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Introducing J2EE Architecture


Objectives
    In this lesson, you will learn to:


         •   Identify the need for an architecture
         •   Identify the various types of architectural attributes
         •   Apply a specific architectural model in a given scenario
         •   Identify the various components and application areas of J2EE Architecture




 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions              Lesson 1A / Slide 1 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Architectural Concepts
    •    Architecture is the study of design and the orderly arrangement of parts or
         structure of a system.
    •    Architecture helps you to get the preview of an application.
    •    Architecture is needed to support the service-level requirements, such as
         performance, scalability, extensibility, maintainability, manageability, and
         security of a system.
    •    The architecture also defines the protocols for communication, synchronization,
         and data access.
    •    An architect is a person who creates the architecture of a system.
    •    The various roles of an architect are:
           • Listening to the clients
           • Understanding the needs of the clients
           • Identifying the required resources
           • Performing a feasibility study
           • Creating a blueprint
 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions               Lesson 1A / Slide 2 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Architectural Concepts (Contd.)
    •    Role of an Architect (Contd.)
          • The role of an architect can be divided into following phases:
                • Pre-Design Phase:The architect listens to the client to understand the
                   scope of the project, key design points, requirements, and the
                   expectations of the client.
                • Domain Analysis Phase:The architect identifies the domains for which
                   the system will be built and document the domains to learn the client
                   requirements in detail.
                • Schematic Design Phase: The architect prepares the architectural-
                   level designs depicting the domain characteristics and technology
                   structure.
                • Design Development Phase: The architect expands the details of the
                   design and refines the design to create the final design.




 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions               Lesson 1A / Slide 3 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Architectural Concepts (Contd.)
    •    Role of an Architect (Contd.)
                • Project Document Phase:The architect documents the development
                   process and the roles of the team members of the development
                   team.
                • Contracting Phase:The architect identifies the actual developers of
                   the system and submits the bid for the projects that are to be
                   outsourced.
                • Construction Phase: The architect reviews the construction-level
                   designs to analyze the problems and requests changes wherever
                   required.
                • Post-Construction Phase: The architect helps the client with the
                   project rollout and migration to the new system.




 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions              Lesson 1A / Slide 4 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Architectural Concepts (Contd.)
    •    Architectural Terminology
           • Architecture refers to an abstract representation of the components and
             behaviors of a system.
           • The important architectural terms are:
                • Abstraction: Entails breaking down the planned system into an
                   extended hierarchy in terms of the functions and intentions of the
                   design.
                • Surface Area: Describes the way in which the components of a
                   system interact with one another.
                • Boundaries: Are the areas where two components of a system
                   interact with each other.
                • Brittleness: Specifies the degree to which a system gets effected
                   incase a small change occurs in any of the existing modules.




 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions               Lesson 1A / Slide 5 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Architectural Concepts (Contd.)
    •    Architectural Terminology (Contd.)
                • Friction:Specifies the level of interaction that occurs between two
                   components of a system.
                • Layering: Represents an architectural pattern that breaks up a
                   complicated system into some modules. Layers are divided based on
                   the functional responsibilities of the modules. The common layers
                   are:
                     • Presentation layer: Displays the end user interface components
                        and handles end user requests. It is the high-level layer.
                     • Business layer: Handles the application specific business logic. It
                        is the middle-level layer.
                     • Data Layer: Provides services, such as database connectivity,
                        messaging systems, and transaction management. It is the low-
                        level layer.



 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions                Lesson 1A / Slide 6 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Architectural Concepts (Contd.)
    •    Architectural Attributes are the nonfunctional, observable system quality
         attributes, which includes:
                • Scalability: Is the ability of a system to support the required
                   performance and availability as the load increases.
                • Two types of scalabilities are:
                      • Vertical Scalability : Is achieved by increasing capacities of an
                        existing system.
                      • Horizontal Scalability: Is achieved by expanding the existing
                        system.
                • Maintainability: Is the ability to correct drawbacks of an existing
                   component without making an impact on the other components of
                   the system.
                • Reliability: Is the ability that ensures the consistency and integrity of
                   an application.



