SlideShare a Scribd company logo
TOPIC 1:WHAT IS CURRICULUM?
SEMINAR 1: 3 OCT 2015
HIU LUANG PENG
TOPIC OUTLINE
• Definition of curriculum
• Hidden curriculum
• Three approaches to curriculum
• Foundations of curriculum
• Curriculum development
• Curriculum and instruction
Definition of Curriculum
It is a statement of :
•what students should know (knowledge),
•be able to do (skills),
•how it is taught (instruction),
•how it is measured (assessment), and
•how the education is organized (context)
Hidden Curriculum
Definition:
What is taught in schools is more than
the sum total of the curriculum. School
should be understood as a socialisation
process where students pick up
messages through the experience of
being in school, not just from things
that they are explicitly taught
Philip Jackson, 1968
Hidden Curriculum
Definition:
Meighan, 1981
The hidden curriculum is taught by the school, not by
any teacher...something is coming across to the pupils
which may never be spoken in the English lesson… .
They are picking-up an approach to living and an
attitude to learning .
Approaches to Curriculum
•Curriculum as a body of knowledge to be
transmitted- content
•Curriculum as an attempt to achieve
certain ends in students – product
•Curriculum as process
ARISTOTLE’S CATEGORIZATION OF
KNOWLEDGE INTO THREE DISCIPLINES
The theoretical The practical The productive
Syllabus Process Product
Curriculum as Content
Focus:
•Body of knowledge/content to be
transmitted/delivered to students by the
most effective teaching methods
•Limit instruction to acquisition of facts,
concepts and principles prescribed in the
syllabus
Curriculum as Content
Weakness:
•A syllabus will not generally indicate the
relative importance of its topics or the order in
which they are to be studied
•People who equate curriculum with a syllabus
are likely to limit their planning to a
consideration of the content or the body of
knowledge that they wish to transmit
Curriculum as Product
•The dominant modes of describing and
managing education are today couched in the
productive form.
•Education is most often seen as a technical
exercise. Objectives are set, a plan drawn up,
then applied, and the outcomes (products)
measured.
Curriculum as Product
Focus:
•to equip students with knowledge/skills/ and
values to function effectively in society
•to have the instructor bring about significant
changes in the students' pattern of behaviour
(hence emphasis on objectives)
•to formulate behavioural objectives - providing
a clear notion of outcome so that content and
method may be organized and the results
evaluated (Tyler, 1949)
Curriculum as Product: Weakness
• Too technical and sequential
• Too much emphasis on the plan /programme which
overlooks the needs of the students
• Success of a curriculum is dependent ONLY on occurrence
of pre-specified changes in the behaviour of learners
• The focus on pre-specified goals may lead both educators
and learners to overlook learning that is occurring as a
result of their interactions, but which is not listed as an
objective.
• Due to emphasis on measurement, things have to be broken
down into smaller and smaller units resulting in long lists of
often trivial skills or competencies -sidelining the role of
overall judgment.
Curriculum as Process
•Curriculum as a process, is not a physical thing,
but rather the interaction of teachers, students
and knowledge.
•Curriculum is what actually happens in the
classroom and what people do to prepare and
evaluate.
Curriculum as Process
Focus:
•On the context in which the process occurs
(particular schooling situations);
•the fact that teachers enter the classroom or any
other formal educational setting with a more
fully worked-through idea of what is about to
happen (proposal for action which sets out
essential principles and features of the
educational encounter).
Stenhouse, 1975
Curriculum as Process
Weakness:
•It is a problem for those who want some greater
degree of uniformity in what is taught.
•It can lead to very different means being employed in
classrooms and a high degree of variety in content
because this approach places meaning-making and
thinking at its core and treats learners as subjects
rather than objects.
•Examinations would be difficult to conduct due to the
lack of uniformity in student learning.
Curriculum as Process
Weakness:
• It may not pay enough attention to the context in
which learning takes place
•There is the 'problem' of teachers because this
approach rests upon the quality of teachers. If they are
not up to much then there is no safety net in the form
of prescribed curriculum materials. The approach is
dependent upon the cultivation of wisdom and
meaning-making in the classroom. If the teacher is
not up to this, then there will be severe limitations on
what can happen educationally.
Process Versus Product
Process Product
• looks to the world of experimentation.
(Ongoing testing and refining)
• appeals to the workshop for a model
(finished product)
• each classroom setting is unique
i.e. it means that any proposal, even at
school level, needs to be tested, and
verified by each teacher in his/her
classroom
• a curriculum package which is
designed to be delivered almost
anywhere (uniform)
• content and means develop as teachers
and students work together. (interaction
is dynamic)
• outcomes are the central and defining
feature specifying behavioural
objectives and methods in advance
• the learners are not objects to be acted
upon. They have a clear voice in the
way that the sessions evolve.
• the focus is on interactions.
• attention shifts from teaching to
• has a pre-specified plan
• tends to direct attention to teaching.
Foundations of Curriculum
To aid in the all round development of a learner,
curriculum needs to be securely established in:
•philosophy
•psychology
•sociology and history
Foundations of Curriculum
• Philosophy influences how people should be
educated and what knowledge is worthwhile --
the beliefs guide curriculum developers on
how they should go about designing
curriculum
• Psychology looks into the various
perspectives on how humans learn.
Foundations of Curriculum
• Sociology provides an insight into society.
Sociology relates to curriculum because
curriculum is a reflection of societal values
