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writing techniques

plan writing ordering information types of writing

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writing techniques

  1. 1. Writing techniques By Ayesha Yousaf Chihna
  2. 2. Contents 1. Plan writing identify audience purpose and message . 2. Collect information in various form such as mind maps ,tables,charts,l 3. Order information such as  Chronology for a narrative  Stages of a process  Form general to specific and vice versa  Form most important to least important  Advantages and disadvantages  Comparison and contrast  Problem and solution pattern 4.Write arrangmentative and descriptive forms of writing using different methods of developing ideas.
  3. 3. Plan writing “In writing essays or some paragraph or any other material the pre writing strategy is called plan writing” In this session we will discuss about 1. Identify audience 2. Purpose 3. And message
  4. 4. Audience Determining the Best Audience  What is an audience? The audience is the reader of the essay. While anyone that reads an essay can be considered a part of the audience, the target audience is the group of readers the essay was intended to reach. Why is audience important?  It is important to identify the intended and most appropriate audience for a piece in order to put the writing in the proper context.  For instance, imagine if someone purchased the book Green Eggs and Ham by Dr. Seuss as a cookbook for a budding chef - there is a focus on food, right? It is understood that although the topic of food is a running theme throughout Green Eggs and Ham, the target audience is young children just learning to read, not the five-star chef at your favorite restaurant.
  5. 5. Contin…….. Here are a few tips to help you with identifying your target audience . Isolate what types and/or groups of people the content of the book would interest. Identify other books that are comparable to your book and look at the profiles of those books’ main buyers/readers. Pinpoint what is special about your book. . Determine some demographics.
  6. 6. Purpose The reason the writer composes the paragraph. Identifying Common Academic Purposes The purpose for a piece of writing identifies the reason you write a particular document.  Basically, the purpose of a piece of writing answers the question “Why?”  For example, why write a play? To entertain a packed theater.  Why write instructions to the babysitter? To inform
  7. 7. Count…….. In academic settings, the reasons for writing fulfill four main purposes:  to summarize to analyze to synthesize  to evaluate
  8. 8. Message  Key messages are the core of your writing. Key messages open the door to direct communication with your audience, because they bridge what your audience already knows and where you are trying to taken.
  9. 9. CREATING KEY MESSAGES  To get your audience to ask why and how, you ask yourself the same questions from your starting assertion.  Each question helps you break down the rationale behind your intentions, and provides the step-by-step statements that back up your key message.  The only way to find your key message is to repeatedly ask yourself "Why? How?", until you come to the core, the very reason for something happening. Asking yourself these questions will reveal to yourself the information you can take for granted that your audiences need to know and understand.  Key Messages are:  Concise: avoid jargon and acronyms  Active: make every sentence active  Positive: talk about what one can do, not what you can't  Short: one memorable sentence, 10-15 seconds to say.  Specific: address a particular challenge and audience
  10. 10. Information collection
  11. 11. What Is a Mind Map?  A mind map is a diagram that displays information visually. You can create mind maps using pen and paper, or you can use an online mind mapping tool such as MindMeister.  the rules for creating a mind map are simple: 1) Write the subject in the center of your paper / canvas. 2) Draw branches that point away from the center. Each branch symbolizes one thought or idea related to the subject. Use meaningful keywords to write these ideas onto the branches. 3) From each branch more ideas can branch off. 4) Use colors, icons and imageswhenever possible. These function as mental triggers and can help spark new ideas in you, which is important during brainstorming sessions.
  12. 12. Tables  When planning your writing, it is important to consider the best way to communicate information to your audience, especially if you plan to use data in the form of numbers, words, or images that will help you construct and support your argument.  Tables present lists of numbers or text in columns and can be used to synthesize existing literature, to explain variables, or to present the wording of survey questions.  Tables are typically used to present raw data, not when you want to show a relationship between variables.
  13. 13. Cont……  Tables should be:  Centered on the page.  Numbered in the order they appear in the text.  Referenced in the order they appear in the text.  Labeled with the table number and descriptive title above the table.  Labeled with column and/or row labels that describe the data, including units of measurement.  Set apart from the text itself; text does not flow around the table.
