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INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP AND LEADERSHIP

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INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP AND LEADERSHIP

  1. 1. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP
  2. 2. The concept of interpersonal relationship involves social associations. Connections, or affiliations between two or more people. Such persons may interact overtly, covertly, face-to-face or may remain effectively unknown to each other ( as in a virtual community whose member maintain anonymity and do not socialize outside of a chat-room).
  3. 3. ANALYZING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP •Explicit Interaction- That define an interpersonal relationship- such as Body Language and Dialogue. •Implicit Interaction- Include standing in a Shopping line or in an Emergency lane. •Focused- ( Such as the Sales-oriented relationship between a sales assistant and a customer). •Unfocused- ( as between passengers on a bus).
  4. 4. CHARACTERSTICS •Interpersonal relationship vary in their degree of Self-Disclosure, Feedback, Power, and Respect. •Degree of changeability itself can demonstrate power differentials in a variety of interpersonal relationship and settings. •Relationships vary in the degree to which both intimacy and sharing occur.
  5. 5. POSSIBLE STAGES IN THE COURSE OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS 1. CONTACT: • PERCEPTUAL- Notices how parties look at each other and their body-language. • INTERACTIONAL CUES- Nodding, maintaining eye- contact etc. • INVITATIONAL- Encouraging the potential relationship, requesting for something, like tea, coffee. • AVOIDANCE STRATEGIES- If one person discloses and the other does not: minimal response, lack of eye-contact, etc.
  6. 6. 2. INVOLVEMENT FEELERS- Hints or questions ( for example: asking about family). INTENSIFYING STRATEGIES- Furthering the relationship (for example meeting an old friend, bringing the other to meet family, becoming more affectionate, etc. PUBLIC- Parties seen in public together often (if in a romantic relationship, may involve holding hands).
  7. 7. 3. INTIMACY: Parties very close; may have exchanged some sort of personal belonging or something that represents further commitment. 4. DETERIORATION: Things start to fall apart. In a romantic relationship, typically after approximately six months people move out of the so-called “Honeymoon stage”, and start to notice flaws. The way they address this determines the fate of the relationship.
  8. 8. TYPES OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Kinship relationships (including family relationships) involved relating to someone else: • Genetically (consanguinity, as for example in fatherhood, motherhood). • Through marriage (affinity as for example as a father-in-law, mother-in-law, uncle-by-marriage, aunty-by-marriage). Formalized intimate relationships or long term relationships recognized by law and formalized through public ceremony ( for example the relationship of marriage and of civil-union).
  9. 9. Non-Formalized intimate relationships or long term relationships such as loving relationships or romantic relationships with or without living together. Soul mates, individuals intimately drawn to one another through a favorable “Meeting Of Minds” and who find mutual acceptance and/or understanding with one another. Soul mates may feel themselves bonded together for a lifetime
  10. 10. Friendship , which consist of mutual love, trust, respect and (often unconditional) acceptance and usually implies the discovery of establishment of common ground between the individuals involved; brotherhood and sisterhood. Partners or co-workers in a profession, business or a common workplace, compare team. Participation in a community, for example, a community of interest or practice. Association, simply knowing someone by introduction or knowing someone by interaction.
  11. 11. FACTORS IN ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING RELATIONSHIPS Compassion Intelligence An ability and willingness to communicate. Self awareness Expertise in each relationship- type (in this hierarchy) requires the skills of all previous relationship- types (for example partnership requires friendship and teamwork skills).
  12. 12. HIERARCHY OF FORMS OF ACTIVITY AND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP 1. BEHAVIOR 2. ACTION 3. SOCIAL BEHAVIOR 4. SOCIAL ACTION 5. SOCIAL CONTACT 6. SOCIAL INTERACTION 7. SOCIAL RELATION
  13. 13. THEORIES CONCERNING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS 1. Closure 2. Trust, as trust between parties can become mutual. This way lead to enduring relationship. 3. Social Exchange Theory, which interprets relationship in terms of exchange benefits. People will regard relationship in the light of the rewards of the relationship, as well as reward they may potentially received in alternate relationship.
  14. 14. 4. Systemic Coaching, which analyzes relationship as a expression of a perceived human need to give and receive love. 5. Transferences, entanglements, and substitution can complicate relationships. Systemic coaching claims to offer solutions for many difficulties in relationships. 6. Equity Theory, which stems for a criticism of social exchange theory. Proponents argue that people care about more than just maximizing reward: they also allegedly want fairness and equity in their relationships.
  15. 15. 7. Relational Dialectics, which regards relationships not as static entities, but as continuing processes, forever changing. This approach sees constant tension in the negotiation. 8. Attachment styles, which analyze relationship in yet another way. Proponents of attachment style argue that style developed in childhood continue influential throughout adulthood, influencing the roles people adopt in relationships. 9. Socionics and some other theories of psychological compatibility consider interpersonal relationships as at least partly dependent on the psychological types of partners.
  16. 16. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION THEORIES 1.SOCIAL PENETRATION THEORY (SPT) SPT is a theory about the development of “relational closeness”. Relational closeness can progress from superficial to intimate. Closeness develops through self-disclosure.
  17. 17. 2. SELF-DISCLOSURE Self-disclosure is sharing with someone information which helps him or her understand you. Self-disclosure is most revealing when the sharing is in the present and least revealing when the sharing is about the past. -- D. Johnson, Self-Disclosure Characteristics The story always represents the storyteller (the person disclosing). SD stimulates feedback. The quality of the feedback is related to the amount and relevance of self-disclosure we receive and share with others. Self-disclosure can be most revealing or least revealing.