and beliefs it serves.
• History – curriculum has evolved over time
and developers refer to history to better
understand decisions made over time (the
educational focus prevalent during a particular
National Philosophy of Education
Malaysia
Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards
further developing the potential of individuals in a
holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce
individuals who are intellectually, spiritually,
emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious
based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an
effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who
are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high
moral standards and who are responsible and capable
of achieving a high level of personal well-being as
well as being able to contribute to the betterment of
Curriculum Development
Curriculum Development is a process involving many
different people and procedures which include:
1.Curriculum planning
(identify philosophical beliefs & aims of
education)
2. Curriculum design
(decide on the ‘what’ and ‘how’ to teach)
3. Curriculum implementation
(get people to practice the ideas with support with
materials etc…)
Curriculum and Instruction
• Curriculum is the design, the framework of
education and refers to all the subjects that make up
for a course of study according to a grade in school
or college (the ‘what’ of education)
• Instruction is how teachers deliver the curriculum to
the students (the ‘how’ of the system of education)
Note: A curriculum, however good it may be, is ultimately
dependent upon how it is delivered to the students.
Designing curriculum in isolation without taking into account
the instruction part of education can lead to disastrous
results
A Curriculum
• Curriculum is a very broad-based concept that different
educators and teachers choose to define differently.
• There is a consensus, however, that it is the content of
the course that has to be taught by the teachers in a
particular manner that forms the curriculum in a course
of study.
• The content of a course is decided by the authorities
who are ultimately bound by the policies of the
government and the legislation passed by the
government in this regard.
• Teacher is the medium through which a curriculum gets
delivered in the manner in which it is intended.
contd…
• Curriculum is provided to teachers in the form of
text. It is a roadmap, a guide as to what to deliver to
the students and in what manner.
• The speed at which a teacher has to go to let the
students absorb the content of the course in an
optimum manner is also provided along with the
curriculum.
• All the subjects that comprise a course according to
a grade in a school are collectively referred to as
curriculum.
• It is like the skeleton or the framework of a structure
that defines what is to be taught to the students.
Instruction
• Instruction is the method or way of teaching to
students- teachers or the instructors are in control
• Teachers decide the ‘how’ part of education – to
impart the knowledge decided based upon the
curriculum.
• Instruction is always dependent upon the teaching
skills and the professional attitude of the teachers.
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT:
TEN GENERAL AXIOMS
1. Curriculum change is inevitable, necessary, and
desirable.
Schools and school systems grow and develop in
proportion to their ability to respond to change and adapt
to changing conditions. Society and its institutions
continuously encounter problems to which they must
respond.
2. Curriculum both reflects and is a product of its time.
The curriculum responds to, and is changed by, factors
such as social forces, philosophical positions,
psychological principles, accumulating knowledge, and
educational leadership at its moment in history.
contd…
3. Curriculum changes made at an earlier period of time
can exist concurrently with newer curriculum changes.
Curriculum revision rarely starts and ends abruptly.
Changes can coexist and overlap for long periods of time.
Usually curriculum is phased in and phased out on a
gradual basis.
4. Curriculum change depends on people to implement
the change.
People who will implement the curriculum should be
involved in its development. When individuals internalize
and own the changes in curriculum, the changes will be
effective and long-lasting.
contd…
5. Curriculum development is a cooperative group
activity.
Significant and fundamental changes in curriculum are
brought about as a result of group decisions. Any
significant change in the curriculum should involve a
broad range of stakeholders to gain their understanding,
support, and input.
6. Curriculum development is a decision-making process
in which choices are made from a set of alternatives.
Examples of decisions curriculum developers must make
include what to teach, what philosophy or point of view to
support, how to differentiate for special populations, what
methods or strategies to use to deliver the curriculum, and
what type of school organization best supports the
contd…
7. Curriculum development is an ongoing process.
Continuous monitoring, examination, evaluation, and
improvement of curricula are needed. No curriculum meets
the needs of everyone. As the needs of learners change, as
society changes, and as new knowledge and technology
appear, the curriculum must change.
8. Curriculum development is more effective if it is a
comprehensive process, rather than a “piecemeal”
process.
Curriculum development should not be a hit or miss
proposition, but should involve careful planning and be
supported by adequate resources, needed time, and
sufficient personnel.
contd…
9. Curriculum development is more effective when it
follows a systematic process.
A set of procedures, or models, for curriculum should be
established in advance, and be known and accepted by all
who are involved in the process. The model should outline
the sequence of steps to be followed for the development
of the curriculum.
10. Curriculum development starts from where the
curriculum is.
Most curriculum planners begin with existing curriculum.
Oliva advises planners to "hold fast to that which is good."
(Oliva, 2003, pp. 28-41)
201510060347 topic 1 what is curriculum

