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Electricity storage in GB and the value of
electricity storage
Anthony Price
Swanbarton
The Electricity Storage Network
Energy policy
Classification of electricity storage by technology
Type
Mechanical /
kinetic

Pumped
hydro

Flywheels

Thermodynamic

Compressed
air

Cryogenic
storage

Electrical

Capacitors

SMES

Batteries

Lead acid

NiCd

Lithium

Hydrogen /
electrolyser

Electrolyser /
fuel cell

Electrolyser /
ICE

H2 / organic
cycle

Thermal

Pumped heat, Molten salt
heat engines

Heat engines

Ice

High
temperature

Ceramics

Flow
Batteries
Development status of storage technologies
Pumped hydro

Li - ion

NaS

Compressed air

Developed

Storage technologies

Batteries ( lead acid, NiCd )

Cryogenics

Superconducting
Micro CAES
Hydrogen storage

Power rating
kW

100 kW

2013 © Swanbarton Limited
E&EO

MW

10 MW

100 MW

Note: the width of the bar indicates
storage capacity
UK projects
LCNF projects
Location

Installation

Power

Capacity

Type

Application

Hemsby

April 2011

200 kW

200 kWh

Li

Wind

Chalvey

June 2012

3 *25 kW

3*25 kWh

Li

Community

Orkney

June 2013

2 MW

500 kWh

Li

Storage Park

Bristol

Sept 2013

6 kW

14.4 kWh

Lead acid

Darlington (NPG)

Nov 2013

2.5 MW

5 MWh

Li

Voltage control and
peak shifting

Darlington

Nov 2013

100 kW

200 kWh

Li

Distribution support

Wooler

Nov 2013

100 kW

200 kWh

Li

Distribution support

Wooler

Nov 2013

50 kW

100 kWh

Li

LV control

Maltby

Nov 2013

50 kW

100 kWh

Li

LV control

Darlington

Nov 2013

50 kW

100 kWh

Li

Smart Grid Demo

Bristol

Under constr

90 kW

321 kWh

NaNiCl

Shetland

Under constr

1 MW

3 MWh

Lead acid

Milton Keynes

Under constr

150 kW

450 kWh

Leighton
Buzzard

Under constr

6 MW

10 MWh

Willenhall

Planned

2 MW

375 kWh

Power station
modulation
Peak demand
reduction

Li

Local constraint
management
Other projects
Location

Installation

Power

Capacity

Type

Application

Slough

Constr

350 kW

2.4 MWh

Cryogenic

Demonstration

North Wales

Planned

50 MW

Pumped hydro

Energy
management

Antrim

Planned

268 MW

Compressed air

Energy
management

West Midlands

Committed

1.5 MW

6 MWh

Pumped heat

Wind constraint
management

Gaia, Scotland

Committed

1.26 MWh

Vanadium Flow

Moixa

Committed

525 kWh

Lithium,
aqueous ion

Domestic
distributed
Power networks
Today’s network

The future

•

•

•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Large scale generation, through
transmission, distribution to users
Limited embedded generation (at
distribution level)
Wholesale market supplies retail
customers
Limited number of self suppliers
System planned to meet peak
demand plus reserves – spare (or
under utilised assets)
Low level of interconnections to
other systems
Regulated wires businesses
Facing substantial change

•
•
•
•

•
•

Significant shift from dispatchable
generation to time variable generation
More negative prices for electricity and
increased market volatility
Peaky demands from digital society,
switch to heat pumps, uncertain effect
of electric vehicles
Distributed community and domestic
level generation and trading
Average and peak domestic demand
likely to increase (double??)
Balancing the system requires more
flexibility
Even more government interference?
Reserve and Operating Margin
Reserve requirement under ‘Gone Green’
Short Term Operating Reserve Requirement for average wind and low
wind conditions
Short Term Operating Reserve Requirement (4 hr) with average wind

