American Colonies: Prelude to Revolutions A Power Point presentation By: Patrick Spohr For: History of the Americas 140
Revolutions - Dominion <ul><li>In 1684, King James II attempted to undo the Massachusetts charter.
Sir Edmund Andros took over as the governor-general.
The new government replaced Puritan judges and officials with Anglicans, and put in place unprecedented levels of taxation.
The new draconian measures depressed New England's economy, leaving the populace unable to pay the new, higher taxes. </li></ul>
Revolutions - Compromise <ul><li>King William III undid many of the laws of his predecessor, lowering taxes and returning colonial assemblies.
Colonists and their officials needed to pass all rulings past their governors-general, except Connecticut and Rhode Island.
New compromises led to an increased sense of connectedness between the English and their colonists.
No longer able to use force, governor-generals needed to use persuasion to increase their political presence. </li></ul>
The Atlantic - Poverty <ul><li>Poverty, especially on the seaboard, was seasonal, with high unemployment in the winter.
In Boston, despite escalating poverty, the richest 10% owned 60% of the urban wealth.
By the mid 18 th century, most colonial lands were already owned, leaving the rural poor to rent from a landlord, move to cities, or fight Indians on the frontier.
Crevecoeur estimated that only 50% of frontier families managed to pay off their land debts in their lifetime. The New World, for many, did not equal success. </li></ul>
Awakenings - Revivals Due to the evangelical nature of most Congregational and Presbyterian churches, these congregations experienced occasional revivals. <ul><li>From the mid-1600's to early 1700's, most revivals had little connection to those of other congregations.
Revivals preyed upon the emotions of congregants by insisting that only God's grace could save their souls, and this redemption was arbitrary; nothing could be done to attract God's grace.
Reverend Solomon Stoddard was a master of “soul stirring” sermons, designed to inspire these revivals.
One unintentional result of reducing parishioners to despair was suicide. Feeling alone and without God's grace, some church-goers would kill themselves instead of attaining the sudden enlightenment the church desired. </li></ul>
The Great Plains – Horses and Guns <ul><li>Until the late 1700's, Indian tribes did not have horses. Only through unsanctioned trade did the Pueblo and other tribes begin to own them. Still armed with bows and arrows, the Great Plains tribes were able to hunt many more buffalo than before. Colonial guns inflicted far more damage on other tribes, especially village-dwelling tribes and migrating tribes escaping colonial aggression. Village tribes had greater access to guns, due to their proximity to French and English traders. However, due to their nomadic life, Great Plains tribes avoided much of the horrors of European disease. </li></ul>
Imperial War and Crisis – Renewed War <ul><li>In the 1730's, British politicians began to view the Spanish Empire as both rich and weak.
Using the “Black Legend” of the Spanish, the English were incensed by the treatment of Captain Robert Jenkins.
When the bulk of combat turned to Europe, the Spanish allied French used Indian allies to help destroy English frontier settlements.
English gains, such as Louisbourg, were returned due to treaty, to their dismay. </li></ul>
Imperial War and Crisis – Balance of Power <ul><li>Indian tribes, due to their knowledge of the frontier, became the focal point for military engagements. The Iroquois, because of their location, were the most important. But despite growing numbers, British superiority was deflated due to a lack of cooperation between the colonies and an antagonistic attitude towards Native tribes. The French were more attractive partners for tribes due to their smaller population, as well as the French tact of treating the Indians with respect, though the French hated it. </li></ul>
The Pacific – Alta California <ul><li>In the 1760's, the Spanish decided to begin colonizing modern day California.
Spanish ambassadors exaggerated fears of a Russian invasion from the north and English from the East.
A wide array of native tribes resided in Alta California, subsisting on hunting and gathering and burning grassy forests.
Like many other tribes, the Natives of California had weak chiefs and strong shamans. Much of the shamans power came from fear; individuals were frightened of the shaman's power. </li></ul>