 ©NIIT                 Architecting J2EE Solutions                 Lesson 1A / Slide 7 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Architectural Concepts (Contd.)
    •    Architectural Attributes (Contd.)
                • Availability: Assures that services provided by a system are available
                   to the users for the required duration.
                • Extensibility: Is the ability to extend the functionality of the system.
                • Manageability: Is the ability to manage a system to ensure the
                   availability and performance of the system.
                • Performance: Is the ability to perform a task within the specified
                   timeframe to achieve the desired goals.
                • Security: Is the ability to ensure that any information is not accessed
                   or modified without the prior permission of the concerned authorities.




 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions                Lesson 1A / Slide 8 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Architectural Concepts (Contd.)
    •    Architecture Models
           • The type of architecture used for a particular application depends on the type,
             usage, and deployment of the application.
           • Different types of architecture are:
                • Single-Tier Architecture: Contains the user interface, the business logic
                   and the data stores in a single computer.
                • Two-Tier Architecture: Is composed of multiple clients and a single server.
                   The clients connect to the server over a network using network protocols,
                   such as TCP/IP. The client implements the user interface and contains the
                   application logic. The server contains the business logic and stores data.
                • Three-Tier Architecture: Divides each application into three separate
                   logical layers, presentation layer, business layer, and data layer. The
                   three-tier architecture is useful in a distributed client/server environment.
                   The three tier architectural design hides the complexity of distributed
                   processing from the end-user.


 ©NIIT                 Architecting J2EE Solutions                Lesson 1A / Slide 9 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Architectural Concepts (Contd.)
    •    Architecture Models (Contd.)
                • Multi-Tier Architecture: Contains unlimited numbers of layers. This
                   architecture generally contains four tiers, the client tier, presentation tier,
                   business tier, and data tier. The client tier contains the client systems,
                   presentation tier contains the Web server, business tier contains the
                   application server, and the data tier contains the database.




 ©NIIT                 Architecting J2EE Solutions                 Lesson 1A / Slide 10 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Overview of J2EE Architecture
    •    J2EE architecture is defined as the study of designing J2EE applications.
    •    The application design involves deciding on the types of components to be used,
         such as Java Server Pages (JSP), Enterprise Java Bean (EJB), Java Message Service
         (JMS), servlets and the hardware that will be required to run the components.




 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions            Lesson 1A / Slide 11 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.)
    •    Component Technologies
          • J2EE applications are made up of components that operate within a specific
            environment.
          • The components are functional software units assembled into J2EE applications
            along with the related class files. These components communicate with other
            J2EE components for performing the required application logic.
          • The components defined by J2EE specification are:
               • J2EE Clients: Represent the user interface of an application that interacts
                 with the end-user. Some of the client components are:
                   • Application Client: Are standalone applications that run on a client
                      system.
                   • HTML Page: Is the common form of GUI that is used to interact with
                      the end user in a Web application.
                   • Applet: Is written in the Java programming language, which runs in
                      the Web browser and expands the capabilities of the Web browsers.


 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions              Lesson 1A / Slide 12 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.)
    •    Component Technologies (Contd.)
                   • Java WebStart: Is similar to the applet and makes deploying an
                     application a simple process.
              • Web Component: Includes Java Server Pages (JSP) and servlets. Servlets
                are server side Java components that dynamically process requests and
                generate responses. Servlet are deployed in Web containers that is
                responsible for providing the execution environment of servlet. JSPs are
                server side documents containing HTML code along with Java code used to
                generate dynamic content. JSP is an extension to the Java servlet
                technology. When a JSP page is requested for the first time, a
                corresponding servlet is generated in the background.
              • Business Components: Implements the business logic in J2EE applications.
                Enterprise Java beans (EJB) are server side components based on Java
                component-based technology. EJB defines component architecture for
                multi-tier client/server system.



 ©NIIT               Architecting J2EE Solutions            Lesson 1A / Slide 13 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.)
    •    J2EE Containers
           • The J2EE server provides some underlying services in the form of a container
             for every component type.
           • Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-
             specific functionality that supports the component. The containers provided by
             J2EE are:
                • Application Client Container: Provides runtime environment for application
                  clients and also manages the execution of all application clients for a
                  single J2EE application.
                • Applet Container: Manages the execution of applets and is a combination
                  of the Web browser and Java plug-in.
                • Web Container: Provides runtime environment for Web components, such
                  as servlets and JSP and manages the execution of JSP page and servlets.
                • EJB Container: Provides runtime environment and various services, such
                  as connection pooling, security, and transactions for enterprise beans.


