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Principles of nutrition by nhi (Introduction to Nutrition)


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Principles of nutrition by nhi (Introduction to Nutrition)

  1. 1. Principles of Nutrition Nutrilite Health Institute certification course By Amway IndiaNutrition begins with food. 1
  2. 2. Introduction AGENDA
  3. 3. The Complete Course Agenda 15 Min Introduction 15 Min Food Guide Pyramid 60 Min Nutrition “What is it ?" - Water & Protein 30 Min Nutrition “What is it ?” - Carbohydrates & Fats 10 Min Review/Activities/Group 20 Min Break 10 Min Human Physiology – Introduction 60 Min Cells and Cell Physiology Cell Structure Cell and energy Fat Metabolism Protein Metabolism Glucose Metabolism 20 Min Revision Total: 240 mins
  4. 4. The Complete Course Agenda 10 MIN Summarize previous day learning 20 MIN Opener/Activity 50 MIN Digestive System Stomach Liver Pancreas 40 MIN Urinary System – Kidney 20 MIN Tea / snacks BREAK 10 MIN Review/Activity/Group 50 MIN Respiratory System - Nose & Nasal Passages; Pharynx ; Trachea; Bronchioles; Lungs 50 MIN Cardiovascular System – Heart; Blood Flow (Heart) ; Blood Vessels; Blood Pressure; Blood as Delivery System 10 MIN Review/Activity/Group
  5. 5. The Complete Course Agenda 10 MIN Summarize previous day learning on Nutrition 15 MIN Central Nervous System - Brain 15 MIN Peripheral Nervous System - Autonomic Nervous System ; Sensory Somatic Nervous System 15 MIN Musculature System – Skeletal; Cardiac; Smooth 15 MIN Integumentary System – Skin; Hair; Nails 10 MIN Human Physiology Review 20 MIN Tea / snacks BREAK 10 MIN Activity: Short quiz on Physiology 120 MIN Water Soluble Vitamins – Vitamin C; Vitamin B; B1- Thiamin; B2- Riboflavin; B3- Niacin; B5- Pantothenic Acid;B6- Pyridoxine B12- Cobalamin; Biotin; Folic Acid 10 MIN Review/Activity/Group
  6. 6. The Complete Course Agenda 10 MIN Summarize previous day learning 60 MIN Fat-Soluble Vitamins – Vitamin A ; Vitamin D 60 MIN Fat-Soluble Vitamins – Vitamin E ; Vitamin K 15 MIN Review/Activity/Group 20 MIN Tea / snacks BREAK 10 MIN Opener / Activity 60 MIN Minerals - Calcium, Chromium; Copper; Iron; Selenium 60 MIN Mineral – Zinc; Potassium; Sodium; Magnesium; Phosphorus 10 MIN Short class test/ Review/Activity/Group
  7. 7. The Complete Course Agenda 10 MIN Total Nutrition Review 10 MIN Diet and Disease Introduction 90 MIN Cardiovascular Disease - Pathophysiology; Diet Therapy 20 MIN Tea / snacks BREAK 60 MIN Diabetes - Pathophysiology; Diet Therapy 50 MIN Cancer - Pathophysiology; Diet Therapy 10 MIN Review/Activity/Group
  8. 8. The Complete Course Agenda 10 MIN Review/Activity/Group 60 MIN AIDS/HIV - Pathophysiology; Diet Therapy 20 MIN Tea / snacks BREAK 60 MIN Food Science & Technology - Agriculture and food products; Alternative agriculture methods; Integrated pest management; Organic farming; Pesticides; Food safety and food borne illness; Food irradiation; food additives; Biotechnology 60 MIN Organic farming –Cd; Supplementation 30 MIN Short class test/Review/Activity/Group Date will be announced: FINAL TEST 1 1/2 Hours
  9. 9. Nutrition “What is it” Nutrition “What is it”Nutrition is a science as it has its roots in the research of many fields includingmedicine, physiology, chemistry etc. It is not static. It is a growing science which ischanging & expanding with the findings of research on which it feeds. 9
  10. 10. NutritionSimilar foods are grouped in one food-group. 10
  11. 11. Food Guide Pyramid FOOD PYRAMIDFood pyramid is a guide to good eating. It recommends having fewer portions offood near the top and more of the foods near the bottom of the pyramid. 11
  12. 12. What is Nutrition? Metabolism of Foods Nutritive Value of Foods Qualitative and Quantitative Requirements Changes in Nutrient Requirements Cultural FactorsBreak down of food from complex molecules to simple moleculesThe nutritive value of food relates only to the edible portion of the food stuffNutritional requirements differs with age & sex & physiological conditions likepregnancy, lactation, adolescent.When cultures are old and tradition rules the way of life. 12
