Copyright in the digital age: a guide for librarians


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A short overview of copyright issues for librarians run as part of workshop organised by the CILIP Information Literacy Group on 9th September 2011 at Glasgow Calendonian University.

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  • Resources to take: 1) CLA Copyright header sheet as an example 2) CLA Licence User guidelines 3) Audit checklist 4) My book on Electronic resources in the VLE 5) One of my copyright books 6) LSE copyright booklets (both copies)
  • I start by asking if you can managing copyright issues in e-learning? Is it not a little like herding cats as they say? Copyright is all about managing risk, and when it comes to e-learning and VLEs we can’t control 100% what people will upload into the VLE – and nor should we want to. Teaching is a creative process and people shouldn’t be stifled as teachers. Technically I can’t stop anyone from downloading an image from the internet and using it in their PowerPoint, or scanning a chapter from a book and adding it to their reading list. However we can put various things in place to manage many of the risks, and to ensure that teachers have all the information they require and that our services support them working legally.
  • I you are dealing with copyright in libraries I would suggest getting one of the highly practical guides written for librarirans, written by authors such as Graham Cornish or Sandy Norman. These books are written as FAQ type books and very useful for answering queries you may receive from academic staff and other library users.
  • Jane Copyright is covered by civil law – no copyright police force – copyright owner needs to take infringer to court. Some agencies (e.g CLA) act on behalf of rightsholders and will look for infringement and take action. Copyright covers the expression of an idea, not the idea itself, so must be fixed in some way.
  • Jane Copyright is covered by civil law – no copyright police force – copyright owner needs to take infringer to court. Some agencies (e.g CLA) act on behalf of rightsholders and will look for infringement and take action. Databases – separate rights – something qualifies for database rights if you have invested time and effort in constructing a database – even if the content is freely available.
  • Maria Look for C in Circle to identify rightsholder – might not be author – example of book often owned by publisher not author.
  • Maria Crown copyright material subject to a waiver – so can be copied without infringing ‘ Unrestricted copying’ of certain categories of material permitted Most material on UK central government websites can be used for educational purposes without permission Some operate a ‘click and use’ licence but no fee For more details see:
  • Jane What is "fair" depends on the quality and degree of what you took. In England, Time Warner sued Channel 4 for using 12 minutes of footage from A Clockwork Orange in a half hour arts documentary about the film’s power as social commentary. Channel 4 successfully argued the criticism or review defence.
  • Jane Downloading information from websites would usually be covered by an implicit licence
  • Jane The Shetland Times vs. Shetland News case involved two rival newspapers and the use of hyperlinking to another site which objected. The case was settled out of court. With the TotalNews case, copyright was infringed by taking material from other Web sites and putting it into a TotalNews frame, in a manner which made it appear they were the originators of the materials. This was not a copyright case but a US-based law of ‘Passing Off’, i.e. passing off the material as your own.
  • Can use creative commons to licence your own work on the web. Can also find material licensed under CC and be confident that you can re-use it without needing to get permission. Usually you will need to attribute the author, and must share any resulting work under a CC licence. Some people licence material for commercial purposes as several different options.
  • Maria Licensing Schemes A number of licensing schemes that allow copying beyond the permitted acts: Copyright Licensing Agency HE Licence Educational Recording Agency (ERA Licence) Newspaper Licensing Agency Open University (separate licence needed) Others
  • Exact wording of the copyright notice set out in Schedule of the Licence Realise that can’t technically restrict readings to groups of students always, so LSE copyright cover sheet includes a statement to say only students on the course of study should download or print the reading Reading list systems that allow browsing are fine but you must be able to present usage stats during a CLA Audit to prove that excessive students are not accessing the reading other than those on a course Scanning can be devolved to staff, but a managed service works best and is what CLA prefer if staff resources allow this
  • CLT manage the service and our guidance suggests that staff are not allowed to digitise material themselves
  • Growing demand for this service – managing on a shoe string rather!