 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions             Lesson 1A / Slide 14 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.)
    •    Application Areas of J2EE Architecture
          • The application areas of J2EE are:
                • Providing distributed environment: A distributed application is designed to
                   run on more than one computer. The functionality of the application is
                   separated into tiers, such as client, service, and data store.
                • Supporting Enterprise Integration: J2EE provides generic interfaces for
                   both developers and service providers. The generic interface enables an
                   organization to pick and choose products, which they require without the
                   fear of vendor lock-in.
                • Supporting Productivity: J2EE applications increase the productivity of the
                   developer by reducing the time required for coding. J2EE provides a
                   feature-rich set of high quality APIs and some default implementations.
                • Providing Extensibility: J2EE should be able to keep up with organizational
                   growth and technological changes. The application server in J2EE can be
                   used to connect to any kind of database.


 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions              Lesson 1A / Slide 15 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.)
    •    Key Architectural Issues
          • You can create a robust and scalable application by implementing the following
             architectural features:
               • Architectural Documents: You need to use the architectural process to
                  create a blueprint for an application. The blueprint includes the following
                  documents:
                     • Vision document: Includes key features, such as business
                       opportunities and stakeholder requirements.
                     • Requirement specifications document: Specifies the functional
                       requirements, such as the operational aspect of the system.
                     • Risk identification and mitigation plan: Includes anticipation of
                       possible risks, assessment of risks, and mitigation plans to overcome
                       risks.
                     • Domain model: Specifies the structural and behavioral relationship
                       between the system level components.


 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions              Lesson 1A / Slide 16 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.)
    •    Key Architectural Issues (Contd.)
                     • Context description: Specifies the deployment environment and
                       shows how the software and service components should be located
                       and how these components should communicate with each other.
                     • Project plan: Specifies milestones that terminate the project phases.
                       The project plan also includes the plan for the maintenance work.
                     • The list of assumptions: Lists all the assumptions associated with the
                       application development. Assumptions of critical issues, such as
                       security implications, user volume, and transaction load need to be
                       properly documented.




 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions              Lesson 1A / Slide 17 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.)
    •    Key Architectural Issues (Contd.)
               • Selecting J2EE Technologies: The architect selects the technologies that
                  will successfully implement the required system. The architect is
                  responsible for convincing the clients on the selection of the appropriate
                  technology.
               • Risk Management: An architect needs to anticipate the possible risks to
                  ensure that the client requirements are met by the system design. An
                  architect also needs to decide how much risk control is sufficient by
                  comparing the risk and the mitigation strategies.
               • Pattern Usage: Is defined as a proven solution to a problem in a given
                  context. Each pattern is a solution that you can apply repeatedly to the
                  same or similar problem encountered in software development.
               • Prototyping : Is a process of analyzing a system and determining the
                  necessary modifications.



 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions               Lesson 1A / Slide 18 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.)
    •    Servers in J2EE Technology Systems
          • J2EE technology system comprises of several servers:
               • Web Server: Handles the request of a Web client and provides static or
                   dynamic Web pages to the client. The dynamic behavior of the Web page
                   is provided by JSP and servlets. A Web server should be able to handle
                   various concurrent requests to operate efficiently.
               • Application Server: Implements a framework to provide services to the
                   applications that run within the server. The services are security services,
                   transaction management services, and resource management services.
               • Resource Servers: Provides access to the data resources for a J2EE
                   application.




 ©NIIT                 Architecting J2EE Solutions               Lesson 1A / Slide 19 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.)
    •    Various Available J2EE Application Servers are:
          • J2EE 1.4 Application Server: The Application Server Platform Edition 8 provided
             by the Sun Microsystem is a compliant implementation of the J2EE 1.4
             platform. The application server supports all the APIs described in J2EE 1.4
             platform. The application server also includes various J2EE technologies and
             tools that are not a part of the J2EE 1.4 platform but are provided to help the
             developers.
          • BEA WebLogic: BEA WebLogic Server provides platform for building integrated,
             enterprise-class applications that share information, deliver services, and
             automate collaboration among different companies.
          • IBM Web Sphere: IBM WebSphere Application Server is a high-performance
             and scalable transaction engine for dynamic e-business applications. The
             application server allows you to deploy an operating environment that works as
             a platform capable of handling secure transactions and Web services.




