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The human brain presentation

I.F.D "Ercilia Guidali de Pisano",Paysandú, Uruguay.
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The human brain presentation

  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the general structure of the human brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the two hemispheres of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the differences between right and left hemispheres. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the function of Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>The human brain is by far the most complex and highly organized structure of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>This organ allows us to think, move, feel, see, hear, taste, and smell. </li></ul><ul><li>It controls our body, receives, analyzes, and stores information. </li></ul><ul><li>The brain produces electrical signals, which, together with chemical reactions, let the parts of the body communicate. Nerves send these signals throughout the body. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Cerebrum - The largest division of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, each of which is divided into four lobes. Cerebrum Cerebrum Cerebellum
  5. 6. Longitudinal Fissure Left hemisphere Right hemisphere
  7. 8. Frontal lobe <ul><li>It is located deep to the Frontal Bone of the skull. </li></ul><ul><li>It plays an integral role in the following functions/actions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Memory Formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Decision Making/Reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Personality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broca’s Area – Controls facial neurons, speech, and language comprehension. Located on Left Frontal Lobe. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broca’s Aphasia – Results in the ability to comprehend speech, but the decreased motor ability (or inability) to speak and form words. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Parietal lobe <ul><li>It plays a major role in the following functions/actions: </li></ul>- Senses and integrated sensation(s) <ul><li>Spatial awareness and perception </li></ul>
  9. 10. Occipital lobe <ul><li>Its primary function is the: </li></ul><ul><li>processing, </li></ul><ul><li>integration, </li></ul><ul><li>interpretation, </li></ul>VISION and visual stimuli.
  10. 11. Temporal lobe <ul><li>It plays an integral role in the following functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization/Comprehension of language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Retrieval (Memory and Memory Formation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wernicke’s Area – Language comprehension. Located on the Left Temporal Lobe. </li></ul>- Wernicke’s Aphasia – Language comprehension is inhibited. Words and sentences are not clearly understood, and sentence formation may be inhibited or non-sensical.
  11. 12. <ul><li>Arcuate Fasciculus - A white matter tract that connects Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area through the Temporal, Parietal and Frontal Lobes. Allows for coordinated, comprehensible speech. Damage may result in: </li></ul>- Conduction Aphasia - Where auditory comprehension and speech articulation are preserved, but people find it difficult to repeat heard speech. Broca’s Area Wernicke’s Area
  12. 13. Left and Right Hemispheres Optimistic half Positive emotions- control Pessimistic half Emotional perceptions
  13. 14. NEUROFUNCTIONAL THEORY <ul><li>LAMENDELLA – </li></ul><ul><li>“ A neurofunctional perspective on language attempts to characterize the neurolinguistic information processing systems responsible for the development and use of language”. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Right hemisphere <ul><li>This deals with different aspects of language. </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with right hemisphere functioning is the holistic processing and according to Krashen, this hemisphere is responsible for the storing and processing of formulaic speech. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Left hemisphere <ul><li>There are two main areas associated with language. </li></ul>BROCA’S AREA This area is located just anterior to the motor cortex which controls movements of the lips, tongue, jaw, and vocal cords. Damage to this area results in slow and laboured speech, but is does not affect comprehension. WERNICKE’S AREA This area partially surrounds the auditory cortex. Damage to this area results in speech that is fluent but also meaningless, and it also affects comprehension of language(spoken and written).
  16. 17. <ul><li>LEFT </li></ul><ul><li>RIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>One-at-a time processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential: A to B to C. </li></ul><ul><li>Looks at details. </li></ul><ul><li>Receptive to verifiable aspects of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>A splitter (distinction is important). </li></ul><ul><li>Talks, and talks and talks. </li></ul><ul><li>Knows “how” </li></ul><ul><li>Lineal thinking </li></ul><ul><li>All-at-once processing </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the whole </li></ul><ul><li>Receptive to qualitative aspects of the world (feelings) </li></ul><ul><li>A lumper (conecctedness is important, puts everything together) </li></ul><ul><li>Mute ,uses pictures not words. </li></ul><ul><li>Knows “what” </li></ul><ul><li>Majestic thinking </li></ul>Brain’s hemispheres
  17. 18. Men’s and women’s learning styles and capacities Christoph Blumrich (newsweek) MEN WOMEN Temporal lobe : this region of the cerebral cortex helps control hearing, memory and a person’s sense of self and time. In cognitively normal men, a tiny region of the temporal lobe behind the eye has about 10% fewer neurons than it does in women. Women have more neurons in this region, which understands language as well as melodies and speech tones. Corpus callosum : this bundle of neurons is the main bridge between the left and the right hemispheres, carrying messages between them. A man’s corpus callosum takes up less volume in his brain than a woman’s does, suggesting the two hemispheres communicate . In women, the back part of the callosum is bigger than in men. That may explain why women use both sides of their brains for language. Anterior Commissure : this collection of nerve cells also connects the brain’s two hemispheres . It is smaller and appeared earlier in evolution than corpus callosum. In men, the commissure is smaller than it is in women, even though men’s brains are, on average, larger than women’s. The larger commisure in women may be another reason their two cerebral hemispheres seem to work in partnership on tasks from language to emotional responses.
  18. 19. What Cortical Region of the brain would these doctors be stimulating?
  19. 20. Let’s practice!!! Read the definitions, then label the brain anatomy diagram.
  20. 21. Answers
  21. 22. Read the definitions, then label the neuron diagram below.
  22. 24. Bibliography <ul><li>“ Understanding Psychology” –Fourth Edition, Random House School Division. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Biology” Chapter 43 – Integration and control IV: The vertebrate Brain. Helena Curtis & N. Sue Barnes. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Theories of Second Language Acquisition” – Rod Ellis </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Human Brain”  - Harvard University LS/HHMI High School Science - Multiple Diagrams of the Human Brain.  </li></ul><ul><li> - BBC homepage – the brain </li></ul>