More Related Content

What's hot

Qualities of an effective teacher
Qualities of an effective teacherQualities of an effective teacher
Qualities of an effective teacher
Liwayway Memije-Cruz
 
Social system of the school
Social system of the schoolSocial system of the school
Social system of the school
vendai dmz
 
Approaches to curriculum
Approaches to curriculumApproaches to curriculum
Approaches to curriculum
Joseph Gerson Balana
 
TSL3143 Topic 5a Curriculum and the Teacher
TSL3143 Topic 5a Curriculum and the TeacherTSL3143 Topic 5a Curriculum and the Teacher
TSL3143 Topic 5a Curriculum and the Teacher
Yee Bee Choo
 
Implementing the curriculum the teacher as curriculum implementer and manager
Implementing the curriculum the teacher as curriculum implementer and managerImplementing the curriculum the teacher as curriculum implementer and manager
Implementing the curriculum the teacher as curriculum implementer and manager
RedPaspas
 
Definition of curr.
Definition of curr.Definition of curr.
Definition of curr.
SFYC
 
Curriculum Change and Innovation
Curriculum Change and InnovationCurriculum Change and Innovation
Curriculum Change and Innovation
Masitah ZulkifLy
 
Curriculum Theory
Curriculum Theory Curriculum Theory
Curriculum Theory
IER, University of the Punjab
 
Complexities of classroom
Complexities of classroomComplexities of classroom
Complexities of classroom
Usman Public School System
 
Curriculum Evaluation
Curriculum EvaluationCurriculum Evaluation
Curriculum Evaluation
valarpink
 
Role of teacher in curriculum implementation
Role of teacher in curriculum implementationRole of teacher in curriculum implementation
Role of teacher in curriculum implementation
International advisers
 
Principles & theories in curriculum development ppt
Principles & theories in curriculum development pptPrinciples & theories in curriculum development ppt
Principles & theories in curriculum development ppt
chxlabastilla
 
Curriculum concepts
Curriculum conceptsCurriculum concepts
Curriculum concepts
Jennifer De Julio
 
Role of a teacher in Curriculum Development at various Level (https://www.you...
Role of a teacher in Curriculum Development at various Level (https://www.you...Role of a teacher in Curriculum Development at various Level (https://www.you...
Role of a teacher in Curriculum Development at various Level (https://www.you...
Tasneem Ahmad
 
Implementing and Enriching the Curriculum
Implementing and Enriching the CurriculumImplementing and Enriching the Curriculum
Implementing and Enriching the Curriculum
JohnaAdube
 
