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Deontological ethics 3.2


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Deontological ethics 3.2

  1. 1. Deontological Ethics<br />
  2. 2. DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS <br />Derived from the Greek word “deon” meaning “duty”<br />Deontology is a category of normative ethical theories that encompasses any theory which is primarily concerned with adherence to certain rules or duties. <br />Consequences do NOT matter!<br />Intention is relevant. I am acting a certain way only if I act for the right reason.<br />
  3. 3. In other words…<br />Deontological theories hold that actions that are morally right are those in accordance with certain rules, duties, rights, or maxims.<br />Actions can be morally good required, permitted or forbidden.<br />
  4. 4. Examples of Deontological Theories <br />Divine Command Theory<br />“The Golden Rule”<br />Natural law & natural right theories <br />The non-aggression principle<br /> Kantian Ethics (categorical imperative)<br />
  5. 5. How does deontology differ from virtue ethics <br />Act Guidance vs. character guidance <br />Deontology and consequentialism provide act guidance, that is, they tell us what sorts of actions we should take rather then what sort of people we ought to become (Character Guidance) <br />
  6. 6. The Competition: Consequentialism<br />CONSEQUENTIALISM THEORIES <br /><ul><li>Hold that an action’s rightness or wrongness depends on the consequence it causes (e.g happiness, pain,etc.)</li></ul>DEONTOLOGICAL THEORIES<br />Hold that an action’s rightness or wrongness depends on its conformity to a certain moral norm,regardless of the consequence, I.e. “Right vs. Good”<br />
  7. 7. A familiar example: “the golden rule”<br />Also known as the ethic of reciprocity, this famous cross-cultural maxim states: “do to others as you want them to do to you.”<br />May seem like a useful maxim at first, but it has serous limitations.<br />Depends on the mental state of the moral agent rather than the person being acted upon.<br />
  8. 8. Agent-centered deontology <br />Theories focused on the duties of the moral agent (the person acting. Rather than the rights of the person being acted upon (patient-centered theories).<br />Agent centered theories can be further divided into those that focus on the mental state of the agent and those that focus on the nature of the agent's actions.<br />
  9. 9. Agent-centered theories: mental states<br />An action is wrong or right because of the intentions that motivated it <br />Catholic doctrine of double effect: We are categorically forbidden for intending to cause evils )such as killing the innocent), even in order to prevent other evils, However, it is acceptable to cause evils unintentionally, even if we foresee them as effects of our actions.<br />
  10. 10. Doctrine of double effect: Example<br /><ul><li>“ A doctor who believed that abortion was wrong, even in order to save the mother’s life might nevertheless consistently believe that it would be permissible to perform a hysterectomy on a pregnant woman with cancer. In carrying out the hysterectomy, the doctor would aim to save the women’s life while merely foreseeing the death of the Fetus. Performing an abortion, by contrast, would involve intending to kill the fetus as a means to saving the mother.” </li></li></ul><li>Agent-centered theories: actions <br />We are categorically forbidden to cause evils (such as killing innocents) directly, but are permitted to allow, enable, or accelerate them under some circumstances. <br />The focus here is the exact way in which our actions bring about consequences, rather than just the consequences themselves <br />Similar to doctrine of doing vs. allowing <br />
  11. 11. Agent-centered religious ethics <br />Old Testaments law.<br />It is wrong to work on the Sabbath because God say so.<br />If I am an atheist who doesn’t work on the Sabbath because my employer gives me the day off, then my behavior is not really morally right because I’m not acting for the right reason.<br />
  12. 12. Patient centered theories <br />
  13. 13. The trolley thought experiment:<br />
  14. 14. Deontological Answers:<br />
  15. 15. Leanings from deontology <br />
  16. 16. More on Deontological Ethics Application: Personal Duties Vs. Professional Duties <br />
  17. 17. Immanuel Kant: Poster Child of Deontology <br />
  18. 18. The Categorical Imperative<br />
  19. 19. Categorical Imperative in Practice <br />
  20. 20. Ethical Scenario <br />
  21. 21. In summary <br />