 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions             Lesson 1A / Slide 20 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.)
         •   JBoss Application Server: The JBoss Application Server is an open-source EJB
             solution that is available under GPL. JBoss server improves scalability and
             performance by enabling clustering of any Java object, such as EJB, HTTP, and
             servlet. JBoss offers modular and services-oriented architecture.




 ©NIIT               Architecting J2EE Solutions             Lesson 1A / Slide 21 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.)
    •    Criteria for Selecting J2EE Application Server are:
           • Performance: You need to ensure that the application server implementation is
              efficient. You should check whether the application server implements
              connection pooling and supports JDBC. The application server should also
              efficiently tie into Web servers to ensure fast response between the Web
              request and the application server.
           • Cost: You should check the maintenance costs per CPU or per server,
              debugging and development tool costs, training costs for administrators and
              developers, while selecting the server.
           • Compliance: You should check whether the application server is in compliance
              with the J2EE specification. The application server should be J2EE licensed and
              J2EE certified.




 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions              Lesson 1A / Slide 22 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.)
    •    Criteria for Selecting J2EE Application Server are (Contd.):
           • Scalability and availability: The application server should be able to perform
              load balancing, efficient connection pooling, and caching to ensure availability
              of a system. The application server needs to be flexible, so that you can add
              CPUs to provide a multi-thread process implementation and cost-effective
              licensing.
           • J2EE support: The application server should support all the versions of JDK. The
              application server should support the available operating systems, such as
              Linux, MacOS, HP/Unix, Windows, and Solaris.




 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions              Lesson 1A / Slide 23 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Summary
In this lesson, you learned:


     •    Architecture is the study of design and the orderly arrangement of parts or
          structure of a system. Architecture consist of the system architecture and
          the software architecture.
     •    The various roles of an architect are, understanding the needs of the clients,
          identifying the required resources, performing a feasibility study, forming a
          practical vision of a structure, and creating a blueprint during the different
          phases of software development.
     •    The various architectural terms that are used to describe various aspects of
          the architecture are abstraction, surface area, boundaries, brittleness,
          capabilities, friction, and layering.




 ©NIIT                Architecting J2EE Solutions              Lesson 1A / Slide 24 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Summary (Contd.)
    •    Architectural attributes are the nonfunctional, observable system quality
         attributes, which includes scalability, manageability, performance,
         availability, reliability, and security.
    •    The various types of architecture models are single-tier architecture, two-tier
         architecture, three-tier architecture, and multi-tier architecture.
    •    In single-tier architecture, the standalone application runs on a single
         computer, provides user interface, handles all the input, validates data, and
         maintains the data store.
    •    Two-tier Architecture is composed of multiple clients and a single server. The
         business logic may reside on the client-side or the server-side.
    •    In three-tier architecture, application is divided into three separate logical
         layers, presentation layer, business layer, and data layer.
    •    Multi-tier architecture may contain unlimited numbers of layers.
    •    J2EE architecture is defined as the study of designing J2EE applications.



 ©NIIT              Architecting J2EE Solutions               Lesson 1A / Slide 25 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Summary (Contd.)
    •    The components defined by J2EE specification are J2EE Clients, Web
         Components, and Business Components.
    •    The various client components are Application Client, HTML Page, Applet, and
         Java WebStart.
    •    J2EE Web components include Java Server Pages (JSP) and servlets.
    •    Business logic is the logic used to solve the functional requirements of a
         particular business domain.
    •    J2EE containers are the interface between a component and the low-level
         platform-specific functionality that supports the component. The various
         types of J2EE containers are Application Client Container, Applet Container,
         Web Container, and EJB Container.




