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iNForMAtioN FroM tHe AgriculturAl iNDuStrY | OCTOBER 2011




AgriculturAl DiAlogue 14
                                                                                             eDitoriAl




                                                                                             Dear Readers,

                                                                                             The contribution of fungicides to EU
                                                                                             agriculture is often overlooked. Since the
                                                                                             1940’s they have enabled the transition to
                                                                                             high yield crop varieties, improving access
                                                                                             to healthy and affordable food.
                                                                          Source: CropLife




                                                                                             Increasing incidence of plant disease,
                                                                                             driven by climate change, means that
                                                                                             today’s farmers rely on fungicides more
                                                                                             than ever. Concerns persist however that
                                                                                             regulation could limit access to these

Curtailing the cure?                                                                         products resulting in over-reliance on a very
                                                                                             limited set of solutions, quickly leading to
EU agriculture plays a vital role in ensuring food security and driving our                  resistance.
economy. In their attempt to supply enough healthy and high-quality                          This edition of the Agricultural Dialogue
food, farmers face a constant threat from crop disease. Since the 1940s                      takes a closer look at the pressing need
fungicides have enabled farmers to prevent and treat diseases, but potential                 for resistance management, the socio-
Regulation that could reduce access to these important tools looks likely to                 economic contribution of fungicides, and
have a dramatic impact.                                                                      the science on their safety. We are fortunate
                                                                                             to have the insight of two of the foremost
Illness is not only a human condition. Agricultural crops are vulnerable to                  global experts in this field, Prof. Dr. Michael
deadly fungal and viral infections including Septoria tritici, Fusarium, Rust,               Schmitz (Institute of Agribusiness, University
Powdery mildew and Eyespot. In Europe fungi have traditionally been the                      of Giessen) and Dr. Ronald Kendall (Texas
more prevalent threat to arable crops, and have proven devastating if left                   Tech University).
untreated – destroying up to 40% of the total harvest.

Fungicides, like antibiotics in human healthcare, revolutionised disease
treatment. Their introduction in the 1940s prompted the start of the green
revolution; an ongoing period of marked agricultural yield increases. In                     Markus Heldt
addition to dramatically reducing yield losses from illness, fungicides enable               President, Crop Protection Division, BASF SE
the cultivation of high yield varieties that would otherwise be susceptible to
disease.
AgriculturAl DiAlogue 14                                                                                                         2




The figures are stark. Consolidated UN FAO statistics on European wheat
yields begin only 20 years after their initial introduction, but the impact is
still evident. Between 1960 and 2008 wheat yields in Europe more than
doubled from approximately 1.25 to 3.5 tons per hectare (FAO).

Growing resistance

However, fungicides’ likeness to antibiotics does not end there.
Fungicides have been used widely and today European agriculture is
heavily dependent on their extraordinary benefits. Just as bacteria have
adapted successfully to some antibiotics, fungi in plants have evolved to
fungicides and in recent years have developed significant resistance to
many of the classes in use. Only the azole class, and particularly triazoles
amongst them, are still considered to be highly reliable by farmers.

Meanwhile the investment and timescale required to develop new
products is severe; not to mention uncertain given the EU’s switch to
                                                                                  Did you know?
hazard based regulation. This leaves farmers with an ever smaller toolbox
for fighting fungi effectively, threatening EU agricultural productivity.          The European agriculture sector is
                                                                                    worth 675 billion euros a year and
The threat posed to yield levels by further EU regulation is very concerning
                                                                                    employs more than 11.2 million people,
given two facts; (a) the global population is nearly 40% larger than it was
                                                                                    equating to 14.2% of EU manufacturing
in 1950 and (b) the population of the world is predicted to reach 9 billion         export.
by 2050.
                                                                                   Cereals (258m tons) are the main crop
Environmental threats                                                               grown in the EU.

