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CESSAF
Building Partnerships in Sustainable
           Urbanisation
        (The Way Forward)

           Dr.Mukesh Khare
         Patron, Planet Earth Institute
  Member, Global Scientific Committee, PEI
  Professor of Environmental Engineering
                  IIT Delhi
                 INDIA
Introduction: The Increasingly Urbanized Planet
1.Urban areas would be home to more than two thirds of the worlds
population by 2050

2.Urbanisation is driven by social processes

3. The drivers of Urbanization include Population Dynamics,
Governance, and Employment Opportunities associated with
Industrialization, Consumption Patterns, International Migration

and accessibility.

4. Uneven rate of Urbanization across the planet

5. Urbanization has also triggered the generation of slums.

( Khare et al, 2012 ).
A multi-layer conceptual framework showing the interlinkages between the drivers/sources for air
pollution (central rings), environmental sustainability (three circles),and overriding concerns for the
future development of megacities
Kumar et al (2013), “ Can a “blue sky” return to Indian megacities?”, Atm. Env. 71,pp1-4.
Characteristics of Growing Cities
1.   Fragmented decision making

2.   Incrementalism

3.   Gaps in decision making hierarchy

4.   Lack of measurable outcomes

5.   Cumulative effects of urban growth

(Integrated Landscape Management, 2005)
Challenges of Growing Cities


• Urban landscape changes adversely affect Ecological, Economic and
Social perspectives.

• Resource Management and Regulatory Processes are inefficient and
increase the risk of conflict.

• Institutional Fragmentation affecting the decision making process.
The Growing City: Potential for Achieving Sustainability
1. Create the smallest possible ecological footprint;
2. Environmentally friendly in terms of Pollution, Land Use and Climate
Change;
3. Provides Economic and Social Security;
4. Inclusive Governance System;
5. Takes a long-term view on allocation of resources and definition of
benefits and cost;
Approach towards understanding Sustainability of
Urban Areas
1. Understand long term changes (Liu et al, 2011).
2. Identify sustainability factors in cities.
3. Identify the effect of drivers of change (local, global and regional).
4. Identify potential contribution and mitigation of each driver towards
affecting sustainability.
5. Identify measures/ policies which can be taken to reduce or mitigate
negative impacts (Fitzgerald et al, 2011).
Approach towards Urban Sustainability
1. Adapt
a. Adapt the city towards a more balanced approach
b. Due consideration to the natural and socio-economic constraints.


2. Mitigate
The effects of urbanisation on the environment through sustainable strategies,
their interactions and potential conflicts.
Approach towards Urban Sustainability
3. Integrate
a. Integrate form, space, order and dynamics of change with social, economic
and political consequences.
b. Develop strategies to integrate the physical processes, human-built
infrastructure, economic, social and environmental systems.


4. Monitor
Cities should be continuously seen for effectiveness of policy and regulatory
administration.
Approach towards Urban Sustainability
5. Think outside the administrative box
a. Maintain the connect of the urban metabolism of the city with the globalizing
world in order to improve the sustainable resilience of the city.


b. Use existing policy instruments to identify opportunities to influence policy
change, either individually or as groups of cities.
Growing Cities in the Indian Subcontinent
1. Cities and towns of India constitute the world‟s second largest urban
system. They contribute over 50% of country‟s Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
and are central to economic growth.
2. For these cities to realize their full potential and become true engines of
growth, the Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission or the JNNURM has been
formulated.
3. The JNNURM has identified 104 cities with a population of more than 10 lakhs
(1 million) as Growing Cities. (www.jnnurm.nic.in)
The objectives of the JNNURM are:
1. Focused attention to integrated development of basic services to the urban poor
2. Security of tenure at affordable price, improved housing, water supply,
sanitation
3. Convergence of services in fields of education, health and social
security
4. Provision of housing near the place of occupation of the
urban poor
5. Effective linkage between asset creation and asset management to
ensure efficiency
6. Scaling up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with
emphasis on universal access to urban poor.
7. Ensuring adequate investment of funds to fulfill deficiencies in the
basic services to the urban poor. (www.jnnurm.nic.in)
Indian Experience
Transit Oriented Development
Exisiting land use of Amritsar (2012)



                                        G.T.Road
Approach at IIT Delhi

                    Understand the Urban System
 Social, Economic and Environmental Processes and their influence on the
                           eco-environment

                      Synthesize the Knowledge
                      Identification of Indicators
  Assessment of coupling relationships to understand the process within
                         the of urban systems

           Simulate System Behavior through Policy Impacts
     Urban Growth Modeling to understand impact on eco-environment


