The concept of interpersonal relationship
involves social associations. Connections,
or affiliations between two or more
people. Such persons may interact overtly,
covertly, face-to-face or may remain
effectively unknown to each other ( as in a
virtual community whose member
maintain anonymity and do not socialize
outside of a chat-room).
•Explicit Interaction- That define an interpersonal
relationship- such as Body Language and Dialogue.
•Implicit Interaction- Include standing in a Shopping line
or in an Emergency lane.
•Focused- ( Such as the Sales-oriented relationship
between a sales assistant and a customer).
•Unfocused- ( as between passengers on a bus).
•Interpersonal relationship vary in their degree of
Self-Disclosure, Feedback, Power, and Respect.
•Degree of changeability itself can demonstrate
power differentials in a variety of interpersonal
relationship and settings.
•Relationships vary in the degree to which both
intimacy and sharing occur.
POSSIBLE STAGES IN THE COURSE
OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
• PERCEPTUAL- Notices how parties look at each other and
• INTERACTIONAL CUES- Nodding, maintaining eye-
• INVITATIONAL- Encouraging the potential relationship,
requesting for something, like tea, coffee.
• AVOIDANCE STRATEGIES- If one person discloses and
the other does not: minimal response, lack of eye-contact, etc.
FEELERS- Hints or questions ( for example: asking about
INTENSIFYING STRATEGIES- Furthering the relationship
(for example meeting an old friend, bringing the other to meet
family, becoming more affectionate, etc.
PUBLIC- Parties seen in public together often (if in a romantic
relationship, may involve holding hands).
3. INTIMACY: Parties very close; may have exchanged
some sort of personal belonging or something that represents
4. DETERIORATION: Things start to fall apart. In a
romantic relationship, typically after approximately six months
people move out of the so-called “Honeymoon stage”, and start
to notice flaws. The way they address this determines the fate
of the relationship.
TYPES OF INTERPERSONAL
Kinship relationships (including family relationships) involved
relating to someone else:
• Genetically (consanguinity, as for example in fatherhood,
• Through marriage (affinity as for example as a father-in-law,
mother-in-law, uncle-by-marriage, aunty-by-marriage).
Formalized intimate relationships or long term relationships
recognized by law and formalized through public ceremony ( for
example the relationship of marriage and of civil-union).
Non-Formalized intimate relationships or long
term relationships such as loving relationships or
romantic relationships with or without living
Soul mates, individuals intimately drawn to
one another through a favorable “Meeting Of
Minds” and who find mutual acceptance and/or
understanding with one another. Soul mates may
feel themselves bonded together for a lifetime
Friendship , which consist of mutual love, trust, respect
and (often unconditional) acceptance and usually implies
the discovery of establishment of common ground
between the individuals involved; brotherhood and
Partners or co-workers in a profession, business or a
common workplace, compare team.
Participation in a community, for example, a
community of interest or practice.
Association, simply knowing someone by introduction
or knowing someone by interaction.
FACTORS IN ESTABLISHING AND
An ability and willingness to communicate.
Expertise in each relationship- type (in this hierarchy)
requires the skills of all previous relationship- types (for
example partnership requires friendship and teamwork
HIERARCHY OF FORMS OF ACTIVITY
AND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP
3. SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
4. SOCIAL ACTION
5. SOCIAL CONTACT
6. SOCIAL INTERACTION
7. SOCIAL RELATION
2. Trust, as trust between parties can become mutual.
This way lead to enduring relationship.
3. Social Exchange Theory, which interprets relationship
in terms of exchange benefits. People will regard
relationship in the light of the rewards of the
relationship, as well as reward they may potentially
received in alternate relationship.
4. Systemic Coaching, which analyzes relationship as
a expression of a perceived human need to give and
5. Transferences, entanglements, and substitution can
complicate relationships. Systemic coaching claims to
offer solutions for many difficulties in relationships.
6. Equity Theory, which stems for a criticism of social
exchange theory. Proponents argue that people care
about more than just maximizing reward: they also
allegedly want fairness and equity in their
7. Relational Dialectics, which regards relationships not
as static entities, but as continuing processes, forever
changing. This approach sees constant tension in the
8. Attachment styles, which analyze relationship in yet
another way. Proponents of attachment style argue that
style developed in childhood continue influential
throughout adulthood, influencing the roles people
adopt in relationships.
9. Socionics and some other theories of psychological
compatibility consider interpersonal relationships as at
least partly dependent on the psychological types of
1.SOCIAL PENETRATION THEORY (SPT)
SPT is a theory about the development of “relational
Relational closeness can progress from superficial to
Closeness develops through self-disclosure.
