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OCR Media Studies
Conference 2012
G235: Critical Perspectives in
Media
Theoretical Evaluation of
Production: Q 1a and Q 1b
Rubric for 1a)
Evaluate skills development across media
production work over two years of ‘A’ Level or
any other media production within the areas of:
• Digital Technology
• Creativity
• Research and Planning
• Post Production
• Use of Real Media Texts
Question can be based on one or two of the areas.
Rubric for 1b)
Evaluate one production piece (AS or A2 main
project or either of the A2 ancillaries) against
one of the below theoretical concepts:
• Genre
• Narrative
• Representation
• Audience
• Media Language
Answers can demonstrate how work supports
or challenges ideas within the areas.
What do students find difficult?
In groups from your own
experience, write down what you
think the students find/might find
difficult about Section A in general.
In my experience as a teacher...
- Students don’t like evaluating their own work.
- They find it difficult to identify what skills
they have developed over two years (and any
outside work for 1a).
-They think they already know many aspects
(particularly for 1a).
- They don’t like learning or applying the theory
(for 1b).
- Timing their answers.
In my experience as an examiner...
- They have misunderstood what is required
for 1a) – only discuss one product.
- They are vague for 1b) – either no ‘real’
theory/terms or just a textual analysis of their
product.
- Students haven’t applied any kind of structure
to either of the questions
- Timing their answers – they run out of time
and only do one OR don’t write enough to gain
marks.
Question 1a)
What we can do to help
the students structure
their thoughts and
learning?
In groups, write down which
numbers are true or false.
1. For 1a) students don’t have to explain what they
made
2. For 1a) have a different structure for each option
3. For 1a) options can’t be taught to a structure
4. For 1a) we shouldn’t teach theory
5. For 1a) options must teach theory
6. 1a) options need less time spent teaching them
than 1b) options
7. 1a) options are all covered in the A2 coursework
evaluations
Q1a) Structure...
It is possible to teach some essay structure for these
options if we structure a plan to the three elements of
the production process (which is what the whole
question is essentially asking the students to
evaluate).
- Pre-Production
- Production
- Post-Production
The three options that can be taught to
this easy structure are:
- Digital Technology
- Creativity
- Use of Real Media Texts
An ‘affect on/effects of’ structure can be applied
that takes into account the stages of production
to more difficult options:
- Research and Planning
- Post Production
Applying a simple structure:
Digital Technology
Starter
Begin by asking students to define digital technology and
re-call digital technologies across the course.
This generally brings up blogs, cameras, tripods (!!),
Photoshop, Premiere... Discuss with them the difference
between hardware and software (and explain why
tripods aren’t digital...)
Applying a simple structure:
Digital Technology
AS A2
Pre-Production
Applying a simple structure:
Digital Technology
AS A2
Production
Applying a simple structure:
Digital Technology
AS A2
Post-Production
Marks and Timing
•All that does seem a lot for the students to
write in 30 minutes.
•But to get the marks the students need
examples from their work.
•So – could limit the examples to 3 per
section (e.g. 3 digital technologies at AS at
pre-production stage and at A2 3
development examples)
•Try to always stick to PDQ format – this
helps for the two option questions...
•In terms of essay introductions for 1a), use a
three part structure
1. Answer or give point of view to question.
2. Outline briefly what they made across
both years.
3. Explain to the examiner how they are
going to structure their essay.
Marks and Timing
Q1a) Theory and Terminology...
It is possible to remind students of basic theory or
references to ideas and key terms that they can put into
their essays. (magazines = preferred meaning, star
persona, ideal self/partner)
It isn’t vital that there is theory but if it helps support
their answer then their application of it and
understanding can be credited.
Hard one for teachers – Creativity?
We use a basic definition:
‘making of the old, re-arranging of the new’,
‘something new that communicates something
to someone’,
‘something original’.
This can be used to support points of view
in introduction and throughout.
Q1a) Theory and Terminology...
Any Questions about Q1a)??
(happy to go through structure for any
other questions etc...)
Question 1b)
What we can do to help
the students structure
their essays?
The students need to be equipped to take one of their
Productions and apply it to ideas/theory about one of
the five concepts.