 The spread of wheat stem rust UG99 lineage
                                                  New and emerging infectious      The demand for wheat in the EU is
                                                  disease is a regular media        expected to rise at a rate (21%) that
                                                  topic,    with  SARS      and     cannot be supported by the expected
                                                  Asian Bird Flu being recent       rise in production (7%).
                                                  examples. Less well reported     According to the UN FAO fungicides
                                                  is the re-emergence of UG99,      prevent losses estimated to be between
                                                  a devastating strain of the       15 and 30% of global wheat harvests –
                                                  rust fungus that, thought to      equivalent to 44 billion loaves of bread,
                                                  be extinct, has spread the        or the amount of bread consumed in
                                                  length of Africa in less than     Germany each year.
                                    Source: FAO
                                                  a decade and now sits at the
                                                                                   An EU ban of azoles would:
                                                  gateway to Asia and Europe.
                                                                                   B Create an annual EU welfare loss es-
Climate change is also causing major problems for farmers, who are                   timated to be between 4.4 billion and
being introduced to new crop diseases.                                               5.6 billion USD that would be mainly
                                                                                     borne by producers
Finding a solution                                                                 B Reduce yields significantly (average =
As such EU regulation needs to be designed in a way that it ensures                  Germany 17%, UK 16%, France 23%)
farmers have access to effective solutions for fighting crop disease.              B Result in the net EU trade position on
                                                                                     wheat changing from an export of 8.7
In support of this opinion, a 2010 meeting of European and Mediterranean             million tonnes, to an import status of
Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) – the intergovernmental organization            9.6 million tonnes
- on Azole fungicides and Septoria leaf blotch control concluded that:
                                                                                   Potato blight which caused the deaths
“azoles are a major factor in the successful management of this and other           of an estimated 1 million people during
important cereal diseases, and having a diversity of azoles available is            the Irish potato famine in 1845 is still a
considered important in managing this disease”.                                     serious threat to harvests.
For now farmers are doing everything in their power not to compromise              Wheat rust spreads as billions of spores
azoles, by rotating them and mixing them with other fungicides.                     in the wind. They move incrementally
Resistance management has become a watchword, but they fear that                    from field to field and need wet weather
the variety of the tools they have to work with may be reduced in the               to thrive.
future due to ever more complex regulation.
iNForMAtioN FroM tHe AgriculturAl iNDuStrY | octoBer 2011                                                                            3




                                                                                  About Dr. Ronald Kendall

                                                                                  Dr. Ronald Kendall is the founder and
                                                                                  director of the Institute of Environmental
                                                                                  and Human Health at Texas Tech
                                                                                  University as well as the founding chair and
                                                                                  professor of the university’s Department
                                                                                  of     Environmental      Toxicology.   Since
                                                                                  1997, the Institute of Environmental and
                                                                                  Human Health (IEHH) has distinguished
                                                                                  itself for its multidisciplinary approach to
                                                                                  environmental and human health issues.   

                                                                                  A leader in the field of wildlife toxicology,

Minimal risk, maximum reward                                                      Kendall is frequently consulted by foreign
                                                                                  countries on environmental issues. His
                        Following the implementation of the EU Regulation         research has been supported by 138
                        1107/2009, pesticides (including fungicides) will         grants totalling over 50 million dollars.
                        - uniquely in EU regulation - be assessed on the          A prolific author with more than 200
                        basis of hazard rather than risk. Practically, a          refereed journal and technical articles as
                        substance with characteristics that might require         well as books, Kendall is considered to
                        an additional label in other applications could well      have played a leading role in the initiation
                        be banned for use in crop protection. Dr. Ronald          of the field of wildlife toxicology.
                        Kendall (Texas Tech University), one of the world’s
                        foremost experts on the toxicology, shares his            Among his many accomplishments, he
                        opinion on fungicides, also commenting on the             serves as an environmental advisor to
                        new assessment criteria.                                  the United States Justice Department
                                                                                  and has addressed the United Nations
After a thorough assessment of all the scientific literature, what is             Committee on Sustainable Development.
your opinion on the safety of fungicides?

Generally speaking, fungal diseases are extremely difficult to control
in agriculture without chemical application. Fungicidal chemicals are
derived from a variety of structures. These include simple inorganic
compounds, such as copper sulfate, to complex organic compounds.                 Cereal production, utilization and stocks
Although the scientific literature is voluminous and complex regarding
                                                                               Million                                         Million
fungicide toxicology, generally speaking these crop protection products        tonnes                                          tonnes
                                                                                 2400                                          800
can be used safely and effectively under practical agricultural applications
                                                                                                  Utilization
when used according to the label and applied by trained professionals.                            Production
                                                                                                  Stocks
What is the toxicological profile of fungicides?
                                                                                 2200                                          600
With few exceptions, fungicides have relatively low acute toxicity in
mammals.  However, some have historically produced positive results in
genotoxicity tests and, if such effects were demonstrated, many of these
products have been regulated out of use.
                                                                                 2000                                          400
What are the dosage limits when looking at commercially sold
fungicides and how does this relate to human health?

