Malvinas Lili Monk NCGE 2013


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Malvinas Lili Monk NCGE 2013

  1. 1. Malvinas or Falklands? Lili Monk Walter Johnson High School National Council For Geography Education (NCGE) Denver, Colorado August 3, 2013
  2. 2. Presentation outline“Location, location, location”: does geography have a role to play in the conflict? Background and history of islands; toponyms More than one conflict: Beagle Channel, Malvinas 1982 War between Argentina and Great Britain Outcome for both countries Role of UN, UNCLOS Referendum and self -determination; reaction of MERCOSUR countries Impact of conflict on Argentine education “Landscapes of Memory” Malvinas/Falklands Activities Geographic Hotspots Assignment
  3. 3. Questions: Sovereignty Territoriality Self-determination Irredentism Nationalism Referendum Boycott
  4. 4. Remember these words.... uttered by a former president in 1982? “I cannot understand why two allies...were arguing over that little ice cold bunch of land down there.” President Ronald Reagan
  5. 5. The little ice cold land Down there!
  6. 6. The Geographic Perspective
  7. 7. A bit of history The Age of Exploration Amerigo Vespucci (1501) Ferdinand Magellan (1520) Alonso Camargo (1540) John Davis (1592) Richard Hawkins (1594) Sebald de Weert (1600)
  8. 8. Competing claimsTreaty of Tordesillas (1494) French claims/ bought by Spain Argentine Independence (1816) British independently set up colony in western island 1833: in British control
  9. 9. Falklands: named after Anthony Cary, the 5th Count of Falkland Malvinas: derived from the French settlers from Saint- Malo who named the islands Iles Malouines ,and then Malvinas. Toponyms: or what is in a name?
  10. 10. WHAT ARE THE FALKLANDS? Located in the South Atlantic Ocean some 298 miles east of the tip of South America Total land area is approximately 4,700 miles, close to size of the state of Connecticut. Much of the land is used for sheep farming, and the islands’ leading export is wool, with an extensive fishing and tourism industries. Oil Reserves Around 3,000 people now live on the Falkland Islands, and about 70 percent of them are of British descent.
  11. 11. A Restless military: conflict over beagle channel 1881: Chile-Argentina border dispute over islands, Beagle Channel; both countries share a 5.300 km border 1980: Argentina almost goes to war against Chile over territory Papal intervention: rejected by Argentina in 1980 Shift of attention:Military begins planning on take over of Malvinas Beagle island conflict later settled during Democratic government of Raúl Alfonsín (1984)
  12. 12. War Stats: Timeline: 2 April  – 14 June 1982: 47 days Argentine Losses: •649 killed •1,657 wounded •11,313 taken prisoner British Losses: •255 killed •775 wounded •115 taken prisoner
  13. 13. Argentina: Wag the dog! Argentine motivation for invading the islands National “reorganization” and economic chaos Elicited patriotism before the war Led to the ouster of the military regime and return to democracy To 'wag the dog' means to purposely divert attention from what would otherwise be of greater importance, to something else of lesser significance. By doing so, the lesser-significant event is catapulted into the limelight, drowning proper attention to what was originally the more important issue. The expression comes from the saying that 'a dog is smarter than its tail', but if the tail were smarter, then the tail would 'wag the dog'. Using
  14. 14. Argentina: Nationalism and irredentism Argentine Constitution Changed The Argentine Nation ratifies its legitimate and non-prescribing sovereignty over the Malvinas, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands and the corresponding maritime and insular areas, being part of the national territory.The recovery of said territories and the full exercise of sovereignty, respecting the way of life of their inhabitants and according to the principles of international law, are a permanent and unwavering goal of the Argentine people.