  14. 14. Charts  Anchor charts are vital tools to enable writers illustrate their ideas. When brainstorming for writing, writers can use anchor charts to make their ideas visible. Thus, recording of brainstormed ideas, the strategies employed, cues and processes that the writer uses, are organized and made presentable through anchor charts.  Anchor charts as a tool for brainstorming for writing should observe the following rules:  Should be colourful and attractive.  Anchor charts should be written in academic language.  The chart should be clear and easily understood when seen.  The writer should frequently refer to it.
  15. 15. How the usage of anchor charts can be made more effective  Effective writing using anchor charts must make use of the following:  Must have a centralized focus. In this case the writer must have a single focal point from which the anchor strategy used is based upon.  The anchor charts must be properly organized in the way the charts appear in the writing structure.  To improve writing techniques, writers should use anchor charts they are familiar with.  Writers should make anchor charts conspicuously positioned in their reports where readers can catch quick view.
  16. 16. Types of charts  There are several different types of charts and graphs. The four most common are probably 1. line graphs, 2. bar graphs and histograms, 3. pie charts, and 4. Cartesian graphs.  They are generally used for, and best for, quite different things
  17. 17. Order information tools Order the arrangement or disposition of people or things in relation to each other according to a particular sequence, pattern, or method. Here we will discuss about Chronology for a narrative Stages of a process From general to specific and vice versa From most important to least important Advantages and disadvantage Comparison and contrast Problem solution pattern
  18. 18. Chronology for narrative Chronology meaning (of a record of events) following the order in which they occurred. Using chronology as narration involves relating events in the order in which they occur. A speaker will almost certainly employ narrative chronology if he or she uses an anecdote or extended example, but as demonstrated by the sample outline below, whole speeches can be organized this way.
  19. 19. Cont……  When information in a passage is organized by the time in which each event occurred, it is organized chronologically.  Nonfiction passages that are organized chronologically often contains dates. Fiction passages or narratives are more subtle and are organized chronologically but usually have no dates.  A narratives or story is a journey through time, and all of the events are arranged in order of time; therefore, every story has a beginning, middle, and end.  Even if an author uses flashbacks, flash-forwards, or otherwise manipulates the time in his or her text, the events still occur along a timeline.  Stories require the passage of time; therefore, all stories are organized chronologically. Sometimes time will stop in a
  20. 20. The Writing Process  Writing is a process that involves at least four distinct steps: prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing 1. Prewriting  Prewriting is anything you do before you write a draft of your document. It includes thinking, taking notes, talking to others, brainstorming, outlining, and gathering information (e.g., interviewing people, researching in the library, assessing data). 2. Drafting  Drafting occurs when you put your ideas into sentences and paragraphs. Here you concentrate upon explaining and supporting your ideas fully. Here you also begin to connect your ideas.  This draft tends to be writer-centered: it is you telling yourself what you know and think about the topic.
  21. 21. 3.Revising  Revision is the key to effective documents. Here you think more deeply about your readers’ needs and expectations. The document becomes reader-centered. How much support will each idea need to convince your read?  At this stage you also refine your prose, making each sentence as concise and accurate as possible. Make connections between ideas explicit and clear. 4.Editing  1. Check for such things as grammar, mechanics, and spelling. The last thing you should do before printing your document is to spell check it.  2. Don’t edit your writing until the other steps in the writing process are complete.
  22. 22. From specific to general  Induction is a method of reasoning that moves from specific instances to a general conclusion. Also called inductive reasoning.  In an inductive argument, a rhetor(that is, a speaker or writer) collects a number of instances and forms a generalization that is meant to apply to all instances.
  23. 23. From general to specific  In composition, general-to- specific order is a method of developing a paragraph, essay, or speech by moving from a broad observation about a topic to specific details in support of that topic.  Also known as the deductive methodof organization, general-to-specific order is more commonly used than the reverse method, specific-to-general order (the inductive method In a sentence, make a general observation about what you see going on in this painting (The Collector's Office, 1615, by Pieter Brueghel the Younger). Then, after further studying the images, identify the specific details that contribute to your overall impression of the painting. (Hulton Fine Art Collection/Getty
  24. 24. From most important to least important Most essays move from the least to the most important point, and the paragraphs are arranged in an effort to build the essay’s strength . Sometimes, however, it is necessary to begin with your most important supporting point, such as in an essay that contains a thesis that is highly debatable.  When writing a persuasive essay, it is best to begin with the most important point because it immediately captivates your readers and compels them to continue reading.