Curriculum evaluation
Curriculum evaluationCurriculum evaluation
Curriculum evaluation
Cristy Romero
 
dimensions and principles of curriculum design
dimensions and principles of curriculum designdimensions and principles of curriculum design
dimensions and principles of curriculum design
gaestimos
 
THEORIES OF CURRICULUM AND THEIR MAJOR STRUCTURE
THEORIES OF CURRICULUM 	AND THEIR MAJOR STRUCTURETHEORIES OF CURRICULUM 	AND THEIR MAJOR STRUCTURE
THEORIES OF CURRICULUM AND THEIR MAJOR STRUCTURE
seharalam
 
Stages of Teachers Development
Stages of Teachers DevelopmentStages of Teachers Development
Stages of Teachers Development
Fatin Alia
 
Dynamic model of curriculum development
Dynamic model of curriculum development Dynamic model of curriculum development
Dynamic model of curriculum development
HadeeqaTanveer
 

What's hot (20)

Qualities of an effective teacher
Qualities of an effective teacherQualities of an effective teacher
Qualities of an effective teacher
 
Social system of the school
Social system of the schoolSocial system of the school
Social system of the school
 
Approaches to curriculum
Approaches to curriculumApproaches to curriculum
Approaches to curriculum
 
TSL3143 Topic 5a Curriculum and the Teacher
TSL3143 Topic 5a Curriculum and the TeacherTSL3143 Topic 5a Curriculum and the Teacher
TSL3143 Topic 5a Curriculum and the Teacher
 
Implementing the curriculum the teacher as curriculum implementer and manager
Implementing the curriculum the teacher as curriculum implementer and managerImplementing the curriculum the teacher as curriculum implementer and manager
Implementing the curriculum the teacher as curriculum implementer and manager
 
Definition of curr.
Definition of curr.Definition of curr.
Definition of curr.
 
Curriculum Change and Innovation
Curriculum Change and InnovationCurriculum Change and Innovation
Curriculum Change and Innovation
 
Curriculum Theory
Curriculum Theory Curriculum Theory
Curriculum Theory
 
Complexities of classroom
Complexities of classroomComplexities of classroom
Complexities of classroom
 
Curriculum Evaluation
Curriculum EvaluationCurriculum Evaluation
Curriculum Evaluation
 
Role of teacher in curriculum implementation
Role of teacher in curriculum implementationRole of teacher in curriculum implementation
Role of teacher in curriculum implementation
 
Principles & theories in curriculum development ppt
Principles & theories in curriculum development pptPrinciples & theories in curriculum development ppt
Principles & theories in curriculum development ppt
 
Curriculum concepts
Curriculum conceptsCurriculum concepts
Curriculum concepts
 
Role of a teacher in Curriculum Development at various Level (https://www.you...
Role of a teacher in Curriculum Development at various Level (https://www.you...Role of a teacher in Curriculum Development at various Level (https://www.you...
Role of a teacher in Curriculum Development at various Level (https://www.you...
 
Implementing and Enriching the Curriculum
Implementing and Enriching the CurriculumImplementing and Enriching the Curriculum
Implementing and Enriching the Curriculum
 
Curriculum evaluation
Curriculum evaluationCurriculum evaluation
Curriculum evaluation
 
dimensions and principles of curriculum design
dimensions and principles of curriculum designdimensions and principles of curriculum design
dimensions and principles of curriculum design
 
THEORIES OF CURRICULUM AND THEIR MAJOR STRUCTURE
THEORIES OF CURRICULUM 	AND THEIR MAJOR STRUCTURETHEORIES OF CURRICULUM 	AND THEIR MAJOR STRUCTURE
THEORIES OF CURRICULUM AND THEIR MAJOR STRUCTURE
 
Stages of Teachers Development
Stages of Teachers DevelopmentStages of Teachers Development
Stages of Teachers Development
 
Dynamic model of curriculum development
Dynamic model of curriculum development Dynamic model of curriculum development
Dynamic model of curriculum development
 

Similar to 201510060347 topic 1 what is curriculum

Ed 54 crafting the curriculum teacher as a designer
Ed 54 crafting the curriculum  teacher as a designerEd 54 crafting the curriculum  teacher as a designer
Ed 54 crafting the curriculum teacher as a designer
Rose Mae Artiola
 
Curriculumdevelopment
CurriculumdevelopmentCurriculumdevelopment
Curriculumdevelopment
Ignatius Joseph Estroga
 
