage, disciplines employed and on-
the-ground realities”
In practice, generally, Business Analysts
• Rarely leverage architectural disciplines
• Typically have business unit or divisional constraints on their domain
of analysis
• Focus on gathering and developing requirements for IT
That said, generally you need all three disciplines – Business Architects,
Business Analysts and IT Architects (Solution, Information and
Technology)
Who is the Business Architect
68Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016
• The role of Business Architect (or, in fact, any other form of Enterprise
Architect) is not a simple extension to the role of Business Analyst.
• Becoming a fully-certified Business Architect requires significant re-
skilling.
• Blurring the lines between the roles of Business Architect and
Business Analyst can create a world of confusion for organisations,
as they embark on their journey towards digitisation, and develop
their EA practices (often driven by IT governance requirements).
• Conflating or confusing the two domains also often results in politics
and turf wars - wasting resources and detailing transformation efforts.
A View From the Trenches …..
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A Review from 3 Perspectives:
1. They have fundamentally different mandate
• The Business Architect will support organisational change leaders at the
strategic level
• The Business Analyst are typically more project or solutions oriented
2. They have a different scope of work
• Business Architects focus their activities on creating the principles, the
standards, the architecture frameworks, and the business and
technology reference models.
• This then filters down in the scope of the Business Analyst, who will
take these artefacts and translate them into specific projects.
A View from the Trenches …
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A Review from 3 Perspectives:
3. They have different certifications, accreditations and skill-sets
– Accomplished Business Architects need to have very specific
accreditation in Enterprise Architecture frameworks, techniques, and tools
– such as TOGAF, ArchiMate, or Open Certified Architect, for example.
– To complement these formal qualifications, Business Architects are
strategically-minded, have sharp business acumen, and generally have
well-developed leadership and executive engagement skills.
– Business Analysts – on the other hand – dive deeper into the technical
aspects of IT tools and systems, and generally have strong analytical
capabilities, communication skills, and project management experience.
A View from the Trenches …
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BA Engagement Models?
72Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016
So we want to set up an Architecture Practice ,,,,,
6. Establish a sustainable proposition.
Business architecture should be part of the fabric of the
organisation, part of the fabric of the change process – not an
independent process; not a once off process.
Therefore:
• Embed business architecture into the delivery
mechanisms – downstream
• Embed business architecture into business planning
mechanisms – upstream
Setting Up the BA Capability
73Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016
Virtual
Participants
Engagement Models and Deployment Teams
Core
Participants
Virtual
Participants
Core
Participants
Virtual
Participants
Core
Participants
Divisional Business Architecture Groups
Subject Matter Experts, IT &
Business Professionals as required
Business Unit Business
Architecture & Analysts
Core
Business &
IT
Architecture
Team
Executive
Steering
Committee
74Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016
In closing ….
• Business architecture is a new discipline and the risk of failure is high
• There is a great need to adopt a value delivery mind set, to ensure
successful execution.
• Business architecture is not to be practiced in isolation – it needs to be
woven into the fabric of the organisation.
• This requires overcoming the barriers referred to above.
• Business architects need to establish and deliver on a set of
engagement principles
Setting Up the BA Capability
75Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016w w w . r e a l i r m . c o m LEADING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE VALUE™
The End

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Approaches to business architecture

  • 1. 1Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016w w w . r e a l i r m . c o m LEADING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE VALUE™ Approaches to Business Architecture An Introduction ……. This is an abridged version of the EA Forum presentation
  • 2. 2Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 “Interest in business architecture is growing dramatically. During the past two years both IT and business leaders have joined the discussion about the need for a well-defined business architecture. Though there is a great deal of discussion, there is little consensus about what business architecture is, how it should be pursued, and what value it delivers. Business architects in IT as well as in the business have started developing business-unit-wide and enterprise-wide business architectures, learning as they go. Their ultimate goals are to improve business decision-making and facilitate better alignment between IT and the business units it supports. Architecture teams that want to play a leading role in business architecture development must start soon or be left behind.” Jeff Scott, Forrester Research, 2008 Approaches to Business Architecture
  • 3. 3Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 The Open Groups view (O-BA Part I) … “The formalised description of how an organisation uses its essential competencies for realizing its strategic intent and objectives.” What is Business Architecture?
