Culture and Identity

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Culture and Identity

  1. 1. Culture and Identity Social Identities Similarities and Differences
  2. 2. Identity and Cultural Identity <ul><li>Identity -- A reflective self-conception or self-image that we each derive from our family, gender, cultural, ethnic, and individual socialization process. (Ting-Toomey) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Identity -- Shared system of symbolic verbal and non-verbal behaviour meaningful to a group. A social construction. (Fong) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Selected Social Identities <ul><li>Racial Identity | Ethnic Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Identity | National Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Identity | Organizational Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Identity | Cyber/Fantasy Identity </li></ul><ul><li>(Others include age, religion, physical ability, socio-economic class.) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Racial Identity <ul><li>Race is a social construct arising from efforts to categorize people into different groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Science has determined there is very little genetic variation among humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Human population will become more alike as the races merge. (Jones) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ethnic Identity <ul><li>Ethnicity is derived from a sense of shared heritage, history, traditions, values, similar behaviours, area of origin, language. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity of many Americans/Canadians is tied to ancestors’ place of origin prior to coming to North America. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gender Identity <ul><li>Gender refers to how a particular culture differentiates masculine and feminine social roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture influences on what constitutes gender beauty and how it is displayed. Examples are: Fashion in Denmark. Language in Japan. Tanning in Europe/America. </li></ul>
  7. 7. National Identity <ul><li>Refers to your nationality. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually becomes more pronounced when persons are away from home country. </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting phenomena currently happening where young adults from EU think of Europe as their native land. Texans … Quebecers. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Regional Identity <ul><li>Smaller divisions of geographic area. Cultural contrast among these regions may be manifested through ethnicity, language, accent, dialect, customs, food, dress, historical and political legacies, </li></ul>
  9. 9. Organizational Identity <ul><li>In collectivistic cultures organizational affiliation is often more important. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg is in Japan where people are often introduced firstly by where they work. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Personal identity <ul><li>In collectivistic cultures organizational affiliation is often more important. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg is in Japan where people are often introduced firstly by where they work. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cyber/Fantasy Identity <ul><li>The Internet provides an opportunity to escape constraints of everyday identities. </li></ul><ul><li>Infatuation with “imaginary personas” can become so strong they take on a life of their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Life is an example of a virtual world where participants construct avatars. Becoming popular for virtual business meetings. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Dark Side of Identity <ul><li>Stereotyping </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentricity </li></ul>
  13. 13. Dark Side of Identity <ul><li>Psychologists conducting research in area of interpersonal attraced have established that the more similar two people are to each other the more liely they are to like each other. </li></ul><ul><li>This preference for things we understand are familiar with can adversely influence our perception and attitudes. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stereotyping • learned in a variety of ways - from parents - from peers - from religious, social groups - from mass media - from fear of difference
  15. 15. Stereotyping <ul><li>Defined: form of categorization containing perceiver ’s knowledge, beliefs, expectancies about particular collections of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty lies with overgeneralization and negative evaluations (attitudes and prejudices). </li></ul><ul><li>Even positive evaluations can narrow perceptions, jeopardize intercultural communication. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Stereotyping – Negative Effects <ul><li>Filtering quality only allows in information consistent with held beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid preconceptions prevent correct assessment that all in any group do not have same traits. </li></ul><ul><li>False assumptions (untrue premises, half-truths, exaggerations, oversimplifications) alter/distort communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Early and/or increased interaction diminishes effects </li></ul>
  17. 17. Prejudice • Defined: deep negative feelings associated with a particular group; irrational (inflexible) generalizations with little/no direct evidence • Characteristics - directed at specific groups (social class, sex, sexual orientation, age, political affiliation, race, ethnicity) - involves evaluative dimension, ie judgmental
  18. 18. Expressions of Prejudice <ul><li>A ntilocution : talking about target group in negative, stereotypic terms </li></ul><ul><li>A voiding, withdrawing from contact with target group </li></ul><ul><li>D iscrimination : excluding target group from employment, housing, political rights, educational/recreational opportunities, churches, hospitals. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Extermination : lynching, massacres, genocide </li></ul>
  19. 19. Expressions of Prejudice <ul><li>A ntilocution : talking about target group in negative, stereotypic terms </li></ul><ul><li>A voiding, withdrawing from contact with target group </li></ul><ul><li>D iscrimination : excluding target group from employment, housing, political rights, educational/recreational opportunities, churches, hospitals. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Extermination : lynching, massacres, genocide </li></ul>
  20. 20. Culture and Identity Social Identities Similarities and Differences
  21. 21. Identity and Cultural Identity <ul><li>Identity -- A reflective self-conception or self-image that we each derive from our family, gender, cultural, ethnic, and individual socialization process. (Ting-Toomey) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Identity -- Shared system of symbolic verbal and non-verbal behaviour meaningful to a group. A social construction. (Fong) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Selected Social Identities <ul><li>Racial Identity | Ethnic Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Identity | National Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Identity | Organizational Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Identity | Cyber/Fantasy Identity </li></ul><ul><li>(Others include age, religion, physical ability, socio-economic class.) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ethnic Identity <ul><li>Ethnicity is derived from a sense of shared heritage, history, traditions, values, similar behaviours, area of origin, language. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity of many Americans/Canadians is tied to ancestors’ place of origin prior to coming to North America. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Gender Identity <ul><li>Gender refers to how a particular culture differentiates masculine and feminine social roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture influences on what constitutes gender beauty and how it is displayed. Examples are: Fashion in Denmark. Language in Japan. Tanning in Europe/America. </li></ul>
  25. 25. National Identity <ul><li>Refers to your nationality. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually becomes more pronounced when persons are away from home country. </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting phenomenon currently happening where young adults from EU think of Europe as their native land. </li></ul>
  26. 26. National Identity <ul><li>Refers to your nationality. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually becomes more pronounced when persons are away from home country. </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting phenomena currently happening where young adults from EU think of Europe as their native land. Texans … Quebecers. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Regional Identity <ul><li>Smaller divisions of geographic area. Cultural contrast among these regions may be manifested through ethnicity, language, accent, dialect, customs, food, dress, historical and political legacies, </li></ul>
  28. 28. Regional Identity <ul><li>Smaller divisions of geographic area. Cultural contrast among these regions may be manifested through ethnicity, language, accent, dialect, customs, food, dress, historical and political legacies, </li></ul>
  29. 29. Organizational Identity <ul><li>In collectivistic cultures organizational affiliation is often more important. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg is in Japan where people are often introduced firstly by where they work. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Personal identity <ul><li>In collectivistic cultures organizational affiliation is often more important. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg is in Japan where people are often introduced firstly by where they work. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Cyber/Fantasy Identity <ul><li>The Internet provides an opportunity to escape constraints of everyday identities. </li></ul><ul><li>Infatuation with “imaginary personas” can become so strong they take on a life of their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Life is an example of a virtual world where participants construct avatars. Becoming popular for virtual business meetings. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Dark Side of Identity <ul><li>Stereotyping </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentricity </li></ul>
  33. 33. Dark Side of Identity <ul><li>Psychologists conducting research in area of interpersonal attraced have established that the more similar two people are to each other the more liely they are to like each other. </li></ul><ul><li>This preference for things we understand are familiar with can adversely influence our perception and attitudes. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Stereotyping • learned in a variety of ways - from parents - from peers - from religious, social groups - from mass media - from fear of difference
  35. 35. Stereotyping <ul><li>Defined: form of categorization containing perceiver ’s knowledge, beliefs, expectancies about particular collections of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty lies with overgeneralization and negative evaluations (attitudes and prejudices). </li></ul><ul><li>Even positive evaluations can narrow perceptions, jeopardize intercultural communication. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Stereotyping – Negative Effects <ul><li>Filtering quality only allows in information consistent with held beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid preconceptions prevent correct assessment that all in any group do not have same traits. </li></ul><ul><li>False assumptions (untrue premises, half-truths, exaggerations, oversimplifications) alter/distort communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Early and/or increased interaction diminishes effects </li></ul>
  37. 37. Prejudice • Defined: deep negative feelings associated with a particular group; irrational (inflexible) generalizations with little/no direct evidence • Characteristics - directed at specific groups (social class, sex, sexual orientation, age, political affiliation, race, ethnicity) - involves evaluative dimension, ie judgmental
  38. 38. Expressions of Prejudice <ul><li>A ntilocution : talking about target group in negative, stereotypic terms </li></ul><ul><li>A voiding, withdrawing from contact with target group </li></ul><ul><li>D iscrimination : excluding target group from employment, housing, political rights, educational/recreational opportunities, churches, hospitals. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Extermination : lynching, massacres, genocide </li></ul>
  39. 39. Causes of Prejudice <ul><li>S ocietal sources : built into major organizations and institutions; help maintain power of dominant groups over subordinate ones </li></ul><ul><li>M aintaining social identity : strengthening bond with person ’s culture </li></ul><ul><li>S capegoating : singling out group to bear blame for circumstance, events. Placing blame. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding prejudice: • personal contact • education </li></ul>
  40. 40. Ethnocentrism <ul><li>The notion that one’s own culture is superior to any other. We are ethnocentric when we view other cultures through the narrow lens of our own culture. </li></ul><ul><li>This narrow lens links ethnocentrism to the concepts of stereotyping, prejudice, and racism. </li></ul>

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