  18. 18. 3. UNCERTAINTY REDUCTION THEORY (URT) Presumes that “the beginning of personal relationships are fraught with uncertainties” (C. Berger). Presumes that people want to reduce uncertainty in relationships through knowledge and understanding. Three ways we learn about others: Passive strategies -- we observe the person, either in situations where the other person is likely to be self-monitoring (a reactivity search) as in a classroom, or where the other person is likely to act more naturally (a disinhibition search) as in the stands at a football game. Active strategies -- we ask others about the person we're interested in or try to set up a situation where we can observe that person (e.g., taking the same class, sitting a table away at dinner). Once the situation is set up we sometime observe (a passive strategy) or talk with the person (an interactive strategy). Interactive strategies -- we communicate directly with the person.
  19. 19. 4. RELATIONAL DIALECTICS THEORY (RDT) Relationships reflect tensions (conflicts, contradictions) that are played out in communication interaction (dialectical tensions). Relationships are “organized around the dynamic interplay of opposing tendencies” (L. Baxter & B. Montgomery)
  20. 20. Developing Interpersonal Skills
  21. 21. LIFE POSITION
  22. 22. JOHARI WINDOW KNOWN TO OTHERS NOT KNOWN TO OTHERS KNOWN TO SELF NOT KNOWN TO SELF
  23. 23. Ten Ways to Improve Your Interpersonal Skills 1. Smile. 2. Be appreciative. 3. Pay attention to others. 4. Practice active listening. 5. Bring people together. 6. Resolve conflicts. 7. Communicate clearly. 8. Humor them. 9. See it from their side. 10. Don't always complain
  24. 24. LEADERSHIP
  25. 25. WHAT IS LEADERSHIP? THE ABILITY TO INFLUENCE A GROUP TOWARD THE ACHIEVEMENT OF GOALS. INFLUENCING PEOPLE COMMANDING PEOPLE GUIDING PEOPLE LEADING PEOPLE
  26. 26. LEADERSHIP THEORIES TRAIT THEORY BEHAVIORAL THEORY CONTINGENCY THEORY
  27. 27. TRAIT THEORIES Traits Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from non leaders.
  28. 28. BEHAVIORALTHEORIES Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non leaders.
  29. 29. CONTINGENCY THEORIES A. FIEDLER’S MODEL: DIFINING THE SITUATION LEADER-MEBER RELATIONS The degree of confidence, true and respect subordinates have in their leader. ________________________________________________________________ TASK STRUCTURE The degree to which the task assignment are proceduriezed. ________________________________________________________________ POSITION POWER Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote and give salary increases.
  30. 30. Findings from Fiedler Model Good PoorPerformance Category LEADER-MEBER RELATIONS TASK STRUCTURE POSITION POWER _ _ _ _ _ _ task oriented ________ relationship oriented
  31. 31. B. HERSEY AND BLANCHARD’S SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY (SLT) A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness. Unable and unwilling Unable but willing Able and unwilling Able and willing Directive High task and relationship orientation Supportive participative Monitoring
  32. 32. LEADERSHIP STYLES AND FOLLOWERS READINESS (Hersey and Blanchard) Supportive participative Monitoring Directive High task and relationship orientation Leadership styles Able Unable Unwilling Willing Follower readiness
  33. 33. C. LEADER- MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY Leader- Member exchange (LMX) theory Leader create in-groups and out-groups, and subordinates with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction.
  34. 34. LEADER- MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY PERSONAL COMPATIBILITY, SUBORDINATE COMPETENCE, AND/OR EXTROVERTED PERSONALITY LEADER SUBORDINATE A SUBORDINATE B SUBORDINATE C SUBORDINATE D SUBORDINATE E SUBORDINATE F _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ ____ __ ______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ IN-GROUP OUT-GROUP
  35. 35. D. THE PATH GOAL THEORY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTINGENCY FACTORS •TASK STRUCTURE •FORMAL AUTHORITY SYSTEM •WORK GROUP SUBORDINATE CONTINGENCY FACTORS •LOCUS OF CONTROL •EXPERIENCE •PERCEIVED ABILITY OUTCOMES •PERFORMANCE •SATISFACTION LEADER BEHAVIOR •DIRECTIVE •PARTICIPATIVE •ACHIVEMENT-ORIENTED •SUPPORTIVE
  36. 36. LEADERSHIP STYLES ____________________________________________________________________ Transactional Leadership Transformational Leadership LEADERSHIP STYLES Autocratic Management Style Democratic Management Style Laissez Faire Management Style
  37. 37. AUTOCRATIC MANAGEMENT STYLE •An Autocratic Manager dictates orders to their staff and makes decisions without any consultation. •The leader likes to control the situations they are in. •Decisions are quick. •This type of management style can decrease motivation and increase staff turnover.
  38. 38. DEMOCRATIC OR PARTICIPATIVE STYLE •A democratic manager delegates authority to the staff, giving them responsibility to complete the task. •Staff will complete the task using their own work methods on time. •Employees are involved in decision making giving them a sense motivating individuals. •Increases job satisfaction by involving employees or team members.
  39. 39. LAISSEZ FAIRE MANAGEMENT STYLE •A laissez faire manager sets the task and gives staff complete freedom to complete the task as they see fit. “Leave it be”. •It works for team in which the individuals are very experienced and skilled self-starters. •There is minimal involvement from the manager. •The manager coaches or supply information if required. •Benefits- staff are developed to take responsibility. •Staff feel lost and not reach the goals set within the time frame.
  40. 40. TRANSACTIONAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Transactional Leadership Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirement. _______________________________________________________ Transformational Leadership Leaders who provide individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, and who possess charisma.
  41. 41. Characteristics of transactional leaders Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for efforts, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishment. Management By exception: Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action.
  42. 42. Characteristics for transformational leaders Idealized Influence: Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust. Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways. Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving. Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.

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