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Biotechnology as a tool for improved agricultural productivity as a result of climate change and solution to reduced globa...
Introduction Source: Stern Review on the economics of climate change, HM Treasury, 2006 Fig.1. Projected impacts to climat...
Intro cont… Adapted from FAO, world bank 2003 Table 1. The world population projection <ul><li>The devastating effects fro...
Intro cont…
<ul><li>Traits that can be considered for adaptation in climate change environment  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat tol...
Intro cont… <ul><li>Currently, 852 million people suffer from malnutrition while 1.3 billion are afflicted by poverty in d...
Justification <ul><li>Plant breeders are now able to use molecular biology techniques to identify genes conferring particu...
<ul><li>Improved crop productivity and income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore higher annual genetic gains to increase crop p...
Table 2:  Leading world producers of GM foods Rank Country Area  (million  hectares) Biotech Crops 1* USA # 57.7 Soybean, ...
Objective <ul><li>To enhance/share knowledge and awareness among biotechnology stake holders on the importance of biotech ...
Biotechnology  and climate change related stresses  <ul><li>On drought, GM oilseed rape and maize that tolerate water shor...
<ul><li>Heat stress, depends on heat intensity, duration and rate of increase in temperature  </li></ul><ul><li>At the mol...
<ul><li>Waterlogging typically results in wheat and cotton crops losses of between 10–50% </li></ul><ul><li>GM cotton line...
<ul><li>GM IR crops esp. cotton and maize  have been widely adopted, with 20 M ha grown worldwide in 2006 </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Agriculture currently accounts for about 25% of GHG emissions.  </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture accounts for 14% of ...
<ul><li>Each litre of tractor diesel consumed contributes an estimated 2.75 kg of CO 2  into the atmosphere </li></ul><ul>...
Table 3. Tractor fuel consumption by tillage method Source: “GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 199...
Summary <ul><li>By adopting more sustainable management practices, agriculture plays a large part in enhancing soil carbon...
Table  4. Context of carbon sequestration impact 2006: car equivalents Source: GM crops: global socio-economic and environ...
Biotechnology and reduced fertilzer use <ul><li>N 2 O has a global warming potential of 296, about 300 more than CO 2 </li...
Biotechnology  and Pest and disease surveillance in a changing climate <ul><li>Biotech tools (  ELISA and PCR) can be used...
GM crop  (Research & Development) Major global players Leader countries in Africa * Field trials conducted   Agricultural ...
<ul><ul><li>Food insecurity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate nutrition  </...
Conclusion <ul><li>The benefits of GM crops are diverse and already proven relevant to developing countries as they are fa...
Acknowledgement <ul><li>Much gratitude to AdaptAfrica Climate Change  Symposium organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Director KARI...
 
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Maurice Oyoo: Biotechnology as a tool for improved agricultural yield as a result to climate change and solution to reduced global warming due to agricultural activities

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Maurice Oyoo: Biotechnology as a tool for improved agricultural yield as a result to climate change and solution to reduced global warming due to agricultural activities

  1. 1. Biotechnology as a tool for improved agricultural productivity as a result of climate change and solution to reduced global warming due to agricultural activities Maurice E. Oyoo, * Muniu FK and Kibet PK [email_address] K. A. R. I. (Kenya)
  2. 2. Introduction Source: Stern Review on the economics of climate change, HM Treasury, 2006 Fig.1. Projected impacts to climate change <ul><li>Its warned that temperatures could increase by 2 to 3 deg in the next 50 years with devastating effects </li></ul>
  3. 3. Intro cont… Adapted from FAO, world bank 2003 Table 1. The world population projection <ul><li>The devastating effects from climate change are predicted amid </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growing world population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced arable land area </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Time 1950 1999 2050 World population (billions) 2 6 8 People fed per hectare (no.) 2 4 5 Cultivated land area/person (ha.) 0.45 0.25 0.15
  4. 4. Intro cont…
  5. 5. <ul><li>Traits that can be considered for adaptation in climate change environment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat tolerance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water-use efficiency (WEMA) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early vigour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waterlogging tolerance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salt tolerance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pest and disease resistance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early bulking in root and tuber crops </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Intro cont… <ul><li>CO 2 , light, temp and H 2 O are critical for plant growth and are related to climate. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Intro cont… <ul><li>Currently, 852 million people suffer from malnutrition while 1.3 billion are afflicted by poverty in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: double food production sustainable on same land area (1.5 billion ha) by 2050 </li></ul><ul><li>Through: adopting new farming technologies to cope with declining crop yield to ensure food security </li></ul>
