Exam 2 Study Guide

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Ethics Timmons Moral Theory Exam 2

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Exam 2 Study Guide

  1. 1. The hedonic scale values actions on how much they create of these two states.
  2. 2. The hedonic scale values actions on how much they create of these two states. Pleasure & Pain Act Consequentialism
  3. 3. This philosopher who gives us a purely quantitative hedonic utilitarianism.
  4. 4. This philosopher who gives us a purely quantitative hedonic utilitarianism. Bentham Act Consequentialism
  5. 5. This philosopher said that it is better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied; better to be a man unhappy than a pig happy in his slop.
  6. 6. This philosopher said that it is better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied; better to be a man unhappy than a pig happy in his slop. John Stuart Mill Act Consequentialism
  7. 7. This is the word meaning a duty above and beyond the normal call of duty in utilitarianism.
  8. 8. This is the word meaning a duty above and beyond the normal call of duty in utilitarianism. Supererogation Act Consequentialism
  9. 9. These are the criterion in which something is measured in its propensity to beget like outcomes and dissimilar ones.
  10. 10. These are the criterion in which something is measured in its propensity to beget like outcomes and dissimilar ones. Fecundity & Purity Act Consequentialism
  11. 11. In rule consequentialism, the rightness or wrongness of an action depends on whether it is prohibited or required by this.
  12. 12. In rule consequentialism, the rightness or wrongness of an action depends on whether it is prohibited or required by this. An Ideal Code of Rules Rule Consequentialism
  13. 13. This is an example of a “prevent disaster” rule.
  14. 14. This is an example of a “prevent disaster” rule. Ex.: Always keep your promise; unless keeping your promise results in disaster. Rule Consequentialism
  15. 15. The issue that enough people in a society would obey a particular rule in rule consequentialism is called this “problem.”
  16. 16. The issue that enough people in a society would obey a particular rule in rule consequentialism is called this “problem.” The Problem of Partial Compliance Rule Consequentialism
  17. 17. This is an example of a rule that collapses rule consequentialism into act consequentialism (Not really about rule consequentialism)
  18. 18. This is an example of a rule that collapses rule consequentialism into act consequentialism (Not really about rule consequentialism) Ex.: You should always keep your promises; unless another choice would provide a better outcome ( higher utility ) like lying to save a life pg 157 Rule Consequentialism
  19. 19. This kind of consequentialism sets a minimum acceptable value for actions, as a defense against excessive obligation.
  20. 20. This kind of consequentialism sets a minimum acceptable value for actions, as a defense against excessive obligation. Satisficing Consequentialism Good Enough Rule Consequentialism
  21. 21. Rather than a normative theory about what is right and wrong, psychological egoism is this kind of theory.
  22. 22. Rather than a normative theory about what is right and wrong, psychological egoism is this kind of theory. Descriptive Psychological Egoism
  23. 23. This is the opposite of psychological egoism.
  24. 24. This is the opposite of psychological egoism. Psychological Altruism Psychological Egoism
  25. 25. The theory that people are sometimes driven by charitable motives but are most of the time driven by self-interest the kind of account.
  26. 26. The theory that people are sometimes driven by charitable motives but are most of the time driven by self-interest the kind of account. Motivational Pluralism Psychological Egoism
  27. 27. As with the principle of doctrine of double effect, psychological egoism places high importance on the difference between ultimate or final ends and these.
  28. 28. As with the principle of doctrine of double effect, psychological egoism places high importance on the difference between ultimate or final ends and these. Intermediate Ends Psychological Egoism
  29. 29. That obligation implies capability is often called this shorthand argument.
  30. 30. That obligation implies capability is often called this shorthand argument. Ought implies Can Psychological Egoism
  31. 31. Ethical egoism places this person as the agent of primary importance in deciding the permissibility of an action.
