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Development of standards for MV Switchgear for Arc Flash
protection
Bryan Johnson
Product Group Manager, ABB
Standards for MV Switchgear
Primary Distribution Switchgear, History of standards
IEC 60694 – Standard for switchgear
IEC 60694 Common
Specifications for switchgear
Standard concerned mainly with the
electrical capability of switchgear, i.e.
Ratings and functionality.
Type testing consisted of:
 Short time current withstand
 Dielectric withstand
 Temperature rise
 IP rating
Specification
concentrates
on electrical
capability
Primary Distribution Switchgear, History of standards
IEC 60298 – Standard for switchgear
IEC 60298 Additional standard
for switchgear
Standard in addition to the established
IEC60694 standard where safety
from internal arc is then considered:
Type testing consisted of:
 Internal arc testing for operator
safety
 Short time current withstand
 Dielectric withstand
 Temperature rise
 IP rating
First edition 1990
Specification
includes
internal arc
capability
“safety”
Primary Distribution Switchgear, History of standards
IEC 62271 -200 New standard for switchgear
IEC 62271-200 New Classifications
for Switchgear (Replacing IEC 60289)
Broader definition “Metal Enclosed” with
specific definitions to cover all types of
switchgear
 Partitioning – (PM, PI)
 Interlocking – (Tool / Interlock based)
 Loss of service continuity (LSC)
 Internal arc classified IAC AFLR
according to the new IEC 62271-200
Annex A
First edition of standard 2003
Specification
improves on
internal arc
capability, and
other important
safety features
Internal Arc in Switchgear
What is an internal arc
Characteristics of an internal arc
 is the result of a rapid release of energy
due to an arcing fault between phases,
neutral or a ground.
 arises when current passes through a
dielectric, usually air
 dissipates maximum peak power
 has a temperature up to five times the
surface temperature of the sun (20,000°C)
 has a light intensity more than 2000 times
that of normal office light
 causes volumetric expansion of
approximately 40,000 x
Rodents, Reptiles and insects
Mislaid and forgotten tools
Faulty insulation or operation
Accidents during work
Causes of an internal arc
Effects of an Internal arc
Effects of an internal arc fault
 Pressure increase in an enclosed compartment
 Rapid onset (<15 ms) results in explosive forces
 Thermal effects, and hot gases present
 The longer the arc is allowed to burn the greater the risks of damages, and injuries to nearby
personnel.
1 10 100 1000
Consequenceof
Internalarcfault
time in ms
Cable fire
Copper fire
Steel fire
Conventional protection device
- Dramatic consequences expected
- Severe injuries and equipement damage
(Dependant on switchgear design)
Fast protection devices
- Limited consequences expected for
people and equipement damage
(Dependant on switchgear design)
Phases of an Internal Arc
1 Compression Phase
2 Expansion Phase
3 Emission Phase
4 Thermal Phase
Four phases of the pressure curve for
an internal arc fault
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
time (ms)
OverPresseureincubicle(Bar)
1 2 3 4
Criteria for switchgear to comply
with
IEC 62271- 200 Annexure A
1. Correctly secured doors and cover do
not open
2. No fragmentation of the enclosure
occurs within the test time
3. Arcing do not cause holes in the
accessible sides, up to height of 2m
4. Indicators do not ignite due to effect of
hot gases
5. The enclosure remains connected to
its earthing point
Criteria to pass arc test
UniGear ZS1 undergoing
an internal arc test
Internal Arc
IAC Classification
Front
Lateral
Rear
100 ms700 ms
Feeder CB
Remote Switchboard
I>
Incomer CB
Local Switchboard
ARC I>
I> I>
Fault persists
even if CB is
operated by
arc protection
system
400 ms
20 ms
ABB Primary Distribution Switchgear
Primary protection from 1 second IAC Rating
Internal Arc
IEC 62271 -200 Type test.
Type test comprises of:
 Simulation of an internal fault in a switchgear
compartments
 Resulting in a destructive arc
 Fire and hot gases
 Fast pressure rise
 Simulation of an operator standing next to the
switchgear by means of cotton indicators
 After the fault current has been
switched off:
 Assessment of the test:
- Visual inspection
- High-speed video
- Oscillograms
 If test was successful, a type test report can be
issued
 A type test report provides evidence for health
and safety of operators!