Generally speaking, a fungicide is applied as a formulation which includes
an active ingredient that is mixed with inert ingredients to enhance             1800                                          200

application.  Therefore, the commercial formulation of a fungicide is not
                                                                                         0 2
                                                                                         0 3
                                                                                         0 4
                                                                                         0 5
                                                                                         0 6
                                                                                         0 7
                                                                                         0 8
                                                                                         0 9
                                                                                         1 0
                                                                                         11 1
                                                                                              2
                                                                                       20 1/0
                                                                                       20 2/0
                                                                                       20 3/0
                                                                                       20 4/0
                                                                                       20 5/0
                                                                                       20 6/0
                                                                                       20 7/0
                                                                                       20 8/0
                                                                                       20 9/1
                                                                                       20 0/1
                                                                                           /1
                                                                                         0




100% active ingredient.  When one considers the general commercial
                                                                                   20




                                                                                                                          Source: FAO
AgriculturAl DiAlogue 14               iNForMAtioN FroM tHe AgriculturAl iNDuStrY | octoBer 2011                                   4




applications of fungicides, the release of the active ingredient is generally
relatively low, which means a reduced level of exposure for humans.  Since                                 Prof. Dr. Michael Schmitz
                                                                                                           is recognized as a global
one of the basic tenants of toxicology is “the dose makes the poison”, low
                                                                                                           expert on the impacts
levels of human exposure to the active ingredients in fungicides are preferred.                            of EU and international
                                                                                                           agricultural policy. He
As a leading toxicologist what do you think about the ongoing debate                                       is the founder and di-
in the EU about the endocrine disruptors, especially with reference to                                     rector of the Institute of
fungicides?                                                                                                Agribusiness located in
                                                                                                          Giessen, Germany. He
There is a great deal of controversy and debate on just the definition of                                 currently teaches at the
                                                                                                          Institute of Agricultural
an endocrine disruptor, much less the science needed to understand
                                                                                   Policy and Market Research of the University
the relevance of endocrine disruption in terms of human health and the             of Giessen. Prof. Dr. Schmitz is Member of the
environment.  In general, the emerging scientific area of endocrine disruptors     Scientific Advisory Board on Agriculture Policy
will take a great deal of work to define and validate the tests needed to          at the German Agriculture Ministry.
determine relevant endocrine endpoints that can be interpreted to protect          How important are azoles to crop protection
human health in the environment.                                                   and what action would you propose to pro-
                                                                                   tect EU crop yields? “We access the future im-
Does the recent conversion to hazard based assessment of fungicides                portance of azoles very favorably. In our opinion
make this debate disproportionately threatening to crop health?                    they are not replaceable and have the highest
                                                                                   impact on plant health and yields with regard
If one just addresses a hazard based assessment of fungicides without              to resistance management, curative action and
                                                                                   broad spectrum. Our results show that farmers
considering “dose”, this discounts one of the basic tenants in toxicology
                                                                                   and technical experts in UK, France and Ger-
and that being “dose makes the poison”.  Therefore, in the science of risk         many would find it very difficult to combat fu-
assessment, one needs to consider in addition to hazard an incorporated            sarium and septoria tritici without azole-based
exposure assessment, in other words “dose”.  Also, oftentimes high-dose            products and there is a strong consensus
tests are used in hazard identification yet the approved agricultural uses,        among all countries that restriction of azoles
which are effective in pest management, involve much lower concentrations          would have disastrous impacts on resistance
                                                                                   management; becoming extremely difficult or
of the fungicide.  Therefore, the ultimate net effect of using hazard-based
                                                                                   almost impossible, especially in the case of
assessments could be to put crop health at risk while overcompensating for         septoria.
human health protection.
                                                                                   Restriction of azoles would have a strong im-
                                                                                   pact on disease control due to missing curative
There appears to be disagreement amongst experts on the safety of
                                                                                   effects, higher costs, more time consuming and
available fungicides.  Can you explain what lies behind this difference of         strongly limited treatment possibilities. Disease
opinion?                                                                           levels would be much higher due to poor and
                                                                                   unreliable control of core diseases, and an ina-
If one just considers high-dose laboratory experiments for the identification      bility to eradicate established diseases.
of toxic effects from pesticides, such as fungicides, then one is probably         Our analysis shows the importance of maintai-
not getting the whole picture related to exposure and effects.  As an              ning as broad a spectrum of plant protection
environmental toxicologist, my view is that we must take laboratory data           products as possible to avoid the growth of
and then consider environmentally realistic exposure scenarios when we are         disease resistance. The azoles are important
evaluating dose response and conducting a risk assessment.                         because of their curative as well as protective
                                                                                   properties. Maintaining access for farmers will
                                                                                   reduce the pressure to increase more than pro-
                                                                                   portionately usage of other, less effective, subs-
                                                                                   titutes.”
          iMPriNt
                                                                                   Prof. Dr. Schmitz headed a joint research study
     BASF SE                              Rainer von Mielecki                      between Trinity College Dublin and the Institute
                                                                                   of Agribusiness published in April 2011, entit-
     Agricultural Center Limburgerhof     AP/K – Public/Government Affairs         led: “Restricted avai-
     AP/K - LI555                         Phone: +49 (0) 621 / 60-27 511           lability of azole based
                                                                                   fungicides: impacts on
     67117 Limburgerhof                   Fax: +49 (0) 621 / 60-27 512
                                                                                   EU farmers and crop
     Germany                              rainer.mielecki@basf.com                 agriculture”      http://
                                                                                   www.agribusiness.de/
                                                                                   images/stories/pdf/iab_
     www.agro.basf.com                                                             nr_27_triazole.pdf