The key way to help them do this is not to give them too
much and make the theoretical ideas as generic as
possible (particularly for centres like mine that complete
a variety of coursework options).
It is possible to get them to pick one of their productions
and work through all the options in the syllabus early on.
Q1b) Guidance on Teaching
• Introductions - could follow 3 part structure:
1. Define the concept
2. Outline the production they will evaluate.
3. Tell the examiner they are going to discuss (X
number of ideas about the concept in the essay).
• Again the students should try to follow a PDQ
format, but the emphasis is on examples (D) from
their work to support or challenge a theory/idea
about the concept.
Q1b) Guidance on Teaching
• Genre
• Generally, this should cover not just generic
conventions of the particular sub-genre of their
product but should include ideas about how genres
develop/evolve (in relation to their particular
product (e.g. Changing sub-genres of music video,
magazines) and how institutions use genre to target
audiences.
Q1b) Breakdown of the Options?
• Narrative
• Essentially, the basic and familiar narrative theories
can be applied to many video pieces the students
have undertaken.
• This is a harder one to apply to print products but
can be done in terms of looking a narratives behind
the ideologies that are apparent within the text.
• Ideas about juxtaposition of elements are useful in
helping to explain how design work and layout in
print products creates a logical ‘story’ for the
reader.
Q1b) Breakdown of the Options?
• Representation
• There are numerous theories about representation
of gender, age, ethnicity, regional identity etc. which
may have already been covered at AS.
• Students may evaluate how their product has
mediated certain representations about social
groups/artists/characters.
• They can also evaluate how certain subcultures
have been represented within the product.
Q1b) Breakdown of the Options?
• Audience
• Again, there are numerous ways to tackle this and an
idea about each allows the students to fully show
they understand the concept.
• How the audience is represented, how the product
can be applied to audience
effects/reception/pleasures theories, how the
product is a reflection of ideas about changing
audience consumption habits, how the audience for
the text was constructed and researched.
Q1b) Breakdown of the Options?
• Media Language
• This is all about the specific medium and how the
language of the medium has been used to create meaning
for the audience. The meanings generally are a synoptic
round up of other options covered (genre,
narrative/stories, representations).
• As part of this it is important to include terminology
about how signs work in the media.
• Essentially, however, this is one where a generic approach
is more difficult and the language of the medium needs
careful revision to encourage students to textually
analyse their own essay against medium specific theory
(e.g. Goodwin and music videos).
Q1b) Breakdown of the Options?
G235: Critical
Perspectives in Media
Theoretical Evaluation
of Production
1b) Genre
Sample Basic Lesson Structure
Aims/Objectives
• To introduce the concept of genre
theory and key genre theorists.
• To have a basic understanding of how
to categorise evaluate your
coursework against genre theory.
Definition
• ‘Genre’ is a critical tool that helps us study
texts and audience responses to texts by
dividing them into categories based on
common elements.
• Daniel Chandler (2001) details that the
word genre comes from the word for 'kind'
or 'class'. The term is widely used in
rhetoric, literary theory, media theory to
refer to a “distinctive type of ‘text’”.
• All genres have sub genres (genre
within a genre).
• This means that they are divided up
into more specific categories. Barry
Keith Grant (1995) suggests that this
allows audiences to identify them
specifically by their familiar and
what become recognisable
characteristics.
Task –Chandler’s and Grant’s
theories.
• You have 5 minutes to write down how the
production you are writing about for Q1b)
fits into a specific genre/sub-genre/hybrid
genre.
• Back this up with at least 5 specific
elements/examples from this production
that show how you have replicated genre
conventions.
• Must be specific – headlines, photogaphs,
fonts, editing techniques.
Jason Mittell (2001) argues that
industries use genre to sell products
to audiences. Media producers use
familiar codes and conventions that
very often make references to their
audience knowledge of society,
other texts.
Task – Jason Mittel’s theory.
• You have 5 minutes to write down how you
used real media products in your chosen
industry to help you construct your
product. How, for example, does the local
newspaper provide familiar expectations?
• Back this up with at least 5 specific
elements/examples from this industry that
show how you have replicated/challenged
genre conventions.
• Finally, write a sentence about how these
choices would make sure your product
appealed to your demographic.