Self-disclosure is sharing with someone information which helps him or her
understand you. Self-disclosure is most revealing when the sharing is in the
present and least revealing when the sharing is about the past. -- D. Johnson,
The story always represents the storyteller (the person disclosing).
SD stimulates feedback. The quality of the feedback is related to the amount
and relevance of self-disclosure we receive and share with others.
Self-disclosure can be most revealing or least revealing.
3. UNCERTAINTY REDUCTION THEORY (URT)
Presumes that “the beginning of personal relationships are fraught with uncertainties” (C. Berger).
Presumes that people want to reduce uncertainty in relationships through knowledge and
Three ways we learn about others:
Passive strategies -- we observe the person, either in situations where the other person is likely to
be self-monitoring (a reactivity search) as in a classroom, or where the other person is likely to act
more naturally (a disinhibition search) as in the stands at a football game.
Active strategies -- we ask others about the person we're interested in or try to set up a situation
where we can observe that person (e.g., taking the same class, sitting a table away at dinner).
Once the situation is set up we sometime observe (a passive strategy) or talk with the person (an
Interactive strategies -- we communicate directly with the person.
4. RELATIONAL DIALECTICS THEORY
Relationships reflect tensions (conflicts, contradictions)
that are played out in communication interaction
Relationships are “organized around the dynamic
interplay of opposing tendencies” (L. Baxter & B.
NOT KNOWN TO
KNOWN TO SELF
NOT KNOWN TO
Ten Ways to Improve Your
2. Be appreciative.
3. Pay attention to others.
4. Practice active listening.
5. Bring people together.
6. Resolve conflicts.
7. Communicate clearly.
8. Humor them.
9. See it from their side.
10. Don't always complain
WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?
THE ABILITY TO INFLUENCE A GROUP
TOWARD THE ACHIEVEMENT OF GOALS.
Traits Theories of Leadership
Theories that consider personality,
social, physical, or intellectual traits to
differentiate leaders from non leaders.
Behavioral Theories of Leadership
Theories proposing that specific behaviors
differentiate leaders from non leaders.
A. FIEDLER’S MODEL: DIFINING THE SITUATION
The degree of confidence, true and respect subordinates have in their leader.
The degree to which the task assignment are proceduriezed.
Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization;
includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote and give salary increases.
Findings from Fiedler Model
_ _ _ _ _ _ task oriented
________ relationship oriented
B. HERSEY AND BLANCHARD’S SITUATIONAL
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY (SLT)
A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness.
Directive High task and
LEADERSHIP STYLES AND FOLLOWERS
(Hersey and Blanchard)
High task and
C. LEADER- MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY
Leader- Member exchange (LMX) theory
Leader create in-groups and out-groups, and subordinates
with in-group status will have higher performance ratings,
less turnover, and greater job satisfaction.
LEADER- MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D. THE PATH GOAL THEORY
•LOCUS OF CONTROL
AUTOCRATIC MANAGEMENT STYLE
•An Autocratic Manager dictates orders to their staff
and makes decisions without any consultation.
•The leader likes to control the situations they are in.
•Decisions are quick.
•This type of management style can decrease
motivation and increase staff turnover.
DEMOCRATIC OR PARTICIPATIVE
•A democratic manager delegates authority to the staff, giving them
responsibility to complete the task.
•Staff will complete the task using their own work methods on time.
•Employees are involved in decision making giving them a sense
•Increases job satisfaction by involving employees or team members.
LAISSEZ FAIRE MANAGEMENT STYLE
•A laissez faire manager sets the task and gives staff complete
freedom to complete the task as they see fit. “Leave it be”.
•It works for team in which the individuals are very experienced and
•There is minimal involvement from the manager.
•The manager coaches or supply information if required.
•Benefits- staff are developed to take responsibility.
•Staff feel lost and not reach the goals set within the time frame.
TRANSACTIONAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL
Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals
by clarifying role and task requirement.
Leaders who provide individualized consideration
and intellectual stimulation, and who possess
Characteristics of transactional leaders
Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards
for efforts, promises rewards for good performance,
Management By exception: Watches and searches
for deviations from rules and standards, takes
Characteristics for transformational leaders
Idealized Influence: Provides vision and sense of mission,
instills pride, gains respect and trust.
Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses
symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in
Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality,
and careful problem solving.
Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention,
treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.