  25. 25. Comparison and contrast A simple chart of comparison is a method of organization used when a decision must be made among several products, techniques or job candidates. This method of organization identifies the similarities and differences among the products or items being discussed. Comparison and contrast is a method that uses visual tools such as diagrams, charts or lists to convey information.
  26. 26. Advantages and disadvantages  This pattern organizes information about a topic by dividing it up into its "good" and "bad" parts, or pro's and con's. It is effective to use when a writer wishes to objectively discuss both sides of an issue without taking a persuasive stance. This allows the reader to weigh both sides of an issue. As with the compare-contrast pattern, there are a number of possible variations to an advantages- disadvantages pattern. The simplest form of this pattern is shown below.  Suppose, for example, that a writer's stated purpose is to describe the advantages and disadvantages of attending a two-year college. One way to arrange the information is to divide it into two main sections, one for the advantages and one for the disadvantages. In this scenario, the information contained within each main section will represent the specific topics of analysis (cost, accessibility, etc)
  27. 27. Cont………. Advantages and Disadvantages Example Advantages Cost Accessibility  Disadvantages Number of educational programs Quality of instruction
  28. 28. Problem solution pattern A problem-solution pattern divides information into two main sections, one that describes a problem and one that describes a solution. This pattern is typically used in persuasive writing, where the writer's general purpose is to convince the reader to support a certain course of action In the problem section, the writer identifies different aspects of the problem being discussed and offers evidence of these problems. In the solution section, the writer identifies a potential solution and supports the effectiveness of this solution over others.
  29. 29. Problem-Solution Example Problem: Motorized Transportation  Increasing traffic congestion  Increasing pollution  Increasing "road rage" from traffic-related stress Solution: Riding Bicycles  Bike riding reduces the number of motorized vehicles in use  Bike riding is not a source of pollution  Bike riding has physical and psychological health benefits
  30. 30. Write arrangmentative and descriptive forms of writing In an argumentative essay, the writer is taking a position, or a "side," related to a topic about which opinions could vary. The position of the writer is established in the thesis statement. Then the essay presents reasons, evidence, and examples that support the writer's position. Sometimes, the argumentative essay will also include a counter-argument. The writer will point out that some people disagree with him for a specific reason. Then, he will present evidence to refute that reason.
  31. 31. Examples of Argumentative Essay:  . High school students should be required to do community service.  a. Helps students to become well-rounded citizens.  b. A way for students to give back to their communities.  c. Looks good on college applications.  d. Counter-argument-some might claim that students should spend more time studying or participating in extra-curricular activities, but there are ways to serve the community that do not take much time, like taking canned goods to a food bank or helping once a year at a back to school supply drive.
  32. 32. Descriptive writing  The primary purpose of descriptive writing is to describe a person, place or thing in such a way that a picture is formed in the reader's mind When to use: Before reading During reading After reading How to use: Individually With small groups Whole class setting
  33. 33. Example of descriptive writing  Some examples of descriptive text include:  The sunset filled the entire sky with the deep color of rubies, setting the clouds ablaze.  The waves crashed and danced along the shore, moving up and down in a graceful and gentle rhythm like they were dancing.
  34. 34. • Word • Definition • Example Sentence • Abate • v. to become less active, less intense, or less in amount • As I began my speech, my feelings of nervousness quickly abated. • Abstract • adj. existing purely in the mind; not representing actual reality • Julie had trouble understanding the appeal of the abstractpainting. •
  35. 35. • Bias • n. a preconception that prevents objectivity • It’s important to avoid bias whe investigating a crime. • Bittersweet • adj. tinged with a feeling of sadness • The ending of romance movie was bitterswee • Bolster • v. to support, strengthen, or fortify • If we work together, we should be able lift and then bolster the
  36. 36. • Confine • v. to put limits on; to restrict • We are going to confinethe use of this drinking fountain. • Consensus • n. overall agreement • After weeks of debating, the panel finally came to a consensus.
  37. 37. • Refute • v. to prove to be untrue, unfounded, or incorrect • The student refuted t he professor’s claim in class. • Reinforce • v. to strengthen or add support to • We can use these pipes to reinforce the structure.
  38. 38. • Urge • n. desire or impulse • v. to encourage or persuade • He had the urge to tell his parents about his acceptance to Columbia but decided against it. • She urged her sister to apply to Stanford. • Warrant • v. to prove to be reasonable • Wanting to look cool in front of your friends doesn’t warrant