                              Outcome
                Redefine the Urban Growth Boundary
              Development of Sustainability Coefficients
Criteria of developing pathways towards urban
sustainability
1. Evidence -based development of a collective understanding of
policies.
2. „Continual Dialogue' of collective learning about the challenges
facing cities.
3. Understand the legacy of micro- level development.
4. Understand relationship between drivers of change, land use and
infrastructure to identify long term and short term change.
References
1. Integrated Landscape Management, (2005)Applying Sustainable Development to
Land use, Manual prepared by Canadian Integrated Landscape Management Coalition
2. Dawson Richard, (2011) .Potential pitfalls on the transition to more sustainable cities and how they might be avoided ,
Carbon Management (2011) 2(2), 175–188
3. Fitzgerald, B.G; O‟Doherty, T; Moles R. &O‟Regan B. (2012).A quantitative method for the evaluation of policies to
enhance urban sustainability. Ecological Indicators 18, 371–37.
4. Indicators of sustainable development, guidelines and methodologies. Online at
www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicatorsguidelines.pdf.
5. Liu.Y; Yao,C.S;Wang, G. & Bao, S.(2011).An integrated sustainable development approach to modelling the eco-
environmental effects from urbanization. Ecol. Indicat. doi.10.1016/j.ecoloind.2011.04.004.
6. Moffat,I & Hanley,N. (2001). Modelling sustainable development: A systems dynamic and input- output approaches.
Environmental Modelling and Software 16, 545-557.
7. O‟Regan ,B; Morrissey,J; Foley,W & Moles,R.(2009). The relationship between settlement population size and sustainable
development measured by two sustainability metrics. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 29, 169–178.
8. Tayebbi. A; Pijanowski. B. C& Tayebbi. A. H. (2011). An urban growth boundary model using neural networks, GIS and
radial parameterization: An application to Tehran, Iran. Landscape and Urban Planning 100, 35-44.
9. Khare, M. Pandit, P.(2012). Sustainable Coefficients for Growing Cities- discussion paper, Planet Earth Institute, U.K ,June

Online at www.planetearthinstituteworldwide.org/publications/sustainabilitycoefficients

10. Kumar et al (2013), “Can a „blue sky‟ return to Indian Mega Cities?”, Atm. Env. 71, pp 1-4
THANK YOU

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Angola cessaf final_2-3-2013