  • Copyright in the digital age: a guide for librarians

    1. 1. Copyright in the digital age: a guide for librarians Dr Jane Secker LSE Centre for Learning Technology Heron User Group Committee/ UUK Copyright Working Group Glasgow Caledonian University 9th September 2011
    2. 2. Photo from Flickr by muir.ceardach Licensed under Creative Commons
    3. 3. Overview of talk <ul><li>Introduction to copyright law in the UK including what it is, what is covered etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright and the internet </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing schemes </li></ul><ul><li>The CLA Licence </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright and e-learning – best practice </li></ul>
    4. 4. Copyright and UK law <ul><li>Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 full text on HMSO website </li></ul><ul><li>Plus subsequent statutory instruments that also need to be consulted </li></ul><ul><li>Example amendments - October 2004 - The Copyright And Related Rights Regulations 2003, SI No: 2498 implemented Directive 2001/29/EC aimed to harmonize certain aspects of copyright across the member states </li></ul>
    5. 5. What is copyright? <ul><li>Part of a wider set of intellectual property rights </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright is a set of rights to protect the intellectual content of a work </li></ul><ul><li>Gives the owner certain exclusive rights such as to copy the work, to make derivative works </li></ul><ul><li>Can be transferred, sold or leased </li></ul><ul><li>Moral rights are the right to be identified as the author, not to have derogatory treatment of your work etc. </li></ul>
    6. 6. What is covered? <ul><li>For a work to be subject to copyright it must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>be original </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be fixed (important in electronic environment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the author must be a qualified national (from a country that recognises copyright law) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyright covers literary works, dramatic works, artistic works, photos, maps, works of architecture, musical works, broadcasts, typography, films, websites, even e-mail messages </li></ul><ul><li>Databases are covered by database rights </li></ul>
    7. 7. Who owns copyright and what is protected? <ul><li>The author usually owns copyright in a work </li></ul><ul><li>However, copyright can be bought, sold, leased etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Literary work – usually person who creates work </li></ul><ul><li>Sound recording – producer </li></ul><ul><li>Films – producer and principal director </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast – person who transmits broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>Works created as part of your employment are owned by your employer </li></ul><ul><li>Students own copyright in all their work unless there is a written agreement to transfer rights. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Limitations to copyright <ul><li>Quantity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright protects substantial part of work, therefore using ‘insubstantial part’ is not infringing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally lasts 70 years from death of author </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If author unknown 70 years from when created or published </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crown copyright – 125 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound recordings – 50 years from year made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Films – 70 years from death of the last of the director, screenplay author, composer etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast – 50 years since broadcast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typography – 25 years </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Permitted Acts / Copying <ul><li>The permitted acts are defences in a court of law they are not rights </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Fair dealing’ permits copying: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No definition of ‘fair’ but 10% suggested by publishers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for ‘research and private study’ (must be non-commercial research) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for criticism and review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for reporting of current events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self service copying usually comes under fair dealing and libraries are generally not liable for copying by users if provide copyright information at photocopiers / scanners </li></ul>
    10. 10. Copyright and the Internet <ul><li>Information on the internet is subject to copyright like any other information </li></ul><ul><li>Websites can be copied in accordance with fair dealing unless there is a explicit licence or conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit licence would allow you to view and print for personal use </li></ul><ul><li>If websites have licence, usage must be subject to this e.g. Guardian website - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>,12908,933909,00.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You may download and print extracts from the material and make copies of these for your own personal and non-commercial use only </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Linking to other websites <ul><li>Different types of links: surface links, deep links, embedded links, frame links </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure links to external sites open in new windows to avoid ‘passing off’ site as your own </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to download material will need to check copyright statement on website </li></ul><ul><li>Will need to request permission unless terms and conditions specifically allow downloading / multiple copying </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Archives allow reproduction but not images </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British Library allow re-use for non-commercial purposes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Creative Commons <ul><li>A standard set of licences that can be used by content creators to licence re-use </li></ul><ul><li>‘ some rights reserved’ </li></ul><ul><li>A great way of finding resources for teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flickr CC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Commons search engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searches Google, Flickr, Yahoo, and more to find Creative Commons licensed media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More details at: http:// / </li></ul>
    13. 13. Open educational resources <ul><li>If licensing materials under creative commons need to check for content you might not own </li></ul><ul><li>May need to remove or replace images </li></ul><ul><li>May need to get permission to include institutional logos </li></ul><ul><li>More complex than first anticipated at outset of DELILA project </li></ul>
    14. 14. Licences and licensing schemes <ul><li>Licences are legal contracts and should not limit what copyright law permits </li></ul><ul><li>Licences usually allow you to go beyond the law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example the CLA Licence is designed to allow you to go beyond what the act permits in terms of making multiple copies for teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The use of many electronic resources is governed by licences </li></ul><ul><li>Other licensing schemes include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Recording Agency (ERA Licence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspaper Licensing Agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open University (separate licence needed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click and Use Licences (for some crown copyright materials) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. The Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) HE Licence <ul><li>The CLA Higher Education Licence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HEIs pay annually for a licence to cover photocopying and scanning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly covers copying by lecturers but also printed course packs are covered since December 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows multiple copying of most UK publications (excluded list for works not covered) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5% of a work, 1 chapter, 1 journal article </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More information on CLA website: </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines, excluded works list and participating US publishers </li></ul>