  • 4. 4Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Business Architecture Working Groups updated …. “A Business Architecture is a formal blueprint of governance structures, business semantics and value streams across the extended enterprise. It articulates the structure of an enterprise in terms of its capabilities, governance structure, business processes, and information. The business capability is “what” the organisation does, the business processes, are “how” the organisation executes its capabilities. It includes “articulating the governance and information” of the organisation and, “In defining the structure of the enterprise, business architecture considers customers, finances, and the ever-changing market to align strategic goals and objectives with decisions regarding products and services; partners and suppliers; organisations; capabilities; and key initiatives.” What is Business Architecture?
  • 5. 5Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 The architecture of an architecture framework … What is a Business Architecture Framework? BA Conceptual Model (Metamodel) BA Methodology BA Tools BA Models Requirements Solutions Design Industry Ontology
  • 6. 6Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 BA Conceptual Model  Is a metamodel or modelling language  Offers modelling constructs that cover fully or partially, the business domains of an enterprise  The core of the conceptual model can be presented in a business capability map and high level business process models, using business goals and strategies as input and IT strategy and application portfolio contents as output.  The constructs are applied in BA models (i.e. instances of the conceptual model) in the context of a real world enterprise What is a Business Architecture Framework?
  • 7. 7Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 BA Conceptual Model is not a “Business Model” What is a Business Architecture Framework? “A Business Model is a conceptual tool that contains a set of elements and their relationships and allows expressing a companies logic of earning money.” Osterwalder 2004
  • 8. 8Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 BA Methodology Describes:  The development process of BA models  The techniques that are used in the specific context in which BA is applied In a Process Model or Structured Procedure:  The methodology explains the responsibilities to be defined  The activities to be executed  The principles to be considered  The methodology would include design principles, best practices, reference models and use case scenarios What is Business Architecture?
  • 9. 9Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 BA Tools Business Architecture Tools support:  The engineering (design & construction) of the BA models  The BA methods used in the enterprise They should provide the functionality to develop, to visualise, analyse, and eventually simulate aspects of the BA. What is Business Architecture?
  • 10. 10Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016w w w . r e a l i r m . c o m LEADING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE VALUE™ BA Frameworks BIZBOK and O-BA
  • 11. 11Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Business Architecture in an EA Context Strategy Business Model Business Architecture Application Architecture Business Architecture Data Architecture Technology Architecture Enterprise Architecture
  • 12. 12Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 A Guide to the Business Architecture body Of Knowledge (BIZBOK) The Business Architecture Guild Business Architecture Frameworks
  • 13. 13Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 A framework is used to build the business architecture concepts, to combine and relate them in meaningful ways. The Business Architecture Framework Business Architecture Knowledgebase : Part 5
  • 14. 14Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 The Architecture Toolbox Blueprints
  • 15. 15Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016  Business Architecture is Principle driven  Each major section has a set of principles that guide actions associated with individual blueprints and related practice areas  Core principles include: 1. Business architecture is about the business 2. Business architectures scope is the scope of the business 3. Business architecture is not prescriptive 4. Business architecture is iterative 5. Business architecture is reusable 6. Business architecture is not about the deliverables Business Architecture Principles Business Architecture Knowledgebase
  • 16. 16Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Part 1: Introduction Part 2: Business Architecture Blueprints Part 3: Business Architecture Practice Part 4: Business Architecture Scenarios Part 5: The Business Architecture Knowledge Base Part 6: Business Architecture and IT Architecture alignment Part 7: Business Architecture Case Studies Part 8: Business Architecture Reference Models Part 9: Feedback Structure Components of the BIZBOK Framework
  • 17. 17Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 The Open Group Open-Business Architecture: Part 1 O-BA Part 1 Preliminary Standard
  • 18. 18Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Introduction to the Preliminary Standard Part I : • Provides a Business Architecture Framework with a focus on decision making and direction setting Part II: • Provides practice context, business architecture process, contribution to enterprise transformation, views and viewpoints Part III: • Provides Techniques & Guidelines Open Group: O-BA
  • 19. 19Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Part I describes an approach to the practice of business architecture in the decision-making and direction-setting phase of transformations to enterprises and organizations. Three transformation challenges have been considered in the development of this standard: O-BA: Objectives