Approaches to School Curriculum
Approaches to School CurriculumApproaches to School Curriculum
Approaches to School Curriculum
Junila Tejada
 
educ90- lesson 2.pptx
educ90- lesson 2.pptxeduc90- lesson 2.pptx
educ90- lesson 2.pptx
gladysmaaarquezramos
 
Students centered curriculum - Unit VII of Knowledge and Curriculum
Students centered curriculum - Unit VII of Knowledge and CurriculumStudents centered curriculum - Unit VII of Knowledge and Curriculum
Students centered curriculum - Unit VII of Knowledge and Curriculum
Thanavathi C
 
Process and steps of curriculum development
Process and steps of curriculum developmentProcess and steps of curriculum development
Process and steps of curriculum development
Soumya Ranjan Parida
 
Module 2 assignment rogue
Module 2 assignment   rogueModule 2 assignment   rogue
Module 2 assignment rogue
Robert Sandoval
 
nursing education curriculum and models CURRICULUM.pptx
nursing education curriculum and models CURRICULUM.pptxnursing education curriculum and models CURRICULUM.pptx
nursing education curriculum and models CURRICULUM.pptx
DONABIBIN
 
curriculum development in special education
curriculum development in special educationcurriculum development in special education
curriculum development in special education
AlinaNoreen1
 
Knowledge and curriculum unit 7
Knowledge and curriculum unit 7Knowledge and curriculum unit 7
Knowledge and curriculum unit 7
JAMUNARANI33
 
Curriculum nature, factors affecting curriculum
Curriculum nature, factors affecting curriculumCurriculum nature, factors affecting curriculum
Curriculum nature, factors affecting curriculum
mannparashar
 
CURRICULUM
CURRICULUMCURRICULUM
CURRICULUM
CURRICULUMCURRICULUM
Approaches of Teaching in UNIT III - TNTEU SYLLABUS - I SEM - B.Ed
Approaches of Teaching in UNIT III - TNTEU SYLLABUS - I SEM - B.EdApproaches of Teaching in UNIT III - TNTEU SYLLABUS - I SEM - B.Ed
Approaches of Teaching in UNIT III - TNTEU SYLLABUS - I SEM - B.Ed
Sasikala Antony
 
Topic 1 presentation
Topic 1 presentationTopic 1 presentation
Topic 1 presentation
sheerly
 
curriculum-development1.ppt
curriculum-development1.pptcurriculum-development1.ppt
curriculum-development1.ppt
josieortiz3
 
55610_633999983287741250.ppt
55610_633999983287741250.ppt55610_633999983287741250.ppt
55610_633999983287741250.ppt
Julissa Gomez
 
Ped 307 l3
Ped 307 l3Ped 307 l3
Ped 307 l3
rheomie opiasa
 
Curricularist as a Knower
Curricularist as a KnowerCurricularist as a Knower
Curricularist as a Knower
JM Gamboa
 
The Teacher and the School Curriculum.pptx
The Teacher and the School Curriculum.pptxThe Teacher and the School Curriculum.pptx
The Teacher and the School Curriculum.pptx
chimsholainearellano1
 

Similar to 201510060347 topic 1 what is curriculum (20)

Ed 54 crafting the curriculum teacher as a designer
Ed 54 crafting the curriculum  teacher as a designerEd 54 crafting the curriculum  teacher as a designer
Ed 54 crafting the curriculum teacher as a designer
 
Curriculumdevelopment
CurriculumdevelopmentCurriculumdevelopment
Curriculumdevelopment
 
Approaches to School Curriculum
Approaches to School CurriculumApproaches to School Curriculum
Approaches to School Curriculum
 
educ90- lesson 2.pptx
educ90- lesson 2.pptxeduc90- lesson 2.pptx
educ90- lesson 2.pptx
 
Students centered curriculum - Unit VII of Knowledge and Curriculum
Students centered curriculum - Unit VII of Knowledge and CurriculumStudents centered curriculum - Unit VII of Knowledge and Curriculum
Students centered curriculum - Unit VII of Knowledge and Curriculum
 
Process and steps of curriculum development
Process and steps of curriculum developmentProcess and steps of curriculum development
Process and steps of curriculum development
 