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Agricultural Dialog - Curtailing the cure? - October 2011

  • 1. iNForMAtioN FroM tHe AgriculturAl iNDuStrY | OCTOBER 2011 AgriculturAl DiAlogue 14 eDitoriAl Dear Readers, The contribution of fungicides to EU agriculture is often overlooked. Since the 1940’s they have enabled the transition to high yield crop varieties, improving access to healthy and affordable food. Source: CropLife Increasing incidence of plant disease, driven by climate change, means that today’s farmers rely on fungicides more than ever. Concerns persist however that regulation could limit access to these Curtailing the cure? products resulting in over-reliance on a very limited set of solutions, quickly leading to EU agriculture plays a vital role in ensuring food security and driving our resistance. economy. In their attempt to supply enough healthy and high-quality This edition of the Agricultural Dialogue food, farmers face a constant threat from crop disease. Since the 1940s takes a closer look at the pressing need fungicides have enabled farmers to prevent and treat diseases, but potential for resistance management, the socio- Regulation that could reduce access to these important tools looks likely to economic contribution of fungicides, and have a dramatic impact. the science on their safety. We are fortunate to have the insight of two of the foremost Illness is not only a human condition. Agricultural crops are vulnerable to global experts in this field, Prof. Dr. Michael deadly fungal and viral infections including Septoria tritici, Fusarium, Rust, Schmitz (Institute of Agribusiness, University Powdery mildew and Eyespot. In Europe fungi have traditionally been the of Giessen) and Dr. Ronald Kendall (Texas more prevalent threat to arable crops, and have proven devastating if left Tech University). untreated – destroying up to 40% of the total harvest. Fungicides, like antibiotics in human healthcare, revolutionised disease treatment. Their introduction in the 1940s prompted the start of the green revolution; an ongoing period of marked agricultural yield increases. In Markus Heldt addition to dramatically reducing yield losses from illness, fungicides enable President, Crop Protection Division, BASF SE the cultivation of high yield varieties that would otherwise be susceptible to disease.
  • 2. AgriculturAl DiAlogue 14 2 The figures are stark. Consolidated UN FAO statistics on European wheat yields begin only 20 years after their initial introduction, but the impact is still evident. Between 1960 and 2008 wheat yields in Europe more than doubled from approximately 1.25 to 3.5 tons per hectare (FAO). Growing resistance However, fungicides’ likeness to antibiotics does not end there. Fungicides have been used widely and today European agriculture is heavily dependent on their extraordinary benefits. Just as bacteria have adapted successfully to some antibiotics, fungi in plants have evolved to fungicides and in recent years have developed significant resistance to many of the classes in use. Only the azole class, and particularly triazoles amongst them, are still considered to be highly reliable by farmers. Meanwhile the investment and timescale required to develop new products is severe; not to mention uncertain given the EU’s switch to Did you know? hazard based regulation. This leaves farmers with an ever smaller toolbox for fighting fungi effectively, threatening EU agricultural productivity.  The European agriculture sector is worth 675 billion euros a year and The threat posed to yield levels by further EU regulation is very concerning employs more than 11.2 million people, given two facts; (a) the global population is nearly 40% larger than it was equating to 14.2% of EU manufacturing in 1950 and (b) the population of the world is predicted to reach 9 billion export. by 2050.  Cereals (258m tons) are the main crop Environmental threats grown in the EU. The spread of wheat stem rust UG99 lineage New and emerging infectious  The demand for wheat in the EU is disease is a regular media expected to rise at a rate (21%) that topic, with SARS and cannot be supported by the expected Asian Bird Flu being recent rise in production (7%). examples. Less well reported  According to the UN FAO fungicides is the re-emergence of UG99, prevent losses estimated to be between a devastating strain of the 15 and 30% of global wheat harvests – rust fungus that, thought to equivalent to 44 billion loaves of bread, be extinct, has spread the or the amount of bread consumed in length of Africa in less than Germany each year. Source: FAO a decade and now sits at the  An EU ban of azoles would: gateway to Asia and Europe. B Create an annual EU welfare loss es- Climate change is also causing major problems for farmers, who are timated to be between 4.4 billion and being introduced to new crop diseases. 