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Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Institute of Forensic
Science & Criminology
Bundelkhand University, Jhansi(U.P.)
Submitted by :-
Shatrughan
Dwivedi
M.Sc. 1st Semester
Submitted to :-
Murli Manohar Yadav
AMMUNITION
 What is Ammunition?
 Components of Ammunition.
Modern Ammunition.
What is
Ammunition?
According to sec.2(1)-(b) of Arms
Act 1959 “AMMUNITION” mean
ammunition for ant firearms and
includes:-
 The projectiles with their
fuses propelling charges, or
primers fired from guns.
 The means of Ignition or
exploding such material, as
primers, fuses, and
gunpowder.
(i) rockets, bombs, grenades, shells [and other missiles,]
(ii) articles designed for torpedo service and submarine
mining,
(iii) other articles containing, or designed or adapted to
contain, explosive, fulminating or fissionable
material or noxious liquid, gas or other such
thing, whether capable of use with firearms or
not,
(iv) charges for firearms and accessories for such
charges,
(v) fuses and friction tubes,
(vi) parts of, and machinery for manufacturing,
ammunition, and
(vii) such ingredients of ammunition as the Central
Government may, by notification in the Official
Gazette, specify in this behalf
1.Cartridge case
2.Primer
3.Powder/Propellant
4.Projectile
5.Wads
6.Lubricants
Components
of
Ammunitions
Cartridge
Case
• The container that holds
all the other ammunition
components together.
• It’s usually made up of
brass, steel, copper,
cardboard or plastic.
Primer
• Primer is in the primer
cap which contain the
primer mixture, which get
sandwiched between the
anvil and the firing pin.
• In 1807, James Forsyth,
discover a shock sensitive
explosive called Mercury
Fulminate Hg(CNO)2 this type of
explosive will detonate if it is
struck or by shock.
• The new primer composition
have come up by replacing
Mercury Fulminate:-
Lead Styphate - 40%
Antimony Sulphide -
17%
Barium Nitrate - 37%
PETN - 6%
Tetracene - 5%
Aluminum - 8%
Powder/Propellant
• The propellant is the
component of the
ammunition that is
activated inside the
weapon and provides the
kinetic energy required to
move the projectile from
the weapon to the target.
Three types of powder
used are :-
 Black Powder
 Smokeless Powder
 Semi – Smokeless
Powder
Black Powder
• Oldest recorded propellant is black powder.
• This was Invented by Chinese around 10th century.
• It is mixture of :-
Charcoal (C) :- 15%
Sulphur(S) :- 10%
Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) :-
75%
2 KNO3 + S + 3 C → K2S + N2 + 3 CO2.
Chemical equation for the combustion of
gunpowder is:
Smokeless Powder
• Developed in the late 19th century to replace black powder
as a propellant in weapons.
• Black powder produces lots of smoke that could easily
revals the position of the shooter. Smokeless powder emits
much less smoke.
Basic components :-
Nitroglycerine
Nitrocellulose(Guncott
on)
Semi-Smokeless Powder
• Mixture of Nitrocellulose & black powder in ratio of
80:20.
Nitrated wood Cellulose : -
20%
Potassium Nitrate : - 60%
Carbon : - 12%
Sulphur : - 8%
• The powder produce less smoke then the
gunpowder but mixing process is quite
dangerous.
(This aspect has prevented its extensive
production & use
Projectiles
• The projectile is that
part of the ammunition
which gets propelled
from firearms to the
target.
• Small balls of lead
known as pellets, are
projectile as the
propelled by shotgun
towards target. They
are also called Shots
• Elongated projectiles are called
Bullets.
• Bullets are used
as projectiles in
metallic cartridges
used in rifled arms
ex. 0.303” rifle
• Bullets may be made of lead or lead
alloy.
Wads
• Found in shot gun
ammunition.
• They seal the barrel to
prevent escape of gases
and consequently, their
respective reduction
velocity.
• Wads are used in cartridge
primarily to keep the propellant &
shot charge in their respective
positions.
• Made up of paper or plastic
Internal
wad(over powder
wad)
Cushion wad(air
cushion)
External
wad(overshot wad)
Lubricants
• Bullets are lubricated to reduce friction and prevent oxidation
of the cases or projectile.
• The purpose was formerly achieved either by external
lubrication or internal lubrication.
• Bullets Covered with a layer of Beeswax.
Modern Ammunition
• Modern ammunition varies depending on type of
firearm. Rifles and Handguns use a cartridge containing a
single projectile(bullet).
• Shotguns use a shotshell containing containing either a
single slug or a large number of small projectiles(shots).
• The basic components of cartridges and shotshells are
very similar.
Two types of Modern
ammunition :-
Centre fire
Rim fire
Center fire
• Ammunition used for
riles, shotguns, and
handguns.
• Primer is located in
center of casing base.
Rim fire
• Ammunition has
primer contained in
rim of ammunition
casing.
• Rimfire ammunition
not reloadable
Small arms
ammunitions
Are of two types : -
Metallic Ammunition(Rifle
ammunition)
Shotgun Ammunition
Metallic Ammunition
(Rifle Ammunition)
Components of metallic
ammunition are :-
Metallic cartridge
case(shell).
Percussion cap or
Primer.
Propellant(gunpowd
er).
Bullet.
Shotgun
Ammunition
Components of shotgun
ammunition are :-
Paper
cartridge(shell).
Percussion cap
or Primer.
Lead
Pellets(spherical).
 Wads.