• Genre also allows audiences to make choices
about what products they want to consume
through acceptance in order to fulfil a
particular pleasure.
• Theorist Rick Altman (1999) argues that genre
offers audiences ‘a set of pleasures’.
• This can also be linked to Denis McQuail’s
(1972) theory on ‘uses and gratifications’ of
media texts for audiences.
• Basically, the genre of your text will have
provided your demographic/subculture with
some satisfaction upon their consumption.
Task – Rick Altman’s and Denis
McQuail’s theories.
• You have 5 minutes to write down:
• Altman’s three pleasures. Decide which
one might relate to your product and write
down in detail 5 examples from your
product which offer this for your audience.
• McQuail’s four uses and gratifications.
Decide which ones might relate to your
product and write down in detail 5
examples from your product which offer
this for your audience
Genres are not fixed. They constantly change
and evolve over time – your coursework
productions, as we have discussed, are
postmodern pieces and/or adapt to changes to
advances in technology.
Christian Metz (1974) argued that genres go
through a typical cycle of changes during their
lifetime.
David Buckingham (1993) argues that 'genre is
not... Simply "given" by the culture: rather, it is in
a constant process of negotiation and change’.
Steve Neale (1995) “genres are processes of
systemisation” – they change over time.
Task – ‘Evolving’ genre theories.
• You have 5 minutes to write down:
• How your product is part of a genre that
has changed over time.
• Give 3 examples of texts that were part of
‘experimental’ or ‘classic’ ideas of your
product within the genre and 5 examples
that show your text as a ‘classic’ or as an
‘evolving’ piece.
Certain genres are also said to have
certain themes.
David Bordwell (1989) notes, 'any
theme may appear in any genre‘.
Task – genre themes.
• You have 5 minutes to write down:
• 5 themes that appear within your product
that are part of your genre.
• Back each one up with examples from
your work.
Plenary
• Write down 3 genre theorists (not
including Chandler or Grant) that you have
learnt today and what they have said.
• Write down 2 pieces of medium specific
theory and relate it to your sub genre.
Homework
“Analyse one of your coursework productions
in relation to genre”.
Any Questions about Q1b)??
(happy to go through theory for any
other questions etc...)

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1a and 1b vicky allen

  • 1. OCR Media Studies Conference 2012 G235: Critical Perspectives in Media Theoretical Evaluation of Production: Q 1a and Q 1b
  • 2. Rubric for 1a) Evaluate skills development across media production work over two years of ‘A’ Level or any other media production within the areas of: • Digital Technology • Creativity • Research and Planning • Post Production • Use of Real Media Texts Question can be based on one or two of the areas.
  • 3. Rubric for 1b) Evaluate one production piece (AS or A2 main project or either of the A2 ancillaries) against one of the below theoretical concepts: • Genre • Narrative • Representation • Audience • Media Language Answers can demonstrate how work supports or challenges ideas within the areas.
  • 4. What do students find difficult? In groups from your own experience, write down what you think the students find/might find difficult about Section A in general.
  • 5. In my experience as a teacher... - Students don’t like evaluating their own work. - They find it difficult to identify what skills they have developed over two years (and any outside work for 1a). -They think they already know many aspects (particularly for 1a). - They don’t like learning or applying the theory (for 1b). - Timing their answers.
  • 6. In my experience as an examiner... - They have misunderstood what is required for 1a) – only discuss one product. - They are vague for 1b) – either no ‘real’ theory/terms or just a textual analysis of their product. - Students haven’t applied any kind of structure to either of the questions - Timing their answers – they run out of time and only do one OR don’t write enough to gain marks.
  • 7. Question 1a) What we can do to help the students structure their thoughts and learning?