  • 1. CESSAF Building Partnerships in Sustainable Urbanisation (The Way Forward) Dr.Mukesh Khare Patron, Planet Earth Institute Member, Global Scientific Committee, PEI Professor of Environmental Engineering IIT Delhi INDIA
  • 2. Introduction: The Increasingly Urbanized Planet 1.Urban areas would be home to more than two thirds of the worlds population by 2050 2.Urbanisation is driven by social processes 3. The drivers of Urbanization include Population Dynamics, Governance, and Employment Opportunities associated with Industrialization, Consumption Patterns, International Migration and accessibility. 4. Uneven rate of Urbanization across the planet 5. Urbanization has also triggered the generation of slums. ( Khare et al, 2012 ).
  • 3. A multi-layer conceptual framework showing the interlinkages between the drivers/sources for air pollution (central rings), environmental sustainability (three circles),and overriding concerns for the future development of megacities Kumar et al (2013), “ Can a “blue sky” return to Indian megacities?”, Atm. Env. 71,pp1-4.
  • 4. Characteristics of Growing Cities 1. Fragmented decision making 2. Incrementalism 3. Gaps in decision making hierarchy 4. Lack of measurable outcomes 5. Cumulative effects of urban growth (Integrated Landscape Management, 2005)
  • 5. Challenges of Growing Cities • Urban landscape changes adversely affect Ecological, Economic and Social perspectives. • Resource Management and Regulatory Processes are inefficient and increase the risk of conflict. • Institutional Fragmentation affecting the decision making process.
  • 6. The Growing City: Potential for Achieving Sustainability 1. Create the smallest possible ecological footprint; 2. Environmentally friendly in terms of Pollution, Land Use and Climate Change; 3. Provides Economic and Social Security; 4. Inclusive Governance System; 5. Takes a long-term view on allocation of resources and definition of benefits and cost;
  • 7. Approach towards understanding Sustainability of Urban Areas 1. Understand long term changes (Liu et al, 2011). 2. Identify sustainability factors in cities. 3. Identify the effect of drivers of change (local, global and regional). 4. Identify potential contribution and mitigation of each driver towards affecting sustainability. 5. Identify measures/ policies which can be taken to reduce or mitigate negative impacts (Fitzgerald et al, 2011).
  • 8. Approach towards Urban Sustainability 1. Adapt a. Adapt the city towards a more balanced approach b. Due consideration to the natural and socio-economic constraints. 2. Mitigate The effects of urbanisation on the environment through sustainable strategies, their interactions and potential conflicts.
  • 9. Approach towards Urban Sustainability 3. Integrate a. Integrate form, space, order and dynamics of change with social, economic and political consequences. b. Develop strategies to integrate the physical processes, human-built infrastructure, economic, social and environmental systems. 4. Monitor Cities should be continuously seen for effectiveness of policy and regulatory administration.
  • 10. Approach towards Urban Sustainability 5. Think outside the administrative box a. Maintain the connect of the urban metabolism of the city with the globalizing world in order to improve the sustainable resilience of the city. b. Use existing policy instruments to identify opportunities to influence policy change, either individually or as groups of cities.
  • 11. Growing Cities in the Indian Subcontinent 1. Cities and towns of India constitute the world‟s second largest urban system. They contribute over 50% of country‟s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and are central to economic growth. 2. For these cities to realize their full potential and become true engines of growth, the Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission or the JNNURM has been formulated. 3. The JNNURM has identified 104 cities with a population of more than 10 lakhs (1 million) as Growing Cities. (www.jnnurm.nic.in)
  • 12. The objectives of the JNNURM are: 1. Focused attention to integrated development of basic services to the urban poor 2. Security of tenure at affordable price, improved housing, water supply, sanitation 3. Convergence of services in fields of education, health and social security 4. Provision of housing near the place of occupation of the urban poor 5. Effective linkage between asset creation and asset management to ensure efficiency 6. Scaling up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on universal access to urban poor. 7. Ensuring adequate investment of funds to fulfill deficiencies in the basic services to the urban poor. (www.jnnurm.nic.in)
  • 15. Exisiting land use of Amritsar (2012) G.T.Road
  • 16. Approach at IIT Delhi Understand the Urban System Social, Economic and Environmental Processes and their influence on the eco-environment Synthesize the Knowledge Identification of Indicators Assessment of coupling relationships to understand the process within the of urban systems Simulate System Behavior through Policy Impacts Urban Growth Modeling to understand impact on eco-environment Outcome Redefine the Urban Growth Boundary Development of Sustainability Coefficients
  • 17. Criteria of developing pathways towards urban sustainability 1. Evidence -based development of a collective understanding of policies. 2. „Continual Dialogue' of collective learning about the challenges facing cities. 3. Understand the legacy of micro- level development. 4. Understand relationship between drivers of change, land use and infrastructure to identify long term and short term change.
  • 18. References 1. Integrated Landscape Management, (2005)Applying Sustainable Development to Land use, Manual prepared by Canadian Integrated Landscape Management Coalition 2. Dawson Richard, (2011) .Potential pitfalls on the transition to more sustainable cities and how they might be avoided , Carbon Management (2011) 2(2), 175–188 3. Fitzgerald, B.G; O‟Doherty, T; Moles R. &O‟Regan B. (2012).A quantitative method for the evaluation of policies to enhance urban sustainability. Ecological Indicators 18, 371–37. 4. Indicators of sustainable development, guidelines and methodologies. Online at www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicatorsguidelines.pdf. 5. Liu.Y; Yao,C.S;Wang, G. & Bao, S.(2011).An integrated sustainable development approach to modelling the eco- environmental effects from urbanization. Ecol. Indicat. doi.10.1016/j.ecoloind.2011.04.004. 6. Moffat,I & Hanley,N. (2001). Modelling sustainable development: A systems dynamic and input- output approaches. Environmental Modelling and Software 16, 545-557. 7. O‟Regan ,B; Morrissey,J; Foley,W & Moles,R.(2009). The relationship between settlement population size and sustainable development measured by two sustainability metrics. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 29, 169–178. 8. Tayebbi. A; Pijanowski. B. C& Tayebbi. A. H. (2011). An urban growth boundary model using neural networks, GIS and radial parameterization: An application to Tehran, Iran. Landscape and Urban Planning 100, 35-44. 9. Khare, M. Pandit, P.(2012). Sustainable Coefficients for Growing Cities- discussion paper, Planet Earth Institute, U.K ,June Online at www.planetearthinstituteworldwide.org/publications/sustainabilitycoefficients 10. Kumar et al (2013), “Can a „blue sky‟ return to Indian Mega Cities?”, Atm. Env. 71, pp 1-4