5.6 billion USD that would be mainly borne by producers Finding a solution B Reduce yields significantly (average = As such EU regulation needs to be designed in a way that it ensures Germany 17%, UK 16%, France 23%) farmers have access to effective solutions for fighting crop disease. B Result in the net EU trade position on wheat changing from an export of 8.7 In support of this opinion, a 2010 meeting of European and Mediterranean million tonnes, to an import status of Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) – the intergovernmental organization 9.6 million tonnes - on Azole fungicides and Septoria leaf blotch control concluded that:  Potato blight which caused the deaths “azoles are a major factor in the successful management of this and other of an estimated 1 million people during important cereal diseases, and having a diversity of azoles available is the Irish potato famine in 1845 is still a considered important in managing this disease”. serious threat to harvests. For now farmers are doing everything in their power not to compromise  Wheat rust spreads as billions of spores azoles, by rotating them and mixing them with other fungicides. in the wind. They move incrementally Resistance management has become a watchword, but they fear that from field to field and need wet weather the variety of the tools they have to work with may be reduced in the to thrive. future due to ever more complex regulation.
  • 3. iNForMAtioN FroM tHe AgriculturAl iNDuStrY | octoBer 2011 3 About Dr. Ronald Kendall Dr. Ronald Kendall is the founder and director of the Institute of Environmental and Human Health at Texas Tech University as well as the founding chair and professor of the university’s Department of Environmental Toxicology. Since 1997, the Institute of Environmental and Human Health (IEHH) has distinguished itself for its multidisciplinary approach to environmental and human health issues.    A leader in the field of wildlife toxicology, Minimal risk, maximum reward Kendall is frequently consulted by foreign countries on environmental issues. His Following the implementation of the EU Regulation research has been supported by 138 1107/2009, pesticides (including fungicides) will grants totalling over 50 million dollars. - uniquely in EU regulation - be assessed on the A prolific author with more than 200 basis of hazard rather than risk. Practically, a refereed journal and technical articles as substance with characteristics that might require well as books, Kendall is considered to an additional label in other applications could well have played a leading role in the initiation be banned for use in crop protection. Dr. Ronald of the field of wildlife toxicology. Kendall (Texas Tech University), one of the world’s foremost experts on the toxicology, shares his Among his many accomplishments, he opinion on fungicides, also commenting on the serves as an environmental advisor to new assessment criteria. the United States Justice Department and has addressed the United Nations After a thorough assessment of all the scientific literature, what is Committee on Sustainable Development. your opinion on the safety of fungicides? Generally speaking, fungal diseases are extremely difficult to control in agriculture without chemical application. Fungicidal chemicals are derived from a variety of structures. These include simple inorganic compounds, such as copper sulfate, to complex organic compounds.  Cereal production, utilization and stocks Although the scientific literature is voluminous and complex regarding Million Million fungicide toxicology, generally speaking these crop protection products tonnes tonnes 2400 800 can be used safely and effectively under practical agricultural applications Utilization when used according to the label and applied by trained professionals. Production Stocks What is the toxicological profile of fungicides? 2200 600 With few exceptions, fungicides have relatively low acute toxicity in mammals.  However, some have historically produced positive results in genotoxicity tests and, if such effects were demonstrated, many of these products have been regulated out of use. 2000 400 What are the dosage limits when looking at commercially sold fungicides and how does this relate to human health? Generally speaking, a fungicide is applied as a formulation which includes an active ingredient that is mixed with inert ingredients to enhance 1800 200 application.  Therefore, the commercial formulation of a fungicide is not 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 1 0 11 1 2 20 1/0 20 2/0 20 3/0 20 4/0 20 5/0 20 6/0 20 7/0 20 8/0 20 9/1 20 0/1 /1 0 100% active ingredient.  When one considers the general commercial 20 Source: FAO