  • 20. 20Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 • This standard defines an approach for taking a holistic view of the organization. • It considers the contribution of the outer boxes • It develops artifacts for the 3 domains which are considered of equal importance and inter-dependent. O-BA:Overview
  • 21. 21Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 3.1 Process 3.2 Relationship to the TOGAF Standard Section 3: Approach
  • 22. 22Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016  A business architecture practice should address the full cycle of transformations to an enterprise or organization.  Part I focuses on the decision-making and direction-setting phase of an enterprise transformation.  It defines a structured process for alignment of business strategy with business structure and the operational context.  Part II of the standard elaborates the process in further detail as well as addressing the design/develop/implement phase. Section 3: Approach
  • 23. 23Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 3.1 Process: A 3 step process is defined to deliver value: 1. Capturing Insights – analysis of trend or market situation to provide stakeholders a global and traceable understanding of how impacting elements fit together 2. Alignment & Governance – create a holistic view and integrate representations of business strategy, business structure and operations via common natural language 3. Communication / Direction and Enabling Means – output of first 2 steps is applied to the business structure and operational context domain. Section 3: Approach
  • 24. 24Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 3.2 Relationship to the TOGAF Standard • The standard can be used with the TOGAF ADM during the first 3 Phases • That will set the context and direction for Phases B to H, • And when required, explicitly develops the transformation roadmap and transformation governance • The TOGAF 9 Content Framework has been expanded to accommodate a common language Section 3: Approach
  • 25. 25Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 3.2 Relationship to the TOGAF Standard • The extensible content concept of the TOGAF 9 Content Framework, can be used to add content-type elements. • Most additions will extend the Motivation Extension. • A handover model is needed between the decision-making and alignment phase and the development phase to ensure consistent communication between stakeholder roles Section 3: Approach
  • 26. 26Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 4.1 Enterprise Context and Today’s challenges 4.2 Business Architecture Practices Section 4: Challenges Addressed by the Standard
  • 27. 27Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 4.1 The Enterprise Context and Todays challenges • Organisations are continuously in flux • New technology trends cause strategic change • Structural and persisted challenges occur in enterprise transformations and change initiatives. The 4 traditional approaches used, shown in the diagram, have often failed Section 4: Challenges Addressed by the Standard
  • 28. 28Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 4.2 Business Architecture Practices • The notion of business is: “anything that relates to organizing the exchange of goods and services by a business, a governmental institution, or an agency”. • And business architecture is defined as a: “formalized description of how an organization uses business competencies essential to realizing strategic intent and objectives”. • The boundaries of the practice range from: 1. Business understanding and business strategy to the implications for operations 2. Large business transformations to small change initiatives 3. Initiative ideas to deploying the target structure and operations • This standard supports and complements the TOGAF vocabulary with additional concepts for understanding, capturing, and describing business architectures. Section 4: Challenges Addressed by the Standard
  • 29. 29Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 5.1 The Added Value of Business Architecture 5.2 Success Factors 5.3 Requirements of a Standardised Practice Section 5: A Standard Business Architecture Paradigm
  • 30. 30Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 5.1 The Added Value of Business Architecture A holistic view combining strategy, operations, and technology as shown in the diagram is key to achieving a resolution Section 5: A Standard Business Architecture Paradigm Specifically this standard provides: • A strong means for communicating business strategy and needs to all managerial levels and disciplines • Consistent communication of the holistic and traceable understanding of how elements fit together in business domains · • A means to mitigate risks through a transparent view of both the inter- dependencies between business entities and vertical view between strategy and operations • Stewardship of understanding business implications caused by substantial changes in technology and/or environmental aspects
  • 31. 31Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 5.2 Success Factors • A Business Architect is able to provide reference of business needs and priorities for decision-making on transformation or changes. • Embeds the BA role in governance processes. They are most effective if they can do homework first, and then apply it many times at different transformation initiatives • Uses a common language to remove ambiguity in the communication. • Avoids project failure by engaging the business architect as early as possible in the lifecycle. • Ensures that traceability from strategy needs to operations and cross-domain can be communicated easily. Section 5: A Standard Business Architecture Paradigm
