Food borne Biohazards
Biotoxins
• Biotoxin is a poisonous substance that is a
specific product of the metabolic activities of a
living organism ...
Food Intoxication
• Microbes grow in foods produce toxins.
• Toxins are ingested with the food and cause
health problems.
...
Toxin classification
Organism

Toxin

Bacteria

Botulinum toxin, Staphylococcus toxin

Fungi

Afalatoxin, Mycotoxin, Ochra...
Toxin characteristics
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Non replicative (Most are proteinaceous)
Non transmittable (human to human)
Nonvolati...
Botulism toxin
• Agent: Chlostridium botulinum
• Toxicity: 1ng/kg
– 500g is enough to kill the human race

• Disturb the a...
Food sources
• Improperly canned foods (>pH 4.6)
• Smoked salmon, trout
• Fermented foods (Saeurkraut, pickled
vegetables)...
Staphylococcus toxin
• Agent: Staphylococcus aureus
• Toxicity: 1μg cause illness
• Disturbs the regulation of intestinal ...
Food sources
•
•
•
•

Cooked ham, meat products, poultry
Home made sausages
Milk, cheese
Cream filled pastries
Afalatoxin
• Agent: Aspergillus flarus
• Afalatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 (B1 is the most
common)
• Toxicity: 0.5-10 mg/kg
• Live...
Food Sources
•
•
•
•
•

Peanuts and peanut butter
Tree nuts such as pecans
Corn
Wheat
Oil seeds such as cottonseed
Ochratoxin
• Agent: Aspergillus ochraceus
• Toxicity: No documented acute toxicity in
humans
• Tolerable weekly intake 120...
Food Sources
•
•
•
•
•

Soy beans
Coffee beans
Grapes
Peanuts
Cereals
Patulin
• Agent: Aspergillus clavatus. Penicillium
expansum
• Toxicity: No documented acute toxicity
• Provisional maximum...
Food Sources
• Apple and apple juice
• Pears, grapes, bilberries may affect
• Sweet cider
How to control
• Good agricultural practices to avoid insect
damages and mold infection
• Good storage practices (Store be...
How to control
• Follow proper food handling and canning
methods
• Maintain good hygienic practices
• Rules and Regulation...
Referenes
• http://www.foodsafetywatch.org/category/fac
tsheets/biotoxins/
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Food Borne Biohazards

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Biohazards associated with foods

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Food Borne Biohazards

  1. 1. Food borne Biohazards
  2. 2. Biotoxins • Biotoxin is a poisonous substance that is a specific product of the metabolic activities of a living organism (Plant, animal, bacteria, fungus). • Cause food intoxications • Toxicity depends on dose
  3. 3. Food Intoxication • Microbes grow in foods produce toxins. • Toxins are ingested with the food and cause health problems. • Most heat treatments are effective to kill microbes, but toxins remain
  4. 4. Toxin classification Organism Toxin Bacteria Botulinum toxin, Staphylococcus toxin Fungi Afalatoxin, Mycotoxin, Ochratoxin, Patulin Toxic algae Okadaic acid Natural toxins Histamine, Glycoalcoloids
  5. 5. Toxin characteristics • • • • • • • Non replicative (Most are proteinaceous) Non transmittable (human to human) Nonvolatile Colorless Odorless Tasteless Most are stable at standard conditions
  6. 6. Botulism toxin • Agent: Chlostridium botulinum • Toxicity: 1ng/kg – 500g is enough to kill the human race • Disturb the acetylecholine mechanism at neuromuscular junctions • Symptoms – Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, lethargy, double vision, respiratory stress, death
  7. 7. Food sources • Improperly canned foods (>pH 4.6) • Smoked salmon, trout • Fermented foods (Saeurkraut, pickled vegetables) • Foods preserved in oil (Fish)
  8. 8. Staphylococcus toxin • Agent: Staphylococcus aureus • Toxicity: 1μg cause illness • Disturbs the regulation of intestinal fluid regulation system • Symptoms: – Sudden nausea, vomiting, excessive salivation, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, dehydration • Toxin is heat stable
  9. 9. Food sources • • • • Cooked ham, meat products, poultry Home made sausages Milk, cheese Cream filled pastries
  10. 10. Afalatoxin • Agent: Aspergillus flarus • Afalatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 (B1 is the most common) • Toxicity: 0.5-10 mg/kg • Liver cancer, chronic hepatitis, jaundice, cirrhosis (Low levels long time) • Cause acute toxicity, and potentially death (High exposure)
  11. 11. Food Sources • • • • • Peanuts and peanut butter Tree nuts such as pecans Corn Wheat Oil seeds such as cottonseed
  12. 12. Ochratoxin • Agent: Aspergillus ochraceus • Toxicity: No documented acute toxicity in humans • Tolerable weekly intake 120ng/kg (EFSA) • Has genotoxic and teratogenic effects • Relatively heat stable
  13. 13. Food Sources • • • • • Soy beans Coffee beans Grapes Peanuts Cereals
  14. 14. Patulin • Agent: Aspergillus clavatus. Penicillium expansum • Toxicity: No documented acute toxicity • Provisional maximum tolerable daily intake 0.4μg/kg • Relatively heat stable and not destroyed by pasteurization
  15. 15. Food Sources • Apple and apple juice • Pears, grapes, bilberries may affect • Sweet cider
  16. 16. How to control • Good agricultural practices to avoid insect damages and mold infection • Good storage practices (Store below 100C, control moisture, control RH) • Separation of contaminated foods before processing
  17. 17. How to control • Follow proper food handling and canning methods • Maintain good hygienic practices • Rules and Regulations
  18. 18. Referenes • http://www.foodsafetywatch.org/category/fac tsheets/biotoxins/

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