Module 2 assignment rogue
Module 2 assignment   rogueModule 2 assignment   rogue
Module 2 assignment rogue
 
nursing education curriculum and models CURRICULUM.pptx
nursing education curriculum and models CURRICULUM.pptxnursing education curriculum and models CURRICULUM.pptx
nursing education curriculum and models CURRICULUM.pptx
 
curriculum development in special education
curriculum development in special educationcurriculum development in special education
curriculum development in special education
 
Knowledge and curriculum unit 7
Knowledge and curriculum unit 7Knowledge and curriculum unit 7
Knowledge and curriculum unit 7
 
Curriculum nature, factors affecting curriculum
Curriculum nature, factors affecting curriculumCurriculum nature, factors affecting curriculum
Curriculum nature, factors affecting curriculum
 
CURRICULUM
CURRICULUMCURRICULUM
CURRICULUM
 
CURRICULUM
CURRICULUMCURRICULUM
CURRICULUM
 
Approaches of Teaching in UNIT III - TNTEU SYLLABUS - I SEM - B.Ed
Approaches of Teaching in UNIT III - TNTEU SYLLABUS - I SEM - B.EdApproaches of Teaching in UNIT III - TNTEU SYLLABUS - I SEM - B.Ed
Approaches of Teaching in UNIT III - TNTEU SYLLABUS - I SEM - B.Ed
 
Topic 1 presentation
Topic 1 presentationTopic 1 presentation
Topic 1 presentation
 
curriculum-development1.ppt
curriculum-development1.pptcurriculum-development1.ppt
curriculum-development1.ppt
 
55610_633999983287741250.ppt
55610_633999983287741250.ppt55610_633999983287741250.ppt
55610_633999983287741250.ppt
 
Ped 307 l3
Ped 307 l3Ped 307 l3
Ped 307 l3
 
Curricularist as a Knower
Curricularist as a KnowerCurricularist as a Knower
Curricularist as a Knower
 
The Teacher and the School Curriculum.pptx
The Teacher and the School Curriculum.pptxThe Teacher and the School Curriculum.pptx
The Teacher and the School Curriculum.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdfবাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
eBook.com.bd (প্রয়োজনীয় বাংলা বই)
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
Celine George
 
How to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 InventoryHow to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
Celine George
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching AptitudeUGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
S. Raj Kumar
 
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdfclinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
Priyankaranawat4
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
RAHUL
 
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
Colégio Santa Teresinha
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
AyyanKhan40
 
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
PECB
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Dr. Mulla Adam Ali
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
Israel Genealogy Research Association
 
Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...
Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...
Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...
imrankhan141184
 
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdfWalmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
TechSoup
 
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
Katrina Pritchard
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
WaniBasim
 
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptxHow to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
HajraNaeem15
 
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docxAdvanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
adhitya5119
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
Priyankaranawat4
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
mulvey2
 

Recently uploaded (20)

বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdfবাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
 
How to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 InventoryHow to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
 
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching AptitudeUGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
 
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdfclinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
 
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
 
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
ISO/IEC 27001, ISO/IEC 42001, and GDPR: Best Practices for Implementation and...
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
 
Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...
Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...
Traditional Musical Instruments of Arunachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh - RAYH...
 
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdfWalmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
 
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
 
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptxHow to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
 
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docxAdvanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
 

201510060347 topic 1 what is curriculum

  • 1. TOPIC 1:WHAT IS CURRICULUM? SEMINAR 1: 3 OCT 2015 HIU LUANG PENG
  • 2. TOPIC OUTLINE • Definition of curriculum • Hidden curriculum • Three approaches to curriculum • Foundations of curriculum • Curriculum development • Curriculum and instruction
  • 3. Definition of Curriculum It is a statement of : •what students should know (knowledge), •be able to do (skills), •how it is taught (instruction), •how it is measured (assessment), and •how the education is organized (context)
  • 4. Hidden Curriculum Definition: What is taught in schools is more than the sum total of the curriculum. School should be understood as a socialisation process where students pick up messages through the experience of being in school, not just from things that they are explicitly taught Philip Jackson, 1968
  • 5. Hidden Curriculum Definition: Meighan, 1981 The hidden curriculum is taught by the school, not by any teacher...something is coming across to the pupils which may never be spoken in the English lesson… . They are picking-up an approach to living and an attitude to learning .
  • 6. Approaches to Curriculum •Curriculum as a body of knowledge to be transmitted- content •Curriculum as an attempt to achieve certain ends in students – product •Curriculum as process
  • 7. ARISTOTLE’S CATEGORIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE INTO THREE DISCIPLINES The theoretical The practical The productive Syllabus Process Product
  • 8. Curriculum as Content Focus: •Body of knowledge/content to be transmitted/delivered to students by the most effective teaching methods •Limit instruction to acquisition of facts, concepts and principles prescribed in the syllabus
  • 9. Curriculum as Content Weakness: •A syllabus will not generally indicate the relative importance of its topics or the order in which they are to be studied •People who equate curriculum with a syllabus are likely to limit their planning to a consideration of the content or the body of knowledge that they wish to transmit
  • 10. Curriculum as Product •The dominant modes of describing and managing education are today couched in the productive form. •Education is most often seen as a technical exercise. Objectives are set, a plan drawn up, then applied, and the outcomes (products) measured.
  • 11. Curriculum as Product Focus: •to equip students with knowledge/skills/ and values to function effectively in society •to have the instructor bring about significant changes in the students' pattern of behaviour (hence emphasis on objectives) •to formulate behavioural objectives - providing a clear notion of outcome so that content and method may be organized and the results evaluated (Tyler, 1949)
  • 12. Curriculum as Product: Weakness • Too technical and sequential • Too much emphasis on the plan /programme which overlooks the needs of the students • Success of a curriculum is dependent ONLY on occurrence of pre-specified changes in the behaviour of learners • The focus on pre-specified goals may lead both educators and learners to overlook learning that is occurring as a result of their interactions, but which is not listed as an objective. • Due to emphasis on measurement, things have to be broken down into smaller and smaller units resulting in long lists of often trivial skills or competencies -sidelining the role of overall judgment.
  • 13. Curriculum as Process •Curriculum as a process, is not a physical thing, but rather the interaction of teachers, students and knowledge. •Curriculum is what actually happens in the classroom and what people do to prepare and evaluate.
  • 14. Curriculum as Process Focus: •On the context in which the process occurs (particular schooling situations); •the fact that teachers enter the classroom or any other formal educational setting with a more fully worked-through idea of what is about to happen (proposal for action which sets out essential principles and features of the educational encounter). Stenhouse, 1975
  • 15. Curriculum as Process Weakness: •It is a problem for those who want some greater degree of uniformity in what is taught. •It can lead to very different means being employed in classrooms and a high degree of variety in content because this approach places meaning-making and thinking at its core and treats learners as subjects rather than objects. •Examinations would be difficult to conduct due to the lack of uniformity in student learning.
  • 16. Curriculum as Process Weakness: • It may not pay enough attention to the context in which learning takes place •There is the 'problem' of teachers because this approach rests upon the quality of teachers. If they are not up to much then there is no safety net in the form of prescribed curriculum materials. The approach is dependent upon the cultivation of wisdom and meaning-making in the classroom. If the teacher is not up to this, then there will be severe limitations on what can happen educationally.
  • 17. Process Versus Product Process Product • looks to the world of experimentation. (Ongoing testing and refining) • appeals to the workshop for a model (finished product) • each classroom setting is unique i.e. it means that any proposal, even at school level, needs to be tested, and verified by each teacher in his/her classroom • a curriculum package which is designed to be delivered almost anywhere (uniform) • content and means develop as teachers and students work together. (interaction is dynamic) • outcomes are the central and defining feature specifying behavioural objectives and methods in advance • the learners are not objects to be acted upon. They have a clear voice in the way that the sessions evolve. • the focus is on interactions. • attention shifts from teaching to • has a pre-specified plan • tends to direct attention to teaching.
  • 18. Foundations of Curriculum To aid in the all round development of a learner, curriculum needs to be securely established in: •philosophy •psychology •sociology and history