  • 32. 32Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 5.3 Requirements of a Standardized Practice In order to address the challenges of organizational transformations and change initiatives, six requirements are defined for the Business Architecture Practice 1. Common language to discuss, share, and communicate consistently the holistic view and business strategy (optional) 2. Vertical traceability between business strategy, business structure, and operations 3. Horizontal traceability between different parts of a business 4. Holistic view to assure alignment of all relevant factors 5. Alignment of various stakeholders with differing interests and concerns 6. Integration of the transformation process and the method to assure that content preparation and decision-making are just enough and just in time Section 5: A Standard Business Architecture Paradigm
  • 33. 33Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 5.3.1 Remove ambiguity by using a Common Language For unambiguous communication of business vision and strategy a common natural language is recommended; a natural language since the audience consists of many disciplines and management levels; and a common language since in a rapidly changing world iterations and feedback from operations to structural or strategic level are critical. • The common language assures easier and better communication about implications of trends or events. This standard includes a set of concepts that constitute a reference for the common language. These concepts are explicitly defined and more importantly are integrated with the way of thinking, way of modeling, way of organizing, and way of working. • Natural language facilitates conversation of technical and non-technical stakeholders. However, with respect to information technology, more technical modeling techniques are required for translating business needs into information, application, or technology requirements. To achieve this it is necessary to complement the O-BA Standard with other architecture frameworks such as the TOGAF framework and visual representation notations such as the ArchiMate® modeling language Section 5: A Standard Business Architecture Paradigm
  • 34. 34Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 5.3.2 Ensure Vertical Traceability • Vertical traceability assures transparency and enables alignment and governance • It enables the analysis and identification of the implications of industry developments and business strategy for the business structure and operations. Section 5: A Standard Business Architecture Paradigm
  • 35. 35Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 5.3.3 Ensure Horizontal Traceability Horizontal traceability is needed to identify which elements must be included to adhere to a principle, or realize a competence or capability. It is critical for understanding cross-domain dependencies and investments Section 5: A Standard Business Architecture Paradigm
  • 36. 36Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Views Required By The standard 1. Strategy view 2. Structure view 3. Operational Context view Altogether the deliverables developed in the three views represent a holistic view of the enterprise and the challenges ahead. In general, the following views should be included: • External vision, strategic intent, strategic priorities • Structure description business capability overview, including horizontal and vertical traceability • Operational context and implications for the change area Section 7: BA Views and Viewpoints References
  • 37. 37Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 7.1 Critical Views 7.1.1 Strategy Views – typically narratives, which describe: • The External Vision – the market situation and implications • The Strategic Intent – what the organisation wants to achieve and the key mechanism for accomplishing it • The Strategic Priorities – for each business aspect (Customer, Market, Product etc.) • A Competence Map – the maturity level needed to accomplish the strategic intent Section 7: BA Views and Viewpoints References
  • 38. 38Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 7.2 Views: Strategy 7.2.2 Strategic Intent: Key Competence Map Section 7: BA Views and Viewpoints References
  • 39. 39Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 7.1 Critical Views 7.1.2 Structure Views – typically narratives, which describe: • The business Capability Map or Capability Hierarchy – a decomposition of the mission of the enterprise • A Value Chain – the total value produced by the end user and consists of value activities and margin • The Capability Map or Capability Hierarchy – shows how business capabilities are arranged • Competences – a system property that is required to emerge from the business system Section 7: BA Views and Viewpoints References
  • 40. 40Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 • 7.3 View: Structure • 7.3.1 Capability Map: Capability Hierarchy and Key Competence Mapping Section 7: BA Views and Viewpoints References
  • 41. 41Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 7.1 Critical Views 7.1.3 Operational Context Views • An Operational Context View – for integration of all aspects at operational level • A Business Service – the value of a capability that enables the fulfilment of the need of a consumer service • Enabling means contribute to the accomplishment of the goal and performance of a business capability Section 7: BA Views and Viewpoints References
  • 42. 42Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 • 7.4 View: Operational Context Section 7: BA Views and Viewpoints References
  • 43. 43Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016w w w . r e a l i r m . c o m LEADING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE VALUE™ Where do we place the BA capability?
  • 44. 44Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Where does Business Architecture fit? • The Business Solutions Frameworks – Strategic Planning, Business Model Management, Business Architecture, Enterprise Architecture, Systems Development, Project and Program Management, IT Operations Management, Capability Management, Change Management, Funding and Procurement will need to be integrated. • Where Business Architecture sits will most likely be a journey. It may start in one place and move later, as it is seen to be delivering value, and business and IT executives come on board, but always subject to the maturity, constraints and politics of the organisation.
  • 45. 45Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 The starting point is a set of Engagement Principles: 1. Understand the organization. 2. Gain executive sponsorship. 3. Interact with stakeholders. 4. Communicate the architecture. 5. Demonstrate value. 6. Establish a sustainable proposition. So we want to set up an Architecture Practice …
  • 46. 46Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 The Seven Building Blocks of Business Architecture So we want to set up an Architecture Practice … 1. Determine business objectives, governance and engagement models 2. Deploy team based on agreed governance structure 3. Establish foundational knowledgebase 4. Focus on top business priorities 5. Initiate projects / mature knowledgebase 6. Fine tune engagement model 7. Refine efforts through iterative projects
  • 47. 47Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Major Roles Required – Business Sponsor – Business Architecture Team Leader – Business Architecture Team Subject Matter Experts – Architecture Mapping Expert – Mentoring Expertise Common approaches to getting started … 47
  • 48. 48Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Where are they reporting now? Business Architecture reports into :  The Enterprise Architecture Function (IT)  CIO (IT)  CTO (IT)  COO (Bus)  GM or Head of Change Management; Transformation, Business Strategy or Business Improvement (Bus) Setting Up the BA Capability
  • 49. 49Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Where in the organisation does the Business Architecture Capability Sit? Physical: “Most Business Architecture Practices reside in the IT Function, reporting to the CIO, CTO or another role within that function.” Setting Up the BA Capability
  • 50. 50Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Where in the organisation does the Business Architecture Capability Sit? Virtual / Matrix: BIZBOK “A team attempting to build executive support for business architecture could approach an executive steering committee, senior portfolio team or a team of business executives that own the role of strategic planning and transformation” Setting Up the BA Capability
  • 51. 51Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Where in the Organisation does the BA Capability Sit? Centre of Excellence Setting Up the BA Capability CEO COOBU VP’s CIOCFO Business Strategy & Transformation Core Participants Business Architecture COE IT Architecture Team Business Units
  • 52. 52Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 “The premise for a COE approach for Business Architecture is that it delivers cross-functional, cross-disciplinary transparency to the enterprise and such an endeavour, by definition, requires a central point of collaboration” Such an approach provides: • A centralised focal point for best practice adoption, customisation and deployment • A collaborative rather than command and control approach – the COE is not in a position to dictate policy or solutions, as this is an executive responsibility • The platform to leverage industry best practices and organisational knowledge to effectively deliver business transparency, support business analysis and planning efforts, and collaborate with all relevant and affected parties as required to deliver bottom line business value. A Centre of Excellence Approach
  • 53. 53Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 IT Based Business Architecture Team • Generally focus on delivering business requirements for funded or planned IT initiatives – flushing out requirements for IT related projects rather than investigating, understanding and providing solutions to business problems. +++ Strong collaborative relationships with the application and data architects --- They serve an IT master and not the business and this undermines the very pretext for business architecture. Options for BA teams …
  • 54. 54Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Business Unit, Business Architecture Team Typically evolve within a line of business specific division, agency or department. • Are constrained to working within that department, though they do collaborate with other business units and with IT. • Approach can offer good value if the business unit is self contained and does not share common customers, partners, capabilities, processes and information with other business units. If it does then its BA will reflect an incomplete and potentially misleading view of the business. Options for BA teams …
  • 55. 55Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 The Free Floating Business Architect Has no team structure or COE to work through or co-ordinate with and is on their own to service their respective business units. • This is often the first step to formalising a Business Architecture capability. • Many of them came from a Business Analysis background and took on the role of Business Architect because of the perceived need for such a role. • In many instances these folk are used as a one man COE but most are used by managers to research business requirements and co-ordinate with IT on those requirements – in other words they are not Business Architects at all. Options for BA teams …
  • 56. 56Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 The Independent Enterprise Architecture Team This approach involves moving the entire EA function , with the domain architecture teams, out of IT and out from under the CIO. Such a team would have a Business Architecture COE that reported to a VP of EA +++ Business Architecture gets to deal with business issues ---- The application, data and technology architects are separated from their home in IT Options for BA teams …
  • 57. 57Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 The Independent Business Architecture COE This is a team that: – has horizontal views of the enterprise – is not beholden to any single business unit or special interest, and – is independent form the IT organisation The group collaborates with business unit specific business architects and teams and works very closely with application and data architects from the IT EA team. Options for BA teams …
  • 58. 58Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 The Ideal Business Architecture Organization Structure CEO CFO COO CIOCEO CEO CEO CEO VP’s Business Units Business Units Business Units Business Units Business Units Business Strategy & Transformation IT Architecture Team Business Application Centre of Excellence Core Participants Virtual Participants
  • 59. 59Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 • The BA-COE placed in a neutral role, with access to horizontal business requirements and strategies • It has direct access to execs setting and funding cross functional business issues • It should have access to BU’s through BU specific architectures and to IT through Data and Application architecture teams The Ideal Business Architecture Organization Structure 59
  • 60. 60Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016w w w . r e a l i r m . c o m LEADING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE VALUE™ The Business Analyst and the Business Architect A Taste of the Conflict ….
  • 61. 61Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Jeff Scott’s (Forrester Research) 6 Competencies for a Busiess Architect 1. A Sound Understanding of Business Principles and Concepts 2. An ability to think about business processes outside the technology context 3. A really strong consulting mindset 4. A Strategic Point of View 5. Good at Design Thinking 6. A Catalyst for Change Who is the Business Architect
  • 62. 62Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 The Business Architects Role • Whelan identified 4 levels to which Business Architecture can be applied: – Macro: establishing the vision and desired target state and the benefits the organization brings to its stakeholders. – Strategic: supplementing the vision with target capabilities, supporting principles and policies and a current state environmental assessment to provide contextual rationale. – Segment/programme: translating the strategic activities into delivery-focused change initiatives at the segment or programme level. – Project: engaging with projects to communicate the architecture and oversee alignment to it. • A Business Architect may operate at one or more of these levels • Operating at all 4 is unlikely • All four are required though Who is the Business Architect
  • 63. 63Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Another Business Oriented View … “Not every Business Architect requires in depth knowledge of every area.” • Ability to communicate with business professionals and business executives, understand their requirements and help these individuals visualize the rot cause and potential solutions to priority business requirements • Capacity to help the business assimilate and visualize complex and possibly conflicting information in ways that can hide or expose the details when and where required. • Knowledge of organisational culture and governance structures needed to adapt and refine business architecture best practices. • Knowledge of business capability, organisational governance, value stream, business process and business semantic representation needed to facilitate the mapping, aggregation, decomposition and visualization of current and target state views of the business Who is the Business Architect
  • 64. 64Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Another Business Oriented View … • Creative capacity to evolve and customise business architecture metrics and visualisations to support value proposition related objectives against performance. • Ability to customise repository templates needed to establish a business architecture knowledgebase to enable the collection, aggregation and decomposition of business artifacts. • Capacity to communicate and collaborate with IT application and data architects as required for business and IT mapping, strategic planning and roadmap creation. • Organisational and governance skills necessary to sustain a viable business architecture capability within the enterprise Who is the Business Architect
  • 65. 65Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 The Business Architect vs The Business Analyst Who is the Business Architect According to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge (BABOK®), a Business Analyst is: “… any person who performs business analysis activities, no matter what their job title or organizational role may be. Business analysis practitioners include not only people with the job title of business analyst, but may also include business systems analysts, systems analysts, requirements engineers, process analysts, product managers, product owners, enterprise analysts, business architects, management consultants, or any other person who performs the tasks described in the BABOK® Guide, including those who also perform related disciplines such as project management, software development, quality assurance, and interaction design.”1 In other words, regardless of title, if you are doing business analysis, you are a Business Analyst.
  • 66. 66Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 The Business Architect vs The Business Analyst “The difference between the business architect and the business analyst is a matter of intent, breadth of coverage, disciplines employed and on- the-ground realities” In practice, generally, Business Analysts • Rarely leverage architectural disciplines • Typically have business unit or divisional constraints on their domain of analysis • Focus on gathering and developing requirements for IT That said, generally you need all three disciplines – Business Architects, Business Analysts and IT Architects (Solution, Information and Technology) Who is the Business Architect
  • 67. 67Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 The Business Architect vs The Business Analyst “The difference between the business architect and the business analyst is a matter of intent, breadth of coverage, disciplines employed and on- the-ground realities” In practice, generally, Business Analysts • Rarely leverage architectural disciplines • Typically have business unit or divisional constraints on their domain of analysis • Focus on gathering and developing requirements for IT That said, generally you need all three disciplines – Business Architects, Business Analysts and IT Architects (Solution, Information and Technology) Who is the Business Architect
  • 68. 68Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 • The role of Business Architect (or, in fact, any other form of Enterprise Architect) is not a simple extension to the role of Business Analyst. • Becoming a fully-certified Business Architect requires significant re- skilling. • Blurring the lines between the roles of Business Architect and Business Analyst can create a world of confusion for organisations, as they embark on their journey towards digitisation, and develop their EA practices (often driven by IT governance requirements). • Conflating or confusing the two domains also often results in politics and turf wars - wasting resources and detailing transformation efforts. A View From the Trenches ….. 68
  • 69. 69Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 A Review from 3 Perspectives: 1. They have fundamentally different mandate • The Business Architect will support organisational change leaders at the strategic level • The Business Analyst are typically more project or solutions oriented 2. They have a different scope of work • Business Architects focus their activities on creating the principles, the standards, the architecture frameworks, and the business and technology reference models. • This then filters down in the scope of the Business Analyst, who will take these artefacts and translate them into specific projects. A View from the Trenches … 69
  • 70. 70Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 A Review from 3 Perspectives: 3. They have different certifications, accreditations and skill-sets – Accomplished Business Architects need to have very specific accreditation in Enterprise Architecture frameworks, techniques, and tools – such as TOGAF, ArchiMate, or Open Certified Architect, for example. – To complement these formal qualifications, Business Architects are strategically-minded, have sharp business acumen, and generally have well-developed leadership and executive engagement skills. – Business Analysts – on the other hand – dive deeper into the technical aspects of IT tools and systems, and generally have strong analytical capabilities, communication skills, and project management experience. A View from the Trenches … 70
  • 71. 71Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016w w w . r e a l i r m . c o m LEADING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE VALUE™ BA Engagement Models?
  • 72. 72Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 So we want to set up an Architecture Practice ,,,,, 6. Establish a sustainable proposition. Business architecture should be part of the fabric of the organisation, part of the fabric of the change process – not an independent process; not a once off process. Therefore: • Embed business architecture into the delivery mechanisms – downstream • Embed business architecture into business planning mechanisms – upstream Setting Up the BA Capability
  • 73. 73Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 Virtual Participants Engagement Models and Deployment Teams Core Participants Virtual Participants Core Participants Virtual Participants Core Participants Divisional Business Architecture Groups Subject Matter Experts, IT & Business Professionals as required Business Unit Business Architecture & Analysts Core Business & IT Architecture Team Executive Steering Committee
  • 74. 74Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016 In closing …. • Business architecture is a new discipline and the risk of failure is high • There is a great need to adopt a value delivery mind set, to ensure successful execution. • Business architecture is not to be practiced in isolation – it needs to be woven into the fabric of the organisation. • This requires overcoming the barriers referred to above. • Business architects need to establish and deliver on a set of engagement principles Setting Up the BA Capability
  • 75. 75Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2016w w w . r e a l i r m . c o m LEADING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE VALUE™ The End