  15. 15. Britain: Conservative victory Interpreted the invasion as an attack on British dependent territory Increased popularity of Margaret Thatcher and the Conservative party The Empire still stands! Patriotism increased during and after the war
  16. 16. A major change in how a country sees itself
  17. 17. UNCLOS and UN roleBoth countries have signed and ratified the United Nations Convention on Law of the Seas (UNCLOS), which defines ownership and legal rights for the waters surrounding coastal countries. According to the UNCLOS, each country is entitled to three basic zones of control in its surrounding seas: *Internal Waters *Territorial Sea
  18. 18. unclos and the case of Argentina Resolution III of the Final Act provides that in the case of disputes between States concerning sovereignty over a territory over which the United Nations has recommended certain means of settlement, the parties shall consult and take into consideration the same INTERESTS OF THE PEOPLE OF THE TERRITORY AND ATTEMPT TO COME TO A FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATION. (After 1984, Argentina revised its position to the following:
  19. 19. unclos and the case of Argentina In 1984, Argentina clarified its position and noted that its signature of UNCLOS III did NOT apply to its position regarding the Falklands/Malvinas, the South Atlantic, Antarctica, Georgia and Sandwich Islands. NOTE: In its statement to UNCLOS III,Argentina also reiterated the “duplicity” of the British government in advocating the position of self- determination for the inhabitants of the islands. Argentina also emphasized that the present inhabitants of the islands (the "Kelpers") do not fall within the category of " indigenous peoples" or citizens prior to the British conquest, but rather a population injected by the colonial country after “usurping” the territory.
  20. 20. competing for a slice of Antarctica 1959 treaty signed in Washington, D.C. * Ends claims of sovereignty over Antarctica *Prohibits use for military purposes * Countries must exchange vital scientific information conducted there *No nuclear testing *Argentina signed agreement in 1961 Other countries which signed agreement include Chile, Great Britain, Norway, France, Australia and New Zealand
  21. 21. The 2013 Referendum March 11, 2013 Votes to remain one of Great Britain’s 14 Overseas Territories Self-Determination? Reject Argentina’s claims that the population was “injected” by the British
  22. 22. Maritime Boycott Confederation of Transportation Workers in Argentina vote to boycott any ship carrying the British or any “territorial” flag Other MERCOSUR countries supported the boycott
  23. 23. Landscapes of Memory
  24. 24. Argentina: Nationalism and irredentism Teaching on the issue of sovereignty in the Malvinas is now mandated by law in Argentine schools Summary of Law: Law 3761 What are some of the significant aspects of the law?
  25. 25. Geopolitical hotspotsMs. L. Monk Name: ____________ AP Human Geography A Date: _____________ Geographical Hot Spots! Our recent study of culture has underscored the fact that many conflicts around the world are based on religious, political, ethnic, linguistic or territorial disputes among people in one country or one region. In preparation of our political geography unit, you will conduct research and produce a one pager to help your classmates understand the underlying issues behind the conflict. Keep in mind the following: • You will have three days in the Media Center to research and gather materials • You can only use sources provided in the Pathfinder by Mrs. Way in the Media Center • You need to incorporate vocabulary as appropriate from our previous units (especially from Chapters 5, 6, 7 and 8) and from the vocabulary lists we have provided • You will include two maps: one at the world scale/ and one at the regional scale of your conflict • You will also attach to this project 5 comprehensive articles on the crisis that you have analyzed using the OPTIC technique. These should be articles that you found particularly helpful: they can show different points of view/they should be scholarly articles, yet easy to read o A reminder when analyzing OPTIC is ♣O- overview of the article ♣P- parts of the article that connect to what we are studying in APHUG or parts of the article that talk about concepts that we have already studied in APHUG ♣T- TITLE (include the author and source too please) ♣I- Implications (Inferences) that can be made from the article ♣C- Conclusion- so what is this important? What is the big deal? How does this connect to the bigger picture of our study of Human Geography. • This will be due………………….FRIDAY DECEMBER 23rd or EARLIER
  26. 26. Please follow the following format to complete the project. You can even type your information into the template. Side One
  27. 27. Where is the Conflict? Who is Involved? Origin of Crisis Resolution or Current Status Political Geo. Vocabul ary Political Geo. Vocabul ary
  28. 28. O = Overview of Article P = parts of the article that connect to what we are studying in APHUG or concepts that we have already studied in APHuG T= Title I = Implications (Inferences) that can be made from the article C =Conclusion. So why is this important? What is the big deal? How does this connect to the bigger picture of our study of Human Geography? Creating an “Optic”
  29. 29. Sharing Hotspots Prezi Powerpoint VoiceThread Picture Gallery Meograph Online!
  30. 30. Go visit the islands! ...or to learn more about the conflict, please contact me: Please don’t forget to complete the evaluations! Thanks so much!