  7. 7. Justification <ul><li>Plant breeders are now able to use molecular biology techniques to identify genes conferring particularly characteristics in advance of crossing plants </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates the need for expensive and unreliable field testing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the time required to develop a new crop for a changing environment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despite the relevance/importance of biotechnology to sustainable development……………. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Improved crop productivity and income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore higher annual genetic gains to increase crop productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance quality and nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased crop value ($2.5 to 3.0 billion in 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protect Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double crop production on same area of land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Save the forests biodiversity, 13m ha loss/ year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental safety Impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce need for external inputs- Pesticides- Potential to save 50% or 30,000mt in cotton alone . The accumulative reduction in pesticides for the period 1996 to 2004 was estimated at 172 500 MT of active ingredient, which is equivalent to a 14% reduction in the associated environmental impact of pesticide use on IT crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa is still lagging behind in biotech field </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Table 2: Leading world producers of GM foods Rank Country Area (million hectares) Biotech Crops 1* USA # 57.7 Soybean, maize, cotton, canola, squash, papaya, alfalfa 2* Argentina # 19.1 Soybean, maize, cotton 3* Brazil 15 Soybean, cotton 4* Canada # 7 Canola, maize, soybean 5* India 6.2 Cotton 6* China 3.8 Cotton, tomato, poplar, petunia, papaya, sweet pepper 7* Paraguay 2.6 Soybean 8* South Africa # 1.8 Maize, soybean, cotton 9* Uruguay 0.5 Soybean, maize 10* Philippines # 0.3 Maize 11* Australia # 0.1 Cotton 12* Spain 0.1 Maize 13* Mexico # 0.1 Cotton, soybean 14 Colombia # <0.1 Cotton, carnation 15 Chile # <0.1 Maize, soybean, canola 16 France <0.1 Maize 17 Honduras # <0.1 Maize 18 Czech Republic <0.1 Maize 19 Portugal <0.1 Maize 20 Germany <0.1 Maize 21 Slovakia <0.1 Maize 22 Romania <0.1 Maize 23 Poland <0.1 Maize  * - 13 biotech mega - countries g rowing 50,000 hectares, or more, of biotech crops  # - Deploying stacked products containing two or three traits with multiple benefits.  Source: Clive James, 2007 .
  10. 10. Objective <ul><li>To enhance/share knowledge and awareness among biotechnology stake holders on the importance of biotech in light of: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid increase in global population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diminishing available arable land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declining crop yield as a result of climate change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for higher yielding crop varieties with limited input needs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Biotechnology and climate change related stresses <ul><li>On drought, GM oilseed rape and maize that tolerate water shortages are in field tests in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Advocates of GM crops defend the technology that heat tolerant and salt-tolerant varieties can play an important role in adapting to global warming </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the important traits in developing a crop with tolerance to water stress may either include: </li></ul><ul><li>1). Long coleoptiles : 2). Root architecture : 3). Early vigour 4). Increasing stem-stored carbohydrates : 5). Stay-green </li></ul><ul><li>The first biotech maize varieties with drought tolerance are expected to be commercialized by around 2011 </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Heat stress, depends on heat intensity, duration and rate of increase in temperature </li></ul><ul><li>At the molecular level, heat shock proteins (HSPs) under the control of heat stress transcription factors could be altered </li></ul>Biotechnology and climate change related stresses-cont.. <ul><li>Also Ca2+dependent signalling phytohormones eg. abscisic acid, salicylic acid and ethylene could be of interest </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Waterlogging typically results in wheat and cotton crops losses of between 10–50% </li></ul><ul><li>GM cotton lines that contain genes derived from Arabidopsis have been developed in Australia that are expected to enhance tolerance to waterlogging </li></ul>Biotechnology and climate change related stresses-cont..