Metallic segregation classification PM
Metal enclosed switchgear
Metallic segregation of all the
compartments
Metallic shutters operated by the
apparatus movement
Closed door apparatus racking
Busbar segregation on every third
panel
Loss of Service Continuity Simplified
LSC1 LSC 2A LSC 2B
Switchboard must
be de-energised to
work on any part
Adjacent units can
remain in service
while maintenance ic
carried out on one
unit.
Same as LSC2A,
but cables can
remain energised
Common numbering of publications
IEC 62271 series
HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR Old IEC number, if any
Part New title
1 Common specifications IEC 60694
2 Seismic qualification for rated voltages of 72,5 kV and above -
100 High-voltage alternating current circuit-breakers IEC 60056
101 Synthetic testing IEC 60427
102 High-voltage alternating current disconnectors and earthing switches IEC 60129
103 Switches for rated voltages above 1 kV and less than 52 kV IEC 60265-1
104 Switches for rated voltages of 52 kV and above IEC 60265-2
105 Alternating current switch-fuse combinations IEC 60420
106 Alternating current contactors and contactor-based motor-starters IEC 60470
107 Alternating current switchgear-fuse combinations -
108 Switchgear having combined functions -
109 Series capacitor by-pass switches -
200
AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV
IEC 60298
Standards
IEC 62271 – Series for MV switchgear
All Standards are important for MV Switchgear
MV Switchgear- IEC 62271-200
Circuit Breakers- IEC 62271-100
Current transformers - IEC 61869-2
Voltage transformers - IEC 61869-3
Earth Switches - IEC 62271 – 102
Cable Live VDS - IEC 61243-5
Cable Compartment
Primary Distribution Switchgear, History of standards
Certification of switchgear
Switchgear is considered
compliant if tested in accordance
with test procedures and
parameters of standard.
Certified and tested equipment can be
considered as:
 Safe to operate
 High in quality
 Reliable
 Functional
Developments in switchgear
and protection systems
Air Insulated switchgear
Cable VT moved to inside switchgear
CB
Cables
Cable
VT
CB
Cables
VT
Newer Designs
Arc Gases Directed
Upwards
Arc Gases
“Blocked”
or
Directed to
Rear
Earlier Designs
Air Insulated switchgear
Busbar VT’s moved to separate panel
CB
Cables
Busbar
VT
Earlier Designs
Newer Designs
BB
VT
Arc Gases Directed
Upwards
Arc Gases
“Blocked”
or
Directed to
Rear
 Protection : Only over-current relay (t>:0.4s)
0
[ms]
35
[ms]
100 [ms]
500
[ms]
Ik’’
0
[ms]
35
[ms]
100 [ms]
500
[ms]
Serious damage and
injuries
Air Insulated switchgear
Conventional O/C & E/F Protection
 Protection : Arc protection relay and over-current relay
0
[ms]
35
[ms]
100 [ms]
500
[ms]
0
[ms]
35
[ms]
100 [ms]
500
[ms]
Ik’’
No major
damage or
personal
injuries
Air Insulated Switchgear
REA Arc Protection
Medium Voltage Switchgear
Arc Venting Ducts
Arc ducts
Ducting offered on top of the switchboard,
provides for a safe method of venting and
dealing with arc flash pressure, and hot
gasses.
Absorber or exhaust vents are used to dissipate
the hot gasses depending on the substation
dimensions, and fault levels
Primary Distribution Switchgear
Arc ducting systems introduced
Panel by panel relief
 Pressure relief to the top of the switchgear, with
no ducts
Pressure relief via absorber
 Pressure relief via ducts and absorbers
 The pressure wave is cooled by absorbers and
discharged into the switchgear room
Pressure relief to the outside
 Pressure relief duct extended up to an opening in
the outside wall
Air Insulated Switchgear
Effects of suddenpressure rise
Air Insulated switchgear
Developments summarised
Arc Ducting
Closed door racking
VT’s inside arc withstand area
Arc protection relays
Busbar
Segregation
Compliance to standards
What else can customers do?
Arc Eliminators
Arc Eliminators short out open arcs very fast to minimise damage.