    16. 16. The ‘new’ licence <ul><li>Higher Education Licence currently in a basic and comprehensive form to cover: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper to paper - photocopying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper to digital - scanning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital to digital (comprehensive licence) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The licence will ‘roll-over’ from 31 st August 2011 for 1 year as agreement could not be reached </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiations between UUK / CLA for a new licence resume next month </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipated the licence will be broadly similar </li></ul><ul><li>Some minor reporting reductions agreed </li></ul><ul><li>Annual returns to be completed in May not August </li></ul>
    17. 17. Terms of the licence <ul><li>Original work must be owned by HEI or you must purchase a copyright fee paid copy </li></ul><ul><li>Must include a copyright notice with digital material including bibliographic details and course details </li></ul><ul><li>Access to digital readings should be restricted to students on a course of study – use in VLE was anticipated although reading list systems permitted if you collect usage stats </li></ul><ul><li>CLA assume that service will be managed by libraries, and only “designated” staff should undertake scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement to include the scan authoriser on the copyright cover sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Now includes UK publications, participating US publishers and some overseas countries </li></ul><ul><li>Can scan images and can dis-embed images but must include copyright header sheet and can’t build up an image collection under this licence </li></ul>
    18. 18. Reporting Requirements <ul><li>Data returns to be submitted to CLA on spreadsheet including full details of all items scanned / digital originals used including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISBN / ISSN / Year of publication / Volume if a journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Author </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Course details – course title, code, duration in weeks, student numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a digital copy exists and decision made to scan must specify why this was done from a range of options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether scanned from an original or copyright fee paid copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Details of any artists if images are scanned and if disembedded </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Other details <ul><li>Reporting data is passed to publishers who are very concerned about the licence impacting on primary sales </li></ul><ul><li>CLA may follow up if you report items not covered by the licence, exceeding limits, but data is not used for infringement cases </li></ul><ul><li>Must allow CLA to audit VLE and other systems on request </li></ul>
    20. 20. CLA Audits <ul><li>In 2008 LSE underwent a CLA Audit </li></ul><ul><li>CLA provide a list of files to be examined during visit: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>check for copyright header sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compare to originals in library collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check images for copyright header sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Checklist of other requirements including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright notices at all public access scanners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstration of access to readings via the VLE: authentication procedures for secure network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disciplinary procedures if staff / students breach copyright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of designated staff who can scan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written scanning procedures / weeding policy </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Scanning at LSE - background <ul><li>LSE have run an e-course pack service since 1999 linked to e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>LSE Centre for Learning Technology managed this service until 2009 but then handed this over to Teaching Support in the Library </li></ul><ul><li>Currently rarely get permission for material outside the CLA Licence </li></ul><ul><li>Services very popular with staff and students </li></ul><ul><li>Service scaled up following launch of trial scanning licence in 2005 and further after 2008 licence </li></ul>
    22. 22. The licence in practice at LSE <ul><li>Library manage the service – all requests to [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>All courses in the VLE able to request scanned readings – should covered by the CLA licence </li></ul><ul><li>Files are made available on a secure server (not in VLE) </li></ul><ul><li>Links to the files are sent to the appropriate lecturer who adds the link to the online reading list in the VLE </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Packtracker database to record details of all items that are being scanned </li></ul><ul><li>Now staffed by Teaching Support team in Library </li></ul>
    23. 23. Growth in number of readings CLA Trial Licence CLA HE Licence £13659.32 £8541.59 £8131.89 £28100.35 £21459.57 £23916.44 £38305 Cost of Copyright clearance and BL fees 6724 5518 3465 2549 2260 1535 784 Number of extracts 540 489 309 242 222 123 55 Number of Packs 2010-11 2009-10 2008-9 2007-8 2006-7 2005-6 2004-5 Year
    24. 24. Delivery of scanned readings <ul><li>Scanned readings delivered via a reading list in Moodle </li></ul><ul><li>Most courses use weekly reading lists </li></ul><ul><li>Password protected at two levels (by VLE and on library server) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading lists also contain links to e-journals and websites on reading list </li></ul><ul><li>Run training for lecturers and Moodle editors on creating a reading list using a web page in Moodle and a file template </li></ul><ul><li>More information on CLT website </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Some things that can help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advice and training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broader staff development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New tools? </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>For new and existing staff </li></ul><ul><li>For academic and learning support staff </li></ul><ul><li>Role of guides, leaflets </li></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>Copyright and staff / student regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions of use of IT facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Terms of use for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The VLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other systems e.g. lecture recording systems </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>Copyright can be covered in other ‘digital literacy’ training sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Images and multimedia good topic </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency across training providers </li></ul><ul><li>Key programmes e.g. PGCerts to cover copyright issues </li></ul><ul><li>Practice what you preach! </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Helpful and complementary services for scanning and course pack production </li></ul><ul><li>Digitisation of radio / TV broadcasts under ERA Licence </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright advice and guidance on hand </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Systems to manage the permissions process (and reporting) e.g. Packtracker </li></ul><ul><li>Use of repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Linking to resources using DOIs and other stable links </li></ul><ul><li>Rights metadata associated with digital resources </li></ul><ul><li>Discouraging of use of the VLE as a file store area! </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>VREs and document sharing across institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly use of web 2.0 applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecture recording </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual worlds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-books, tablets, e-readers </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><li>Might we see movement on educational copying - Hargreaves review? </li></ul><ul><li>The new CLA Licence </li></ul><ul><li>OER movement gaining popularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New tools e.g. Xpert </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open access movement well established </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>Who is liable if academics infringe copyright in your VLE? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the risks to your institution? To you personally? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your risk management approach? </li></ul>
    34. 34. Conclusions <ul><li>Copyright a complex area and advice not always welcome! </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing awareness of copyright issues through movements such as Creative Commons and OER </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely difficult to ‘police’ the VLE but services and support need to reflect your institutional approach to managing risk </li></ul>
    35. 35. Any questions? Dr Jane Secker Copyright & Digital Literacy Advisor Centre for Learning Technology LSE e-mail: [email_address] Twitter @jsecker Blog: