South China Sea NCGE 2013 Don Zeigler


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Don Zeigler's NCGE 2013 presentation on Political geography for the APHG strand

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  • Jacaranda Atlas
  • Richard Spratly, whaling expedition, 1843
  • 37.2 hectares is the second largest Spratly Island and the largest of all Philippine-occupiedSpratly Islands. Only this island among all Philippine-occupied Spratly islands is currently inhabited by civilian Filipinos. The civilian population, about 300 which includes children, was introduced in 2001.[Source: the Philippines
  • ASEAN: rich and poor nations, China is trying to divide Asean nations
  • South China Sea NCGE 2013 Don Zeigler

    1. 1. Evolution of Contemporary Geopolitical Patterns: South China Sea Don Zeigler Old Dominion University – Virginia Beach National Conference on Geographic Education August 3, 2013
    2. 2. . . .they learn to think critically about what is revealed and what is hidden in different maps . . .
    3. 3. West York Island / Likas Island
    4. 4. Thitu Island / Pag Asa
    5. 5. World Political Map
    6. 6. South China Sea Littoral States Definition: • States that have a shoreline on the South China Sea • People’s Republic of China • Republic of China (Taiwan) • Vietnam • Philippines • Singapore • Malaysia • Thailand • Cambodia • Brunei • Indonesia How many independent states are there today? • 195 How many independent states border the SCS? • 10
    7. 7. 25%
    8. 8. JAPAN #10 INDIA #2
    9. 9. ASEAN = supranational political unit
    10. 10. Boundaries
    11. 11. • How do you claim offshore waters and/or resources? • You consult the Law of the Sea Convention • From the shoreline of each coastal state: • 12-mile Territorial Sea • 12-24-mile Contiguous Zone • 200-mile EEZ: Exclusive Economic Zone • 350-mile limit on Continental Shelf Resources
    12. 12. “I will tell him that the Mischief Reef is within our 200-mile EEZ.” - Philippine President Joseph Estrada, Nov. 13, 1998, on his way to meet with the President of China.
    13. 13. Law of the Sea Convention Article 10: Bays --------- The foregoing provisions do not apply to so-called "historic" bays, or in any case where the system of straight baselines provided for in article 7 is applied.
    14. 14. Law of the Sea Convention Article 121: Regime of Islands 1. An island is a naturally formed area of land, surrounded by water, which is above water at high tide. 3. Rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf.
    15. 15. Exercises of Power
    16. 16. Political Organization of Territory
    17. 17. 11 Jul 2013 “China Telecom has continued the project it started this January to deploy 3G mobile technology across the disputed Spratly Islands chain in the South China Sea, by extending its network to the Nansha Red Reef.” “Filipino mobile operator Smart communications, part of PLDT Group, became the first company to deploy telecoms infrastructure in the disputed territory when it constructed a 2G base station on Pag-Asa Island back in 2005.”
    18. 18. More than half of the world's annual merchant fleet tonnage passes through the Straits of Malacca, Sunda, and Lombok, with the majority continuing on into the South China Sea.
    19. 19. Offshore Geography: 21st Century Hot Spots Challenges to Political-Territorial Arrangements Islands Seas Ocean Resources
    20. 20. 1971 1981 1991 2001 20111971