  • 8. In groups, write down which numbers are true or false. 1. For 1a) students don’t have to explain what they made 2. For 1a) have a different structure for each option 3. For 1a) options can’t be taught to a structure 4. For 1a) we shouldn’t teach theory 5. For 1a) options must teach theory 6. 1a) options need less time spent teaching them than 1b) options 7. 1a) options are all covered in the A2 coursework evaluations
  • 9. Q1a) Structure... It is possible to teach some essay structure for these options if we structure a plan to the three elements of the production process (which is what the whole question is essentially asking the students to evaluate). - Pre-Production - Production - Post-Production
  • 10. The three options that can be taught to this easy structure are: - Digital Technology - Creativity - Use of Real Media Texts An ‘affect on/effects of’ structure can be applied that takes into account the stages of production to more difficult options: - Research and Planning - Post Production
  • 11. Applying a simple structure: Digital Technology Starter Begin by asking students to define digital technology and re-call digital technologies across the course. This generally brings up blogs, cameras, tripods (!!), Photoshop, Premiere... Discuss with them the difference between hardware and software (and explain why tripods aren’t digital...)
  • 12. Applying a simple structure: Digital Technology AS A2 Pre-Production
  • 13. Applying a simple structure: Digital Technology AS A2 Production
  • 14. Applying a simple structure: Digital Technology AS A2 Post-Production
  • 15. Marks and Timing •All that does seem a lot for the students to write in 30 minutes. •But to get the marks the students need examples from their work. •So – could limit the examples to 3 per section (e.g. 3 digital technologies at AS at pre-production stage and at A2 3 development examples)
  • 16. •Try to always stick to PDQ format – this helps for the two option questions... •In terms of essay introductions for 1a), use a three part structure 1. Answer or give point of view to question. 2. Outline briefly what they made across both years. 3. Explain to the examiner how they are going to structure their essay. Marks and Timing
  • 17. Q1a) Theory and Terminology... It is possible to remind students of basic theory or references to ideas and key terms that they can put into their essays. (magazines = preferred meaning, star persona, ideal self/partner) It isn’t vital that there is theory but if it helps support their answer then their application of it and understanding can be credited.
  • 18. Hard one for teachers – Creativity? We use a basic definition: ‘making of the old, re-arranging of the new’, ‘something new that communicates something to someone’, ‘something original’. This can be used to support points of view in introduction and throughout. Q1a) Theory and Terminology...
  • 19. Any Questions about Q1a)?? (happy to go through structure for any other questions etc...)
  • 20. Question 1b) What we can do to help the students structure their essays?
  • 21. The students need to be equipped to take one of their Productions and apply it to ideas/theory about one of the five concepts. The key way to help them do this is not to give them too much and make the theoretical ideas as generic as possible (particularly for centres like mine that complete a variety of coursework options). It is possible to get them to pick one of their productions and work through all the options in the syllabus early on. Q1b) Guidance on Teaching
  • 22. • Introductions - could follow 3 part structure: 1. Define the concept 2. Outline the production they will evaluate. 3. Tell the examiner they are going to discuss (X number of ideas about the concept in the essay). • Again the students should try to follow a PDQ format, but the emphasis is on examples (D) from their work to support or challenge a theory/idea about the concept. Q1b) Guidance on Teaching
  • 23. • Genre • Generally, this should cover not just generic conventions of the particular sub-genre of their product but should include ideas about how genres develop/evolve (in relation to their particular product (e.g. Changing sub-genres of music video, magazines) and how institutions use genre to target audiences. Q1b) Breakdown of the Options?
  • 24. • Narrative • Essentially, the basic and familiar narrative theories can be applied to many video pieces the students have undertaken. • This is a harder one to apply to print products but can be done in terms of looking a narratives behind the ideologies that are apparent within the text. • Ideas about juxtaposition of elements are useful in helping to explain how design work and layout in print products creates a logical ‘story’ for the reader. Q1b) Breakdown of the Options?
  • 25. • Representation • There are numerous theories about representation of gender, age, ethnicity, regional identity etc. which may have already been covered at AS. • Students may evaluate how their product has mediated certain representations about social groups/artists/characters. • They can also evaluate how certain subcultures have been represented within the product. Q1b) Breakdown of the Options?
  • 26. • Audience • Again, there are numerous ways to tackle this and an idea about each allows the students to fully show they understand the concept. • How the audience is represented, how the product can be applied to audience effects/reception/pleasures theories, how the product is a reflection of ideas about changing audience consumption habits, how the audience for the text was constructed and researched. Q1b) Breakdown of the Options?