10,000

Short Term Operating Reserve Requirement (4hr) with low wind
zero wind

6,000

4,000

2,000

Year

2030/31

2029/30

2028/29

2027/28

2026/27

2025/26

2024/25

2023/24

2022/23

2021/22

2020/21

2019/20

2018/19

2017/18

2016/17

2015/16

2014/15

2013/14

2012/13

2011/12

0
2010/11

STORR (MW)

8,000

Source:
National Grid
The four tools for system balancing
Flexible
generation

Storage

Demand side
response

Interconnectors

(absorbs and
rejects power)

(and new T & D )
Does storage offer a solution?
Storage
• Rapid response
• Absorbs and rejects power
• Many options for location
• Rapid construction time
• Possible to match power
and energy to requirement
• Multi purpose – unlikely to
become a stranded asset

Issues
• No clear business model
• Power industry separation
disincentives investment
• Uncertain income projections
increases project financing risk
• No clear regulatory or
licensing policy
• No current government policy
for widespread deployment /
adoption of storage
Combination of value

Power
quality

Network
management

£ / kW /year

20 - 175

Values are indicative and
not necessarily additative

Ancillary
services

20 - 50

50 -100

Time-shift
Policy requirements
• Clarify position of storage: New classification
needed
• Set target for storage requirement: 2 GW by 2020
• Support storage: parity with support for other
new / green technologies + provide certainty of
income
• Support mechanism specifically for storage:
capacity market class based on capability
• Extend capital grants for deployment of storage:
Develop projects to encourage the sector
Summary of key points
•
•
•
•
•
•

GB system: current pumped storage = 3GW
Insufficient peak capacity
Reserve capacity needed
Storage = suitable technology
Current business model needs to be improved
Policy changes needed
– New classification for storage
– Government policy to adopt storage
• Consultancy specialising in the commercialisation of electrical
energy storage systems
• Clients from North America, Europe and Asia
• Organiser of the International Flow Battery Forum
• Cenelec workshop agreement on flow batteries

• Founder of the Electricity Storage Network
• Member of the ESA
Contact details:
Anthony Price
price@swanbarton.com
+44 1666 840948
www.electricitystorage.co.uk

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Energy Storage Solutions for an Intelligent Future - Anthony Price, Electricity storage in GB and the value of electricity storage