 ©NIIT              Architecting J2EE Solutions             Lesson 1A / Slide 26 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Summary (Contd.)
    •    J2EE provides components, containers and several API that helps the
         developer to code an application efficiently. The various application areas of
         J2EE are:
         • Providing distributed environment
         • Supporting enterprise integration
         • Supporting productivity
         • Providing extensibility
    •    By implementing the following architectural features a robust and scalable
         application can be created:
         • Architectural documents
         • Selecting J2EE technologies
         • Risk management
         • Design patterns
         • Prototyping

 ©NIIT               Architecting J2EE Solutions               Lesson 1A / Slide 27 of 28
Introducing J2EE Architecture


Summary (Contd.)
    •    The key architectural issues that need to be taken care while designing
         architecture are architectural documents, selecting J2EE technologies, risk
         management, design patterns, and prototyping.
    •    J2EE technology system comprises of several servers, such as Web server,
         application server, and resource server.
    •    The various application servers are J2EE 1.4 application server, BEA
         WebLogic, IBM Web Sphere, and JBoss Application Server.
    •    The following criteria’s needs to be taken into consideration while selecting a
         J2EE application server:
         • Performance
         • Cost
         • Compliance
         • Scalability and availability
         • J2EE support

 ©NIIT               Architecting J2EE Solutions               Lesson 1A / Slide 28 of 28

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Ajs 1 a

  • 1. Introducing J2EE Architecture Objectives In this lesson, you will learn to: • Identify the need for an architecture • Identify the various types of architectural attributes • Apply a specific architectural model in a given scenario • Identify the various components and application areas of J2EE Architecture ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 1 of 28
  • 2. Introducing J2EE Architecture Architectural Concepts • Architecture is the study of design and the orderly arrangement of parts or structure of a system. • Architecture helps you to get the preview of an application. • Architecture is needed to support the service-level requirements, such as performance, scalability, extensibility, maintainability, manageability, and security of a system. • The architecture also defines the protocols for communication, synchronization, and data access. • An architect is a person who creates the architecture of a system. • The various roles of an architect are: • Listening to the clients • Understanding the needs of the clients • Identifying the required resources • Performing a feasibility study • Creating a blueprint ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 2 of 28
  • 3. Introducing J2EE Architecture Architectural Concepts (Contd.) • Role of an Architect (Contd.) • The role of an architect can be divided into following phases: • Pre-Design Phase:The architect listens to the client to understand the scope of the project, key design points, requirements, and the expectations of the client. • Domain Analysis Phase:The architect identifies the domains for which the system will be built and document the domains to learn the client requirements in detail. • Schematic Design Phase: The architect prepares the architectural- level designs depicting the domain characteristics and technology structure. • Design Development Phase: The architect expands the details of the design and refines the design to create the final design. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 3 of 28
  • 4. Introducing J2EE Architecture Architectural Concepts (Contd.) • Role of an Architect (Contd.) • Project Document Phase:The architect documents the development process and the roles of the team members of the development team. • Contracting Phase:The architect identifies the actual developers of the system and submits the bid for the projects that are to be outsourced. • Construction Phase: The architect reviews the construction-level designs to analyze the problems and requests changes wherever required. • Post-Construction Phase: The architect helps the client with the project rollout and migration to the new system. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 4 of 28
  • 5. Introducing J2EE Architecture Architectural Concepts (Contd.) • Architectural Terminology • Architecture refers to an abstract representation of the components and behaviors of a system. • The important architectural terms are: • Abstraction: Entails breaking down the planned system into an extended hierarchy in terms of the functions and intentions of the design. • Surface Area: Describes the way in which the components of a system interact with one another. • Boundaries: Are the areas where two components of a system interact with each other. • Brittleness: Specifies the degree to which a system gets effected incase a small change occurs in any of the existing modules. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 5 of 28
  • 6. Introducing J2EE Architecture Architectural Concepts (Contd.) • Architectural Terminology (Contd.) • Friction:Specifies the level of interaction that occurs between two components of a system. • Layering: Represents an architectural pattern that breaks up a complicated system into some modules. Layers are divided based on the functional responsibilities of the modules. The common layers are: • Presentation layer: Displays the end user interface components and handles end user requests. It is the high-level layer. • Business layer: Handles the application specific business logic. It is the middle-level layer. • Data Layer: Provides services, such as database connectivity, messaging systems, and transaction management. It is the low- level layer. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 6 of 28
  • 7. Introducing J2EE Architecture Architectural Concepts (Contd.) • Architectural Attributes are the nonfunctional, observable system quality attributes, which includes: • Scalability: Is the ability of a system to support the required performance and availability as the load increases. • Two types of scalabilities are: • Vertical Scalability : Is achieved by increasing capacities of an existing system. • Horizontal Scalability: Is achieved by expanding the existing system. • Maintainability: Is the ability to correct drawbacks of an existing component without making an impact on the other components of the system. • Reliability: Is the ability that ensures the consistency and integrity of an application. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 7 of 28
  • 8. Introducing J2EE Architecture Architectural Concepts (Contd.) • Architectural Attributes (Contd.) • Availability: Assures that services provided by a system are available to the users for the required duration. • Extensibility: Is the ability to extend the functionality of the system. • Manageability: Is the ability to manage a system to ensure the availability and performance of the system. • Performance: Is the ability to perform a task within the specified timeframe to achieve the desired goals. • Security: Is the ability to ensure that any information is not accessed or modified without the prior permission of the concerned authorities. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 8 of 28
  • 9. Introducing J2EE Architecture Architectural Concepts (Contd.) • Architecture Models • The type of architecture used for a particular application depends on the type, usage, and deployment of the application. • Different types of architecture are: • Single-Tier Architecture: Contains the user interface, the business logic and the data stores in a single computer. • Two-Tier Architecture: Is composed of multiple clients and a single server. The clients connect to the server over a network using network protocols, such as TCP/IP. The client implements the user interface and contains the application logic. The server contains the business logic and stores data. • Three-Tier Architecture: Divides each application into three separate logical layers, presentation layer, business layer, and data layer. The three-tier architecture is useful in a distributed client/server environment. The three tier architectural design hides the complexity of distributed processing from the end-user. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 9 of 28
  • 10. Introducing J2EE Architecture Architectural Concepts (Contd.) • Architecture Models (Contd.) • Multi-Tier Architecture: Contains unlimited numbers of layers. This architecture generally contains four tiers, the client tier, presentation tier, business tier, and data tier. The client tier contains the client systems, presentation tier contains the Web server, business tier contains the application server, and the data tier contains the database. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 10 of 28
  • 11. Introducing J2EE Architecture Overview of J2EE Architecture • J2EE architecture is defined as the study of designing J2EE applications. • The application design involves deciding on the types of components to be used, such as Java Server Pages (JSP), Enterprise Java Bean (EJB), Java Message Service (JMS), servlets and the hardware that will be required to run the components. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 11 of 28
  • 12. Introducing J2EE Architecture Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.) • Component Technologies • J2EE applications are made up of components that operate within a specific environment. • The components are functional software units assembled into J2EE applications along with the related class files. These components communicate with other J2EE components for performing the required application logic. • The components defined by J2EE specification are: • J2EE Clients: Represent the user interface of an application that interacts with the end-user. Some of the client components are: • Application Client: Are standalone applications that run on a client system. • HTML Page: Is the common form of GUI that is used to interact with the end user in a Web application. • Applet: Is written in the Java programming language, which runs in the Web browser and expands the capabilities of the Web browsers. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 12 of 28
  • 13. Introducing J2EE Architecture Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.) • Component Technologies (Contd.) • Java WebStart: Is similar to the applet and makes deploying an application a simple process. • Web Component: Includes Java Server Pages (JSP) and servlets. Servlets are server side Java components that dynamically process requests and generate responses. Servlet are deployed in Web containers that is responsible for providing the execution environment of servlet. JSPs are server side documents containing HTML code along with Java code used to generate dynamic content. JSP is an extension to the Java servlet technology. When a JSP page is requested for the first time, a corresponding servlet is generated in the background. • Business Components: Implements the business logic in J2EE applications. Enterprise Java beans (EJB) are server side components based on Java component-based technology. EJB defines component architecture for multi-tier client/server system. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 13 of 28
  • 14. Introducing J2EE Architecture Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.) • J2EE Containers • The J2EE server provides some underlying services in the form of a container for every component type. • Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform- specific functionality that supports the component. The containers provided by J2EE are: • Application Client Container: Provides runtime environment for application clients and also manages the execution of all application clients for a single J2EE application. • Applet Container: Manages the execution of applets and is a combination of the Web browser and Java plug-in. • Web Container: Provides runtime environment for Web components, such as servlets and JSP and manages the execution of JSP page and servlets. • EJB Container: Provides runtime environment and various services, such as connection pooling, security, and transactions for enterprise beans. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 14 of 28
  • 15. Introducing J2EE Architecture Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.) • Application Areas of J2EE Architecture • The application areas of J2EE are: • Providing distributed environment: A distributed application is designed to run on more than one computer. The functionality of the application is separated into tiers, such as client, service, and data store. • Supporting Enterprise Integration: J2EE provides generic interfaces for both developers and service providers. The generic interface enables an organization to pick and choose products, which they require without the fear of vendor lock-in. • Supporting Productivity: J2EE applications increase the productivity of the developer by reducing the time required for coding. J2EE provides a feature-rich set of high quality APIs and some default implementations. • Providing Extensibility: J2EE should be able to keep up with organizational growth and technological changes. The application server in J2EE can be used to connect to any kind of database. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 15 of 28
  • 16. Introducing J2EE Architecture Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.) • Key Architectural Issues • You can create a robust and scalable application by implementing the following architectural features: • Architectural Documents: You need to use the architectural process to create a blueprint for an application. The blueprint includes the following documents: • Vision document: Includes key features, such as business opportunities and stakeholder requirements. • Requirement specifications document: Specifies the functional requirements, such as the operational aspect of the system. • Risk identification and mitigation plan: Includes anticipation of possible risks, assessment of risks, and mitigation plans to overcome risks. • Domain model: Specifies the structural and behavioral relationship between the system level components. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 16 of 28
  • 17. Introducing J2EE Architecture Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.) • Key Architectural Issues (Contd.) • Context description: Specifies the deployment environment and shows how the software and service components should be located and how these components should communicate with each other. • Project plan: Specifies milestones that terminate the project phases. The project plan also includes the plan for the maintenance work. • The list of assumptions: Lists all the assumptions associated with the application development. Assumptions of critical issues, such as security implications, user volume, and transaction load need to be properly documented. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 17 of 28
  • 18. Introducing J2EE Architecture Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.) • Key Architectural Issues (Contd.) • Selecting J2EE Technologies: The architect selects the technologies that will successfully implement the required system. The architect is responsible for convincing the clients on the selection of the appropriate technology. • Risk Management: An architect needs to anticipate the possible risks to ensure that the client requirements are met by the system design. An architect also needs to decide how much risk control is sufficient by comparing the risk and the mitigation strategies. • Pattern Usage: Is defined as a proven solution to a problem in a given context. Each pattern is a solution that you can apply repeatedly to the same or similar problem encountered in software development. • Prototyping : Is a process of analyzing a system and determining the necessary modifications. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 18 of 28