  32. 32. Ethical egoism places this person as the agent of primary importance in deciding the permissibility of an action. The individual self Ethical Egoism
  33. 33. Unlike traditional ethical egoism, this is the form of the moral theory that focuses on the agent’s beliefs regarding outcomes rather than the actual outcomes of action.
  34. 34. Unlike traditional ethical egoism, this is the form of the moral theory that focuses on the agent’s beliefs regarding outcomes rather than the actual outcomes of action. Subjective Ethical Egoism Ethical Egoism
  35. 35. This is the name for the intuitively plausible principle that seems to contradict consistency for ethical egoism.
  36. 36. This is the name for the intuitively plausible principle that seems to contradict consistency for ethical egoism. Principle of Non-Interference (195) Ethical Egoism
  37. 37. Ethical egoism, according to Timmons fails this standard of evaluation, introduced in chapter seven.
  38. 38. Ethical egoism, according to Timmons fails this standard of evaluation, introduced in chapter seven. Publicity Ethical Egoism
  39. 39. The non-moral theory with ties to ethical egoism that seeks to provide logical permissibility for certain actions is called this.
  40. 40. The non-moral theory with ties to ethical egoism that seeks to provide logical permissibility for certain actions is called this. Rational Egoism or Rational Ethical Egoism Ethical Egoism
  41. 41. Between Rawls and Rand, this philosopher wrote our supplementary text first.
  42. 42. Between Rawls and Rand, this philosopher wrote our supplementary text first. Rand Rawls & Rand
  43. 43. In Rawls, the pre-society state in his thought experiment is called this.
  44. 44. In Rawls, the pre-society state in his thought experiment is called this. The Original Position Rawls & Rand
  45. 45. This brand of ethics says that the facts of our being determines how we ought to be morally.
  46. 46. This brand of ethics says that the facts of our being determines how we ought to be morally. Objectivism aka Objectivist Ethics Rawls & Rand
  47. 47. For Rawls, these are the two rules that are agreed upon in the pre-societal condition.
  48. 48. For Rawls, these are the two rules that are agreed upon in the pre-societal condition. Difference Principle & The Equal Access to Institutions ( Equal Rights ) Rawls & Rand
  49. 49. According to Ayn Rand, these are two of the three true virtues.
  50. 50. According to Ayn Rand, these are two of the three true virtues. Reason - Rationality Purpose - Productiveness Self Esteem - Pride Rawls & Rand
  51. 51. Robert Nozick’s experience machine was meant as a critic of this kind of consequentialism.
  52. 52. Robert Nozick’s experience machine was meant as a critic of this kind of consequentialism. Hedonism Secondary Sources
  53. 53. Brad Hooker was a prominent advocate of this ethical theory, developed primarily in the 1950s and 60s.
  54. 54. Brad Hooker was a prominent advocate of this ethical theory, developed primarily in the 1950s and 60s. Rule Consequentialism Secondary Sources
  55. 55. C. Daniel Batson’s experiments sought to prove that humans have this kind of response to other people in pain.
  56. 56. C. Daniel Batson’s experiments sought to prove that humans have this kind of response to other people in pain. Empathy Secondary Sources
  57. 57. David Shoemaker’s presentation of the prisoner’s dilemma says that this action is the one justified if you and Fabio are both egoists.
  58. 58. David Shoemaker’s presentation of the prisoner’s dilemma says that this action is the one justified if you and Fabio are both egoists. To Confess ( sing, sell out buddy, take a deal ) Secondary Sources
  59. 59. David Brink was cited in our book for his contributions to this kind of consequentialism, one that focuses more on the reflective pursuit of “personal projects”
  60. 60. David Brink was cited in our book for his contributions to this kind of consequentialism, one that focuses more on the reflective pursuit of “personal projects” Value Pluralism ( 165 )
  61. 61. Utility Calculation Using expected consequence utilitarianism, and the probabilities from our book, explain why the mine shaft problem justifies the pressing of the third switch.
  62. 62. Utility Calculation Using expected consequence utilitarianism, and the probabilities from our book, explain why the mine shaft problem justifies the pressing of the third switch. ( see page 132-3)

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