  • 27. • Media Language • This is all about the specific medium and how the language of the medium has been used to create meaning for the audience. The meanings generally are a synoptic round up of other options covered (genre, narrative/stories, representations). • As part of this it is important to include terminology about how signs work in the media. • Essentially, however, this is one where a generic approach is more difficult and the language of the medium needs careful revision to encourage students to textually analyse their own essay against medium specific theory (e.g. Goodwin and music videos). Q1b) Breakdown of the Options?
  • 28. G235: Critical Perspectives in Media Theoretical Evaluation of Production 1b) Genre Sample Basic Lesson Structure
  • 29. Aims/Objectives • To introduce the concept of genre theory and key genre theorists. • To have a basic understanding of how to categorise evaluate your coursework against genre theory.
  • 30. Definition • ‘Genre’ is a critical tool that helps us study texts and audience responses to texts by dividing them into categories based on common elements. • Daniel Chandler (2001) details that the word genre comes from the word for 'kind' or 'class'. The term is widely used in rhetoric, literary theory, media theory to refer to a “distinctive type of ‘text’”.
  • 31. • All genres have sub genres (genre within a genre). • This means that they are divided up into more specific categories. Barry Keith Grant (1995) suggests that this allows audiences to identify them specifically by their familiar and what become recognisable characteristics.
  • 32. Task –Chandler’s and Grant’s theories. • You have 5 minutes to write down how the production you are writing about for Q1b) fits into a specific genre/sub-genre/hybrid genre. • Back this up with at least 5 specific elements/examples from this production that show how you have replicated genre conventions. • Must be specific – headlines, photogaphs, fonts, editing techniques.
  • 33. Jason Mittell (2001) argues that industries use genre to sell products to audiences. Media producers use familiar codes and conventions that very often make references to their audience knowledge of society, other texts.
  • 34. Task – Jason Mittel’s theory. • You have 5 minutes to write down how you used real media products in your chosen industry to help you construct your product. How, for example, does the local newspaper provide familiar expectations? • Back this up with at least 5 specific elements/examples from this industry that show how you have replicated/challenged genre conventions. • Finally, write a sentence about how these choices would make sure your product appealed to your demographic.
  • 35. • Genre also allows audiences to make choices about what products they want to consume through acceptance in order to fulfil a particular pleasure. • Theorist Rick Altman (1999) argues that genre offers audiences ‘a set of pleasures’. • This can also be linked to Denis McQuail’s (1972) theory on ‘uses and gratifications’ of media texts for audiences. • Basically, the genre of your text will have provided your demographic/subculture with some satisfaction upon their consumption.
  • 36. Task – Rick Altman’s and Denis McQuail’s theories. • You have 5 minutes to write down: • Altman’s three pleasures. Decide which one might relate to your product and write down in detail 5 examples from your product which offer this for your audience. • McQuail’s four uses and gratifications. Decide which ones might relate to your product and write down in detail 5 examples from your product which offer this for your audience
  • 37. Genres are not fixed. They constantly change and evolve over time – your coursework productions, as we have discussed, are postmodern pieces and/or adapt to changes to advances in technology. Christian Metz (1974) argued that genres go through a typical cycle of changes during their lifetime. David Buckingham (1993) argues that 'genre is not... Simply "given" by the culture: rather, it is in a constant process of negotiation and change’. Steve Neale (1995) “genres are processes of systemisation” – they change over time.
  • 38. Task – ‘Evolving’ genre theories. • You have 5 minutes to write down: • How your product is part of a genre that has changed over time. • Give 3 examples of texts that were part of ‘experimental’ or ‘classic’ ideas of your product within the genre and 5 examples that show your text as a ‘classic’ or as an ‘evolving’ piece.
  • 39. Certain genres are also said to have certain themes. David Bordwell (1989) notes, 'any theme may appear in any genre‘.
  • 40. Task – genre themes. • You have 5 minutes to write down: • 5 themes that appear within your product that are part of your genre. • Back each one up with examples from your work.
  • 41. Plenary • Write down 3 genre theorists (not including Chandler or Grant) that you have learnt today and what they have said. • Write down 2 pieces of medium specific theory and relate it to your sub genre.
  • 42. Homework “Analyse one of your coursework productions in relation to genre”.
  • 43. Any Questions about Q1b)?? (happy to go through theory for any other questions etc...)