  • 19. Introducing J2EE Architecture Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.) • Servers in J2EE Technology Systems • J2EE technology system comprises of several servers: • Web Server: Handles the request of a Web client and provides static or dynamic Web pages to the client. The dynamic behavior of the Web page is provided by JSP and servlets. A Web server should be able to handle various concurrent requests to operate efficiently. • Application Server: Implements a framework to provide services to the applications that run within the server. The services are security services, transaction management services, and resource management services. • Resource Servers: Provides access to the data resources for a J2EE application. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 19 of 28
  • 20. Introducing J2EE Architecture Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.) • Various Available J2EE Application Servers are: • J2EE 1.4 Application Server: The Application Server Platform Edition 8 provided by the Sun Microsystem is a compliant implementation of the J2EE 1.4 platform. The application server supports all the APIs described in J2EE 1.4 platform. The application server also includes various J2EE technologies and tools that are not a part of the J2EE 1.4 platform but are provided to help the developers. • BEA WebLogic: BEA WebLogic Server provides platform for building integrated, enterprise-class applications that share information, deliver services, and automate collaboration among different companies. • IBM Web Sphere: IBM WebSphere Application Server is a high-performance and scalable transaction engine for dynamic e-business applications. The application server allows you to deploy an operating environment that works as a platform capable of handling secure transactions and Web services. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 20 of 28
  • 21. Introducing J2EE Architecture Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.) • JBoss Application Server: The JBoss Application Server is an open-source EJB solution that is available under GPL. JBoss server improves scalability and performance by enabling clustering of any Java object, such as EJB, HTTP, and servlet. JBoss offers modular and services-oriented architecture. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 21 of 28
  • 22. Introducing J2EE Architecture Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.) • Criteria for Selecting J2EE Application Server are: • Performance: You need to ensure that the application server implementation is efficient. You should check whether the application server implements connection pooling and supports JDBC. The application server should also efficiently tie into Web servers to ensure fast response between the Web request and the application server. • Cost: You should check the maintenance costs per CPU or per server, debugging and development tool costs, training costs for administrators and developers, while selecting the server. • Compliance: You should check whether the application server is in compliance with the J2EE specification. The application server should be J2EE licensed and J2EE certified. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 22 of 28
  • 23. Introducing J2EE Architecture Overview of J2EE Architecture (Contd.) • Criteria for Selecting J2EE Application Server are (Contd.): • Scalability and availability: The application server should be able to perform load balancing, efficient connection pooling, and caching to ensure availability of a system. The application server needs to be flexible, so that you can add CPUs to provide a multi-thread process implementation and cost-effective licensing. • J2EE support: The application server should support all the versions of JDK. The application server should support the available operating systems, such as Linux, MacOS, HP/Unix, Windows, and Solaris. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 23 of 28
  • 24. Introducing J2EE Architecture Summary In this lesson, you learned: • Architecture is the study of design and the orderly arrangement of parts or structure of a system. Architecture consist of the system architecture and the software architecture. • The various roles of an architect are, understanding the needs of the clients, identifying the required resources, performing a feasibility study, forming a practical vision of a structure, and creating a blueprint during the different phases of software development. • The various architectural terms that are used to describe various aspects of the architecture are abstraction, surface area, boundaries, brittleness, capabilities, friction, and layering. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 24 of 28
  • 25. Introducing J2EE Architecture Summary (Contd.) • Architectural attributes are the nonfunctional, observable system quality attributes, which includes scalability, manageability, performance, availability, reliability, and security. • The various types of architecture models are single-tier architecture, two-tier architecture, three-tier architecture, and multi-tier architecture. • In single-tier architecture, the standalone application runs on a single computer, provides user interface, handles all the input, validates data, and maintains the data store. • Two-tier Architecture is composed of multiple clients and a single server. The business logic may reside on the client-side or the server-side. • In three-tier architecture, application is divided into three separate logical layers, presentation layer, business layer, and data layer. • Multi-tier architecture may contain unlimited numbers of layers. • J2EE architecture is defined as the study of designing J2EE applications. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 25 of 28
  • 26. Introducing J2EE Architecture Summary (Contd.) • The components defined by J2EE specification are J2EE Clients, Web Components, and Business Components. • The various client components are Application Client, HTML Page, Applet, and Java WebStart. • J2EE Web components include Java Server Pages (JSP) and servlets. • Business logic is the logic used to solve the functional requirements of a particular business domain. • J2EE containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform-specific functionality that supports the component. The various types of J2EE containers are Application Client Container, Applet Container, Web Container, and EJB Container. ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 26 of 28
  • 27. Introducing J2EE Architecture Summary (Contd.) • J2EE provides components, containers and several API that helps the developer to code an application efficiently. The various application areas of J2EE are: • Providing distributed environment • Supporting enterprise integration • Supporting productivity • Providing extensibility • By implementing the following architectural features a robust and scalable application can be created: • Architectural documents • Selecting J2EE technologies • Risk management • Design patterns • Prototyping ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 27 of 28
  • 28. Introducing J2EE Architecture Summary (Contd.) • The key architectural issues that need to be taken care while designing architecture are architectural documents, selecting J2EE technologies, risk management, design patterns, and prototyping. • J2EE technology system comprises of several servers, such as Web server, application server, and resource server. • The various application servers are J2EE 1.4 application server, BEA WebLogic, IBM Web Sphere, and JBoss Application Server. • The following criteria’s needs to be taken into consideration while selecting a J2EE application server: • Performance • Cost • Compliance • Scalability and availability • J2EE support ©NIIT Architecting J2EE Solutions Lesson 1A / Slide 28 of 28