  • 1. Electricity storage in GB and the value of electricity storage Anthony Price Swanbarton The Electricity Storage Network
  • 3. Classification of electricity storage by technology Type Mechanical / kinetic Pumped hydro Flywheels Thermodynamic Compressed air Cryogenic storage Electrical Capacitors SMES Batteries Lead acid NiCd Lithium Hydrogen / electrolyser Electrolyser / fuel cell Electrolyser / ICE H2 / organic cycle Thermal Pumped heat, Molten salt heat engines Heat engines Ice High temperature Ceramics Flow Batteries
  • 4. Development status of storage technologies Pumped hydro Li - ion NaS Compressed air Developed Storage technologies Batteries ( lead acid, NiCd ) Cryogenics Superconducting Micro CAES Hydrogen storage Power rating kW 100 kW 2013 © Swanbarton Limited E&EO MW 10 MW 100 MW Note: the width of the bar indicates storage capacity
  • 6. LCNF projects Location Installation Power Capacity Type Application Hemsby April 2011 200 kW 200 kWh Li Wind Chalvey June 2012 3 *25 kW 3*25 kWh Li Community Orkney June 2013 2 MW 500 kWh Li Storage Park Bristol Sept 2013 6 kW 14.4 kWh Lead acid Darlington (NPG) Nov 2013 2.5 MW 5 MWh Li Voltage control and peak shifting Darlington Nov 2013 100 kW 200 kWh Li Distribution support Wooler Nov 2013 100 kW 200 kWh Li Distribution support Wooler Nov 2013 50 kW 100 kWh Li LV control Maltby Nov 2013 50 kW 100 kWh Li LV control Darlington Nov 2013 50 kW 100 kWh Li Smart Grid Demo Bristol Under constr 90 kW 321 kWh NaNiCl Shetland Under constr 1 MW 3 MWh Lead acid Milton Keynes Under constr 150 kW 450 kWh Leighton Buzzard Under constr 6 MW 10 MWh Willenhall Planned 2 MW 375 kWh Power station modulation Peak demand reduction Li Local constraint management
  • 7. Other projects Location Installation Power Capacity Type Application Slough Constr 350 kW 2.4 MWh Cryogenic Demonstration North Wales Planned 50 MW Pumped hydro Energy management Antrim Planned 268 MW Compressed air Energy management West Midlands Committed 1.5 MW 6 MWh Pumped heat Wind constraint management Gaia, Scotland Committed 1.26 MWh Vanadium Flow Moixa Committed 525 kWh Lithium, aqueous ion Domestic distributed
  • 8. Power networks Today’s network The future • • • • • • • • • Large scale generation, through transmission, distribution to users Limited embedded generation (at distribution level) Wholesale market supplies retail customers Limited number of self suppliers System planned to meet peak demand plus reserves – spare (or under utilised assets) Low level of interconnections to other systems Regulated wires businesses Facing substantial change • • • • • • Significant shift from dispatchable generation to time variable generation More negative prices for electricity and increased market volatility Peaky demands from digital society, switch to heat pumps, uncertain effect of electric vehicles Distributed community and domestic level generation and trading Average and peak domestic demand likely to increase (double??) Balancing the system requires more flexibility Even more government interference?
  • 9. Reserve and Operating Margin Reserve requirement under ‘Gone Green’ Short Term Operating Reserve Requirement for average wind and low wind conditions Short Term Operating Reserve Requirement (4 hr) with average wind 10,000 Short Term Operating Reserve Requirement (4hr) with low wind zero wind 6,000 4,000 2,000 Year 2030/31 2029/30 2028/29 2027/28 2026/27 2025/26 2024/25 2023/24 2022/23 2021/22 2020/21 2019/20 2018/19 2017/18 2016/17 2015/16 2014/15 2013/14 2012/13 2011/12 0 2010/11 STORR (MW) 8,000 Source: National Grid
  • 10.
  • 11. The four tools for system balancing Flexible generation Storage Demand side response Interconnectors (absorbs and rejects power) (and new T & D )
  • 12. Does storage offer a solution? Storage • Rapid response • Absorbs and rejects power • Many options for location • Rapid construction time • Possible to match power and energy to requirement • Multi purpose – unlikely to become a stranded asset Issues • No clear business model • Power industry separation disincentives investment • Uncertain income projections increases project financing risk • No clear regulatory or licensing policy • No current government policy for widespread deployment / adoption of storage
  • 13. Combination of value Power quality Network management £ / kW /year 20 - 175 Values are indicative and not necessarily additative Ancillary services 20 - 50 50 -100 Time-shift
  • 14. Policy requirements • Clarify position of storage: New classification needed • Set target for storage requirement: 2 GW by 2020 • Support storage: parity with support for other new / green technologies + provide certainty of income • Support mechanism specifically for storage: capacity market class based on capability • Extend capital grants for deployment of storage: Develop projects to encourage the sector
  • 15. Summary of key points • • • • • • GB system: current pumped storage = 3GW Insufficient peak capacity Reserve capacity needed Storage = suitable technology Current business model needs to be improved Policy changes needed – New classification for storage – Government policy to adopt storage
  • 16. • Consultancy specialising in the commercialisation of electrical energy storage systems • Clients from North America, Europe and Asia • Organiser of the International Flow Battery Forum • Cenelec workshop agreement on flow batteries • Founder of the Electricity Storage Network • Member of the ESA Contact details: Anthony Price price@swanbarton.com +44 1666 840948 www.electricitystorage.co.uk