HEARD BRIAN J., EDITION 2ND 2008; HANDBOOK OF FIREARM
& BALLISTICS, PUBLISHED BY WILEY-BLACKWELL 2008.
HTTPS://WWW.ATF.GOV/FIREARMS/GUIDES-OF-NFA-
FIREARMS.HTML
Thanks!!!!

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Ammunition and it's types and use in forensic ballistics

  • 1. Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Institute of Forensic Science & Criminology Bundelkhand University, Jhansi(U.P.) Submitted by :- Shatrughan Dwivedi M.Sc. 1st Semester Submitted to :- Murli Manohar Yadav
  • 3.  What is Ammunition?  Components of Ammunition. Modern Ammunition.
  • 4. What is Ammunition? According to sec.2(1)-(b) of Arms Act 1959 “AMMUNITION” mean ammunition for ant firearms and includes:-  The projectiles with their fuses propelling charges, or primers fired from guns.  The means of Ignition or exploding such material, as primers, fuses, and gunpowder. (i) rockets, bombs, grenades, shells [and other missiles,] (ii) articles designed for torpedo service and submarine mining, (iii) other articles containing, or designed or adapted to contain, explosive, fulminating or fissionable material or noxious liquid, gas or other such thing, whether capable of use with firearms or not, (iv) charges for firearms and accessories for such charges, (v) fuses and friction tubes, (vi) parts of, and machinery for manufacturing, ammunition, and (vii) such ingredients of ammunition as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf
  • 6. Cartridge Case • The container that holds all the other ammunition components together. • It’s usually made up of brass, steel, copper, cardboard or plastic.
  • 7. Primer • Primer is in the primer cap which contain the primer mixture, which get sandwiched between the anvil and the firing pin. • In 1807, James Forsyth, discover a shock sensitive explosive called Mercury Fulminate Hg(CNO)2 this type of explosive will detonate if it is struck or by shock. • The new primer composition have come up by replacing Mercury Fulminate:- Lead Styphate - 40% Antimony Sulphide - 17% Barium Nitrate - 37% PETN - 6% Tetracene - 5% Aluminum - 8%
  • 8. Powder/Propellant • The propellant is the component of the ammunition that is activated inside the weapon and provides the kinetic energy required to move the projectile from the weapon to the target. Three types of powder used are :-  Black Powder  Smokeless Powder  Semi – Smokeless Powder
  • 9. Black Powder • Oldest recorded propellant is black powder. • This was Invented by Chinese around 10th century. • It is mixture of :- Charcoal (C) :- 15% Sulphur(S) :- 10% Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) :- 75% 2 KNO3 + S + 3 C → K2S + N2 + 3 CO2. Chemical equation for the combustion of gunpowder is:
  • 10. Smokeless Powder • Developed in the late 19th century to replace black powder as a propellant in weapons. • Black powder produces lots of smoke that could easily revals the position of the shooter. Smokeless powder emits much less smoke. Basic components :- Nitroglycerine Nitrocellulose(Guncott on)
  • 11. Semi-Smokeless Powder • Mixture of Nitrocellulose & black powder in ratio of 80:20. Nitrated wood Cellulose : - 20% Potassium Nitrate : - 60% Carbon : - 12% Sulphur : - 8% • The powder produce less smoke then the gunpowder but mixing process is quite dangerous. (This aspect has prevented its extensive production & use
  • 12. Projectiles • The projectile is that part of the ammunition which gets propelled from firearms to the target. • Small balls of lead known as pellets, are projectile as the propelled by shotgun towards target. They are also called Shots • Elongated projectiles are called Bullets. • Bullets are used as projectiles in metallic cartridges used in rifled arms ex. 0.303” rifle • Bullets may be made of lead or lead alloy.
  • 13. Wads • Found in shot gun ammunition. • They seal the barrel to prevent escape of gases and consequently, their respective reduction velocity. • Wads are used in cartridge primarily to keep the propellant & shot charge in their respective positions. • Made up of paper or plastic Internal wad(over powder wad) Cushion wad(air cushion) External wad(overshot wad)
  • 14. Lubricants • Bullets are lubricated to reduce friction and prevent oxidation of the cases or projectile. • The purpose was formerly achieved either by external lubrication or internal lubrication. • Bullets Covered with a layer of Beeswax.
  • 15. Modern Ammunition • Modern ammunition varies depending on type of firearm. Rifles and Handguns use a cartridge containing a single projectile(bullet). • Shotguns use a shotshell containing containing either a single slug or a large number of small projectiles(shots). • The basic components of cartridges and shotshells are very similar. Two types of Modern ammunition :- Centre fire Rim fire
  • 16. Center fire • Ammunition used for riles, shotguns, and handguns. • Primer is located in center of casing base. Rim fire • Ammunition has primer contained in rim of ammunition casing. • Rimfire ammunition not reloadable
  • 17. Small arms ammunitions Are of two types : - Metallic Ammunition(Rifle ammunition) Shotgun Ammunition
  • 18. Metallic Ammunition (Rifle Ammunition) Components of metallic ammunition are :- Metallic cartridge case(shell). Percussion cap or Primer. Propellant(gunpowd er). Bullet. Shotgun Ammunition Components of shotgun ammunition are :- Paper cartridge(shell). Percussion cap or Primer. Lead Pellets(spherical).  Wads.
  • 19. HEARD BRIAN J., EDITION 2ND 2008; HANDBOOK OF FIREARM & BALLISTICS, PUBLISHED BY WILEY-BLACKWELL 2008. HTTPS://WWW.ATF.GOV/FIREARMS/GUIDES-OF-NFA- FIREARMS.HTML