  • 19. Foundations of Curriculum • Philosophy influences how people should be educated and what knowledge is worthwhile -- the beliefs guide curriculum developers on how they should go about designing curriculum • Psychology looks into the various perspectives on how humans learn.
  • 20. Foundations of Curriculum • Sociology provides an insight into society. Sociology relates to curriculum because curriculum is a reflection of societal values and beliefs it serves. • History – curriculum has evolved over time and developers refer to history to better understand decisions made over time (the educational focus prevalent during a particular
  • 21. National Philosophy of Education Malaysia Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the betterment of
  • 22.
  • 23. Curriculum Development Curriculum Development is a process involving many different people and procedures which include: 1.Curriculum planning (identify philosophical beliefs & aims of education) 2. Curriculum design (decide on the ‘what’ and ‘how’ to teach) 3. Curriculum implementation (get people to practice the ideas with support with materials etc…)
  • 24. Curriculum and Instruction • Curriculum is the design, the framework of education and refers to all the subjects that make up for a course of study according to a grade in school or college (the ‘what’ of education) • Instruction is how teachers deliver the curriculum to the students (the ‘how’ of the system of education) Note: A curriculum, however good it may be, is ultimately dependent upon how it is delivered to the students. Designing curriculum in isolation without taking into account the instruction part of education can lead to disastrous results
  • 25. A Curriculum • Curriculum is a very broad-based concept that different educators and teachers choose to define differently. • There is a consensus, however, that it is the content of the course that has to be taught by the teachers in a particular manner that forms the curriculum in a course of study. • The content of a course is decided by the authorities who are ultimately bound by the policies of the government and the legislation passed by the government in this regard. • Teacher is the medium through which a curriculum gets delivered in the manner in which it is intended.
  • 26. contd… • Curriculum is provided to teachers in the form of text. It is a roadmap, a guide as to what to deliver to the students and in what manner. • The speed at which a teacher has to go to let the students absorb the content of the course in an optimum manner is also provided along with the curriculum. • All the subjects that comprise a course according to a grade in a school are collectively referred to as curriculum. • It is like the skeleton or the framework of a structure that defines what is to be taught to the students.
  • 27. Instruction • Instruction is the method or way of teaching to students- teachers or the instructors are in control • Teachers decide the ‘how’ part of education – to impart the knowledge decided based upon the curriculum. • Instruction is always dependent upon the teaching skills and the professional attitude of the teachers.
  • 28. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT: TEN GENERAL AXIOMS 1. Curriculum change is inevitable, necessary, and desirable. Schools and school systems grow and develop in proportion to their ability to respond to change and adapt to changing conditions. Society and its institutions continuously encounter problems to which they must respond. 2. Curriculum both reflects and is a product of its time. The curriculum responds to, and is changed by, factors such as social forces, philosophical positions, psychological principles, accumulating knowledge, and educational leadership at its moment in history.
  • 29. contd… 3. Curriculum changes made at an earlier period of time can exist concurrently with newer curriculum changes. Curriculum revision rarely starts and ends abruptly. Changes can coexist and overlap for long periods of time. Usually curriculum is phased in and phased out on a gradual basis. 4. Curriculum change depends on people to implement the change. People who will implement the curriculum should be involved in its development. When individuals internalize and own the changes in curriculum, the changes will be effective and long-lasting.
  • 30. contd… 5. Curriculum development is a cooperative group activity. Significant and fundamental changes in curriculum are brought about as a result of group decisions. Any significant change in the curriculum should involve a broad range of stakeholders to gain their understanding, support, and input. 6. Curriculum development is a decision-making process in which choices are made from a set of alternatives. Examples of decisions curriculum developers must make include what to teach, what philosophy or point of view to support, how to differentiate for special populations, what methods or strategies to use to deliver the curriculum, and what type of school organization best supports the
  • 31. contd… 7. Curriculum development is an ongoing process. Continuous monitoring, examination, evaluation, and improvement of curricula are needed. No curriculum meets the needs of everyone. As the needs of learners change, as society changes, and as new knowledge and technology appear, the curriculum must change. 8. Curriculum development is more effective if it is a comprehensive process, rather than a “piecemeal” process. Curriculum development should not be a hit or miss proposition, but should involve careful planning and be supported by adequate resources, needed time, and sufficient personnel.
  • 32. contd… 9. Curriculum development is more effective when it follows a systematic process. A set of procedures, or models, for curriculum should be established in advance, and be known and accepted by all who are involved in the process. The model should outline the sequence of steps to be followed for the development of the curriculum. 10. Curriculum development starts from where the curriculum is. Most curriculum planners begin with existing curriculum. Oliva advises planners to "hold fast to that which is good." (Oliva, 2003, pp. 28-41)

Editor's Notes

  1. 8