  14. 14. <ul><li>GM IR crops esp. cotton and maize have been widely adopted, with 20 M ha grown worldwide in 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Plus, 22 M ha of GM crops with combined IR and HT traits were grown </li></ul><ul><li>In Australia, GM IR cotton accounts for around 90 % of cotton production </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all of the commercially released GM IR crops have been modified with cry genes from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ). </li></ul><ul><li>A number of GM disease-resistant crops have been approved for commercial production in the world. Eg. potato varieties resistant to potato Y virus and potato leafroll virus in US and Canada </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Agriculture currently accounts for about 25% of GHG emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture accounts for 14% of CO 2 emission, methane (CH 4 ) (48%) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) (52%) </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing sustainable agricultural practices is therefore important </li></ul><ul><li>GMOs help decrease the necessity and frequency of spraying and tillage. </li></ul><ul><li>GM HT and IR Crops : maize, cotton, soybean, canola, sugar beet and grain sorghum hybrids have been developed reducing fuel used by farmers when they spray pesticides and herbicides on their fields, saving in CO 2 emissions </li></ul>Biotechnology and greenhouse gas reduction conserved farming systems
  16. 16. <ul><li>Each litre of tractor diesel consumed contributes an estimated 2.75 kg of CO 2 into the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>The fuel savings associated with making fewer spray runs (relative to conventional crops) has resulted in permanent savings in CO 2 emissions </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005 this amounted to approx. 962 M kg ( 356 ML fuel reduction). </li></ul><ul><li>1996 - 2005 the cumulative permanent reduction is approx. 4,613 M kg of CO 2 (1,679 ML fuel reduction). </li></ul><ul><li>The adoption of NT or RT systems in respect of fuel use results in reductions of CO 2 emissions of 89.44 kg/ha and 40.43 kg/ha respectively </li></ul>Biotechnology greenhouse gas reduction conserved farming systems cont…
  17. 17. Table 3. Tractor fuel consumption by tillage method Source: “GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996-2006,” Barfoot, P. and Brookes, G (2008). Tillage system Tractor fuel consumption ( Litre/ha) Traditional cultivation: mouldboard plough, disc and seed planting etc. 46.65 Conservation cultivation (RT): chisel plough, disc and seed planting 28.83 No-till (NT) (fertilizer knife, seed planting plus 2 sprays: pre-plant burn down and post-emergent) 14.12
  18. 18. Summary <ul><li>By adopting more sustainable management practices, agriculture plays a large part in enhancing soil carbon sequestration </li></ul><ul><li>One way is by reducing conventional tillage </li></ul><ul><li>By leaving at least 30% of residue on the soil surface, NT reduces the loss of CO 2 from agricultural systems and reduces evaporative water loss from soils </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, the NT area nearly doubled in the US </li></ul><ul><li>a 5-fold increase was recorded in Argentina, with GM Roundup Ready soybean estimated to account for 95% on the NT soybean area. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil carbon sequestered since 1996 is equivalent to 63,859 M Ton of CO 2 that has not been released into the global atmosphere because of adoption of GM HT crops </li></ul>
  19. 19. Table 4. Context of carbon sequestration impact 2006: car equivalents Source: GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1999-2006. Bafoot, P and Brookes, G (2008). Crop/trait/country Permanent CO2 savings arising from reduced fuel use (million kg of CO2) Average family car equivalents removed from the road for a year from the permanent fuel savings Potential additional soil carbon sequestration savings (million kg of CO2) Average family car equivalents removed from the road for a year from the potential additional soil carbon sequestration US: GM HT soybeans 245 108,877 4,064 1,806,345 Argentina: GMHT soybeans 659 293,094 6,994 3,108,408 Other countries: GM HT soybeans 77 34,091 813 361,547 Canada: GM HT canola 136 60,541 1,677 745,304 Global GM IR cotton 98 43,582 0 0 Total 1,215 540,186 13,549 6,021,604
  20. 20. Biotechnology and reduced fertilzer use <ul><li>N 2 O has a global warming potential of 296, about 300 more than CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 O stays in the atmosphere for more than 100 years </li></ul><ul><li>GM rice and canola that uses N more efficiently (NUE) already developed </li></ul><ul><li>NUE technology produces plants with yields that are equivalent to conventional varieties but which require significantly less N fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>In Kenya, NUE maize is on trial stages </li></ul>
  21. 21. Biotechnology and Pest and disease surveillance in a changing climate <ul><li>Biotech tools ( ELISA and PCR) can be used to detect and identify new and emerging pathogens that may have a stronger ability to establish and spread, or to become more abundant under changed climatic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial ELISA kits are available for many viruses, bacteria and fungi </li></ul>
  22. 22. GM crop (Research & Development) Major global players Leader countries in Africa * Field trials conducted Agricultural Biotechnology Focus in Africa Improved crop quality or HT or IT Developing countries with significant programs Countries with potential and/or engaged research
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>Food insecurity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declining public agricultural research budgets and capacity </li></ul></ul>Africa’s receptiveness to GM Crops shaped by concerns about
  24. 24. Conclusion <ul><li>The benefits of GM crops are diverse and already proven relevant to developing countries as they are far less labour-intensive and simplified method of farming whilst at the same time providing a higher crop yield of upto 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Presently, the developing countries primarily benefiting from GM crops are situated in Asia and South America. </li></ul><ul><li>Of the 50 countries listed by the UN as least developed countries, 35 are in Africa: need to increase agricultural productivity in Africa with the realization that agriculture accounts for 70% of full time employment, contributes to 33% of the total GDP and 40% of the total export earnings </li></ul><ul><li>The Green Revolution of 1960s had little benefit in African as it required large scale upfront investments. GM crops are knowledge intensive as opposed to capital/labour intensive thus small-scale farmers with limited resources are able to make use of this technology esp now that climate change is here with us </li></ul>
  25. 25. Acknowledgement <ul><li>Much gratitude to AdaptAfrica Climate Change Symposium organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Director KARI </li></ul>
  26. 27. Thank you for listening!!

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