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November 27Paleofloods
Source: AP Photo/Carolyn Kaster
INSURED LOSSES                   DUE TO FLOODS EXCEEDED                       $6.4 B                          IN 2010.Sour...
WORLDWIDE                   11,027                     PEOPLE WERE                   KILLED BY FLOODS.Source: Swiss Re
Annual losses* due to floods in the United States          2005                                                            ...
PAST BEHAVIOR   FUTURE RISKS
Photograph: skooksie
“100-year flood”
The 100-year flood refers to a flood that has a 1% chanceof being equaled or exceeded in any single year.
“                               NG ”                               O    The 100-year flood has come and gone, so, by all ri...
Paleoflood hydrology uses physical evidence le behindon the landscape to make inferences about past floodsthat were not dire...
Photograph: David Snyder              Slackwater deposits Fine-grained sediments laid down by floodwaters
“                  The forts now stand like a castle of romance in the midst of                  an ocean of deep contendi...
scarring           microclimatologyinjury                  “flood rings”
ReadingSt. George (2010), Tree rings as paleoflood andpaleostage indicators. In Stoffel et al., (eds.),Tree Rings and Natura...
FLOOD SCARS
Photograph: Mark’s Postcards from Beloit
Photograph: NDSU Ag Comm
FLOOD SCARSThe timing of the flood can be determined by counting the numberof rings between the scar and the outside ring, ...
INJURY
Floods can damage trees by tilting or partial uprootingor can uproot them completely, causing their death.
MICROCLIMATESource: Alex Drainville
Photograph: Alex Source
Source: ouelle e001.com
FLOOD RINGS
Winnipeg Manitoba
WinnipegThe name Winnipeg is a transcription ofthe western Cree word wi-nipe-k meaning"muddy waters"
Source: Greg Brooks
Source: U.S. Coast Guard, Lt. Brendan Evans
Source: Greg Brooks
Grand Forks, North Dakota 1997 flood and fire
Source: Ma hew Bietz
Lake Agassiz
How large can Red River floods get and how o endo the large ones occur?Are there geological processes that may bechanging t...
Instrumental and historical estimates of major Red River floods
Erik Nielsen Manitoba Geological Survey
Source: Greg Brooks
2008
1875
Source: Erik Nielsen
54Source: Erik Nielsen
“                        The forts now stand like a castle of romance in the midst of                        an ocean of d...
Source: St. George and Nielsen, Geographie Physique et Quaternaire, 2002
In hydrology, flood observations reported as having occurredabove some threshold are known as censored data sets.
Photograph: USGS            1979 Red River flood Drayton, North Dakota
Source: St. George and Nielsen, Geographie Physique et Quaternaire, 2002
St. George et al. (2002), Tree-Ring Research
How large can Red River floods get and how o endo the large ones occur?Are there geological processes that may bechanging t...
350 years of Red River floodsSource: St. George and Nielsen, The Holocene, 2003
TREES AS PALEOFLOOD INDICATORSStrengths and limitations
Photograph: David Snyder
Redrawn from Stahle (1990)
Source: Steffano A ardi
scarring           microclimatologyinjury                  “flood rings”
GEOG5839  XT C L AS SNE
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods
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GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods

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GEOG5839.22, Paleofloods

  1. 1. November 27Paleofloods
  2. 2. Source: AP Photo/Carolyn Kaster
  3. 3. INSURED LOSSES DUE TO FLOODS EXCEEDED $6.4 B IN 2010.Source: Swiss Re
  4. 4. WORLDWIDE 11,027 PEOPLE WERE KILLED BY FLOODS.Source: Swiss Re
  5. 5. Annual losses* due to floods in the United States 2005 1993 1972 1927Source: National Weather Service * adjusted for inflation
  6. 6. PAST BEHAVIOR FUTURE RISKS
  7. 7. Photograph: skooksie
  8. 8. “100-year flood”
  9. 9. The 100-year flood refers to a flood that has a 1% chanceof being equaled or exceeded in any single year.
  10. 10. “ NG ” O The 100-year flood has come and gone, so, by all rights, R Tucsonans should enjoy another century of great Southwest weather. W Metropolitan Tucson Convention and Visitor’s Bureau Sent immediately a er a severe flood
  11. 11. Paleoflood hydrology uses physical evidence le behindon the landscape to make inferences about past floodsthat were not directly observed or recorded by humans.
  12. 12. Photograph: David Snyder Slackwater deposits Fine-grained sediments laid down by floodwaters
  13. 13. “ The forts now stand like a castle of romance in the midst of an ocean of deep contending currents, the water extending for at least a mile behind them, and they are thereby only approachable by boats and canoes.” Francis Heron Hudson Bay Company, 1826St.. George and Rannie, Canadian Water Resources Journal, 2003
  14. 14. scarring microclimatologyinjury “flood rings”
  15. 15. ReadingSt. George (2010), Tree rings as paleoflood andpaleostage indicators. In Stoffel et al., (eds.),Tree Rings and Natural Hazards.
  16. 16. FLOOD SCARS
  17. 17. Photograph: Mark’s Postcards from Beloit
  18. 18. Photograph: NDSU Ag Comm
  19. 19. FLOOD SCARSThe timing of the flood can be determined by counting the numberof rings between the scar and the outside ring, and the height ofthe scar represents the minimum elevation of high water.
  20. 20. INJURY
  21. 21. Floods can damage trees by tilting or partial uprootingor can uproot them completely, causing their death.
  22. 22. MICROCLIMATESource: Alex Drainville
  23. 23. Photograph: Alex Source
  24. 24. Source: ouelle e001.com
  25. 25. FLOOD RINGS
  26. 26. Winnipeg Manitoba
  27. 27. WinnipegThe name Winnipeg is a transcription ofthe western Cree word wi-nipe-k meaning"muddy waters"
  28. 28. Source: Greg Brooks
  29. 29. Source: U.S. Coast Guard, Lt. Brendan Evans
  30. 30. Source: Greg Brooks
  31. 31. Grand Forks, North Dakota 1997 flood and fire
  32. 32. Source: Ma hew Bietz
  33. 33. Lake Agassiz
  34. 34. How large can Red River floods get and how o endo the large ones occur?Are there geological processes that may bechanging the Red River flood hazard?What are the geological controls that govern thecharacter of Red River flooding?
  35. 35. Instrumental and historical estimates of major Red River floods
  36. 36. Erik Nielsen Manitoba Geological Survey
  37. 37. Source: Greg Brooks
  38. 38. 2008
  39. 39. 1875
  40. 40. Source: Erik Nielsen
  41. 41. 54Source: Erik Nielsen
  42. 42. “ The forts now stand like a castle of romance in the midst of an ocean of deep contending currents, the water extending for at least a mile behind them, and they are thereby only approachable by boats and canoes.” Francis Heron Hudson Bay Company, 1826St. George and Rannie, Canadian Water Resources Journal, 2003
  43. 43. Source: St. George and Nielsen, Geographie Physique et Quaternaire, 2002
  44. 44. In hydrology, flood observations reported as having occurredabove some threshold are known as censored data sets.
  45. 45. Photograph: USGS 1979 Red River flood Drayton, North Dakota
  46. 46. Source: St. George and Nielsen, Geographie Physique et Quaternaire, 2002
  47. 47. St. George et al. (2002), Tree-Ring Research
  48. 48. How large can Red River floods get and how o endo the large ones occur?Are there geological processes that may bechanging the Red River flood hazard?What are the geological controls that govern thecharacter of Red River flooding?
  49. 49. 350 years of Red River floodsSource: St. George and Nielsen, The Holocene, 2003
  50. 50. TREES AS PALEOFLOOD INDICATORSStrengths and limitations
  51. 51. Photograph: David Snyder
  52. 52. Redrawn from Stahle (1990)
  53. 53. Source: Steffano A ardi
  54. 54. scarring microclimatologyinjury “flood rings”
  55. 55. GEOG5839 XT C L AS SNE

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