  • 4. AgriculturAl DiAlogue 14 iNForMAtioN FroM tHe AgriculturAl iNDuStrY | octoBer 2011 4 applications of fungicides, the release of the active ingredient is generally relatively low, which means a reduced level of exposure for humans.  Since Prof. Dr. Michael Schmitz is recognized as a global one of the basic tenants of toxicology is “the dose makes the poison”, low expert on the impacts levels of human exposure to the active ingredients in fungicides are preferred. of EU and international agricultural policy. He As a leading toxicologist what do you think about the ongoing debate is the founder and di- in the EU about the endocrine disruptors, especially with reference to rector of the Institute of fungicides? Agribusiness located in Giessen, Germany. He There is a great deal of controversy and debate on just the definition of currently teaches at the Institute of Agricultural an endocrine disruptor, much less the science needed to understand Policy and Market Research of the University the relevance of endocrine disruption in terms of human health and the of Giessen. Prof. Dr. Schmitz is Member of the environment.  In general, the emerging scientific area of endocrine disruptors Scientific Advisory Board on Agriculture Policy will take a great deal of work to define and validate the tests needed to at the German Agriculture Ministry. determine relevant endocrine endpoints that can be interpreted to protect How important are azoles to crop protection human health in the environment.  and what action would you propose to pro- tect EU crop yields? “We access the future im- Does the recent conversion to hazard based assessment of fungicides portance of azoles very favorably. In our opinion make this debate disproportionately threatening to crop health? they are not replaceable and have the highest impact on plant health and yields with regard If one just addresses a hazard based assessment of fungicides without to resistance management, curative action and broad spectrum. Our results show that farmers considering “dose”, this discounts one of the basic tenants in toxicology and technical experts in UK, France and Ger- and that being “dose makes the poison”.  Therefore, in the science of risk many would find it very difficult to combat fu- assessment, one needs to consider in addition to hazard an incorporated sarium and septoria tritici without azole-based exposure assessment, in other words “dose”.  Also, oftentimes high-dose products and there is a strong consensus tests are used in hazard identification yet the approved agricultural uses, among all countries that restriction of azoles which are effective in pest management, involve much lower concentrations would have disastrous impacts on resistance management; becoming extremely difficult or of the fungicide.  Therefore, the ultimate net effect of using hazard-based almost impossible, especially in the case of assessments could be to put crop health at risk while overcompensating for septoria. human health protection. Restriction of azoles would have a strong im- pact on disease control due to missing curative There appears to be disagreement amongst experts on the safety of effects, higher costs, more time consuming and available fungicides.  Can you explain what lies behind this difference of strongly limited treatment possibilities. Disease opinion? levels would be much higher due to poor and unreliable control of core diseases, and an ina- If one just considers high-dose laboratory experiments for the identification bility to eradicate established diseases. of toxic effects from pesticides, such as fungicides, then one is probably Our analysis shows the importance of maintai- not getting the whole picture related to exposure and effects.  As an ning as broad a spectrum of plant protection environmental toxicologist, my view is that we must take laboratory data products as possible to avoid the growth of and then consider environmentally realistic exposure scenarios when we are disease resistance. The azoles are important evaluating dose response and conducting a risk assessment. because of their curative as well as protective properties. Maintaining access for farmers will reduce the pressure to increase more than pro- portionately usage of other, less effective, subs- titutes.” iMPriNt Prof. Dr. Schmitz headed a joint research study BASF SE Rainer von Mielecki between Trinity College Dublin and the Institute of Agribusiness published in April 2011, entit- Agricultural Center Limburgerhof AP/K – Public/Government Affairs led: “Restricted avai- AP/K - LI555 Phone: +49 (0) 621 / 60-27 511 lability of azole based fungicides: impacts on 67117 Limburgerhof Fax: +49 (0) 621 / 60-27 512 EU farmers and crop Germany rainer.mielecki@basf.com agriculture” http:// www.agribusiness.de/ images/stories/pdf/iab_ www.agro.basf.com nr_27_triazole.pdf