UFES Arc Eliminator
Fault detection
UFES Arc Eliminator
Switching Element
UFES Arc Eliminator
Switching Principle
Position before tripping
UFES Arc Eliminator
Switching Principle
Position after tripping
UFES Arc Eliminator
Event sequence
UFES Arc Eliminator
Event sequence
UFES Arc Eliminator
Event sequence
UFES Arc Eliminator
Event sequence
UFES Arc Eliminator
Event sequence
UFES Arc Eliminator
Mounting
UFES Simulation
2015 Arc Flash Conference MV Switchgear Standards

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2015 Arc Flash Conference MV Switchgear Standards

  • 1. Development of standards for MV Switchgear for Arc Flash protection Bryan Johnson Product Group Manager, ABB
  • 2. Standards for MV Switchgear
  • 3. Primary Distribution Switchgear, History of standards IEC 60694 – Standard for switchgear IEC 60694 Common Specifications for switchgear Standard concerned mainly with the electrical capability of switchgear, i.e. Ratings and functionality. Type testing consisted of:  Short time current withstand  Dielectric withstand  Temperature rise  IP rating Specification concentrates on electrical capability
  • 4. Primary Distribution Switchgear, History of standards IEC 60298 – Standard for switchgear IEC 60298 Additional standard for switchgear Standard in addition to the established IEC60694 standard where safety from internal arc is then considered: Type testing consisted of:  Internal arc testing for operator safety  Short time current withstand  Dielectric withstand  Temperature rise  IP rating First edition 1990 Specification includes internal arc capability “safety”
  • 5. Primary Distribution Switchgear, History of standards IEC 62271 -200 New standard for switchgear IEC 62271-200 New Classifications for Switchgear (Replacing IEC 60289) Broader definition “Metal Enclosed” with specific definitions to cover all types of switchgear  Partitioning – (PM, PI)  Interlocking – (Tool / Interlock based)  Loss of service continuity (LSC)  Internal arc classified IAC AFLR according to the new IEC 62271-200 Annex A First edition of standard 2003 Specification improves on internal arc capability, and other important safety features
  • 6. Internal Arc in Switchgear
  • 7. What is an internal arc Characteristics of an internal arc  is the result of a rapid release of energy due to an arcing fault between phases, neutral or a ground.  arises when current passes through a dielectric, usually air  dissipates maximum peak power  has a temperature up to five times the surface temperature of the sun (20,000°C)  has a light intensity more than 2000 times that of normal office light  causes volumetric expansion of approximately 40,000 x
  • 8. Rodents, Reptiles and insects Mislaid and forgotten tools Faulty insulation or operation Accidents during work Causes of an internal arc
  • 9. Effects of an Internal arc Effects of an internal arc fault  Pressure increase in an enclosed compartment  Rapid onset (<15 ms) results in explosive forces  Thermal effects, and hot gases present  The longer the arc is allowed to burn the greater the risks of damages, and injuries to nearby personnel. 1 10 100 1000 Consequenceof Internalarcfault time in ms Cable fire Copper fire Steel fire Conventional protection device - Dramatic consequences expected - Severe injuries and equipement damage (Dependant on switchgear design) Fast protection devices - Limited consequences expected for people and equipement damage (Dependant on switchgear design)
  • 10. Phases of an Internal Arc 1 Compression Phase 2 Expansion Phase 3 Emission Phase 4 Thermal Phase Four phases of the pressure curve for an internal arc fault 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 time (ms) OverPresseureincubicle(Bar) 1 2 3 4
  • 11. Criteria for switchgear to comply with IEC 62271- 200 Annexure A 1. Correctly secured doors and cover do not open 2. No fragmentation of the enclosure occurs within the test time 3. Arcing do not cause holes in the accessible sides, up to height of 2m 4. Indicators do not ignite due to effect of hot gases 5. The enclosure remains connected to its earthing point Criteria to pass arc test UniGear ZS1 undergoing an internal arc test
  • 13. 100 ms700 ms Feeder CB Remote Switchboard I> Incomer CB Local Switchboard ARC I> I> I> Fault persists even if CB is operated by arc protection system 400 ms 20 ms ABB Primary Distribution Switchgear Primary protection from 1 second IAC Rating
  • 14. Internal Arc IEC 62271 -200 Type test. Type test comprises of:  Simulation of an internal fault in a switchgear compartments  Resulting in a destructive arc  Fire and hot gases  Fast pressure rise  Simulation of an operator standing next to the switchgear by means of cotton indicators  After the fault current has been switched off:  Assessment of the test: - Visual inspection - High-speed video - Oscillograms  If test was successful, a type test report can be issued  A type test report provides evidence for health and safety of operators!
  • 15. Metallic segregation classification PM Metal enclosed switchgear Metallic segregation of all the compartments Metallic shutters operated by the apparatus movement Closed door apparatus racking Busbar segregation on every third panel
  • 16. Loss of Service Continuity Simplified LSC1 LSC 2A LSC 2B Switchboard must be de-energised to work on any part Adjacent units can remain in service while maintenance ic carried out on one unit. Same as LSC2A, but cables can remain energised
  • 17. Common numbering of publications IEC 62271 series HIGH-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR AND CONTROLGEAR Old IEC number, if any Part New title 1 Common specifications IEC 60694 2 Seismic qualification for rated voltages of 72,5 kV and above - 100 High-voltage alternating current circuit-breakers IEC 60056 101 Synthetic testing IEC 60427 102 High-voltage alternating current disconnectors and earthing switches IEC 60129 103 Switches for rated voltages above 1 kV and less than 52 kV IEC 60265-1 104 Switches for rated voltages of 52 kV and above IEC 60265-2 105 Alternating current switch-fuse combinations IEC 60420 106 Alternating current contactors and contactor-based motor-starters IEC 60470 107 Alternating current switchgear-fuse combinations - 108 Switchgear having combined functions - 109 Series capacitor by-pass switches - 200 AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV IEC 60298 Standards IEC 62271 – Series for MV switchgear
  • 18. All Standards are important for MV Switchgear MV Switchgear- IEC 62271-200 Circuit Breakers- IEC 62271-100 Current transformers - IEC 61869-2 Voltage transformers - IEC 61869-3 Earth Switches - IEC 62271 – 102 Cable Live VDS - IEC 61243-5 Cable Compartment
  • 19. Primary Distribution Switchgear, History of standards Certification of switchgear Switchgear is considered compliant if tested in accordance with test procedures and parameters of standard. Certified and tested equipment can be considered as:  Safe to operate  High in quality  Reliable  Functional
  • 20. Developments in switchgear and protection systems
  • 21. Air Insulated switchgear Cable VT moved to inside switchgear CB Cables Cable VT CB Cables VT Newer Designs Arc Gases Directed Upwards Arc Gases “Blocked” or Directed to Rear Earlier Designs
  • 22. Air Insulated switchgear Busbar VT’s moved to separate panel CB Cables Busbar VT Earlier Designs Newer Designs BB VT Arc Gases Directed Upwards Arc Gases “Blocked” or Directed to Rear
  • 23.  Protection : Only over-current relay (t>:0.4s) 0 [ms] 35 [ms] 100 [ms] 500 [ms] Ik’’ 0 [ms] 35 [ms] 100 [ms] 500 [ms] Serious damage and injuries Air Insulated switchgear Conventional O/C & E/F Protection
  • 24.  Protection : Arc protection relay and over-current relay 0 [ms] 35 [ms] 100 [ms] 500 [ms] 0 [ms] 35 [ms] 100 [ms] 500 [ms] Ik’’ No major damage or personal injuries Air Insulated Switchgear REA Arc Protection
  • 25. Medium Voltage Switchgear Arc Venting Ducts Arc ducts Ducting offered on top of the switchboard, provides for a safe method of venting and dealing with arc flash pressure, and hot gasses. Absorber or exhaust vents are used to dissipate the hot gasses depending on the substation dimensions, and fault levels
  • 26. Primary Distribution Switchgear Arc ducting systems introduced Panel by panel relief  Pressure relief to the top of the switchgear, with no ducts Pressure relief via absorber  Pressure relief via ducts and absorbers  The pressure wave is cooled by absorbers and discharged into the switchgear room Pressure relief to the outside  Pressure relief duct extended up to an opening in the outside wall
  • 27. Air Insulated Switchgear Effects of suddenpressure rise
  • 28. Air Insulated switchgear Developments summarised Arc Ducting Closed door racking VT’s inside arc withstand area Arc protection relays Busbar Segregation Compliance to standards
  • 29. What else can customers do?
  • 30. Arc Eliminators Arc Eliminators short out open arcs very fast to minimise damage.
  • 33. UFES Arc Eliminator Switching Principle Position before tripping
  • 34. UFES Arc Eliminator Switching Principle Position after tripping