  13. 13. Six Classes of Nutrients Carbohydrate Vitamins Fat Minerals Protein Water *The Human Body Like Food is Composed Largely of NutrientsOn the bases of similarities of content and function it has been classified as undersix classes. 13
  14. 14. Nutrition Composition Composition of Foods of Body 70% Water 60% Water 1% Fat 20% Fat 4% Protein 20% Protein, 24% Carbohydrates Carbohydrate, 1% Vitamins & Vitamins, and Minerals MineralsComparison of different nutrients of foods and of body are given here. 14
  15. 15. Macro Nutrients These nutrients are required in a large amount by the body. Carbohydrates Energy Rich Fat Foods Proteins Dietary Fiber Body Building foods WaterCarbohydrates- Rice, Chapattis, Sugars, Potatoes, all Cereals such as Maize, RagiFats - Butter, Ghee, Cooking oils, MagarineProteins - Milk and Milk products, Eggs, fish, poultry, pulses,meatsDietary fibers - Whole grains, fruits, green leafy vegetablesWater - Water is an important nutrient since it acts as an emulsifier 15
  16. 16. Micro Nutrients These nutrients are required in a very small quantity, However are extremely critical for the normal functioning of the body. Vitamins Protective foods MineralsVitamins and Minerals are abundant in fruits and vegetables, Milk and egg , sproutsThese very fruits and vegetable have a very important Nutrient which is calledPhytonutrients. These Nutrients are present in the colours of the skin of the fruitsand Vegetables. They say that a person will benefit if he consumes food comprisingof all the colours. 16
  17. 17. Video 1- Micro Nutrients Click to StartVitamins and Minerals are abundant in fruits and vegetables, Milk and egg , sproutsThese very fruits and vegetable have a very important Nutrient which is calledPhytonutrients. These Nutrients are present in the colours of the skin of the fruitsand Vegetables. They say that a person will benefit if he consumes food comprisingof all the colours. 17
  18. 18. Elements of Nutrients Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Minerals Inorganic Nutrients Minerals Water Organic Nutrients Carbohydrates Fats Proteinsa Vitaminsb a Proteins also contain the mineral sulfur b Some vitamins contain nitrogen, some contain mineralsMinerals are inorganic substances. Their form remains same. While CHO, proteins,fats & vitamins are organic substances. 18
  19. 19. Energy Capacity to do Work Energy in Food is Chemical Energy Body Converts Chemical Energy mechanical energyThe body uses energy in 3 ways---Body uses energy for external activities- every voluntary move requires energyFor internal activities- involuntary processes such as heart beat, breathing &circulation etc.For storage of energy- yielding materials chiefly during childhood & pregnancy. 19
  20. 20. Energy -yielding Nutrients Carbohydrate Fat ProteinCarbohydrates, fats & proteins & other nutrients are released from food duringdigestion, then absorbed into the blood stream and converted into glucose/bloodsugar. 20
  21. 21. Measurement of Energy Energy is measured in Calories Calorie: A Unit by Which Energy is Measured Food Energy is measured in Kilocalories 1000 Calories = 1 Kilocalorie 1 Kilocalarie of Heat is needed to raise the Temperature – 1 Kilogram of Water 1 Degree CelsiusCalorie is not a nutrient. It is served as a convenient measure of the energy. Onecalorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram ofwater by one degree celcius. 21
  22. 22. Energy in FoodsCarbohydrates = 4 kcal/gramProtein = 4 kcal/gramFat = 9 kcal/gramAlcohol* = 7 kcal/gram*
  23. 23. Energy in the Body Nutrients to Fuel Metabolic and Physical Activities Heart -Beating Brain- Thinking Legs -Walking Breathing Eliminating WastesWhen food is burned in our body cells provides our bodies with energy, which isutilized for internal & external activities of the body. 23
  24. 24. Excess Nutrient Consumption Excess Consumption of Energy-Yielding Nutrients Converted to Fat and Stored in the BodyWhat food will give energy?Ans – Fats, sugar, Carbohydrates (CHO)Excess consumption of the above will convert into Fat and stored in the body.Excess energy is stored as fat in adipose tissues and as glycogen in liver. 24
  25. 25. Classification of Nutrients Macronutrients (Macro = BIG) Protein, Carbohydrate, Fat, and Water Micronutrients (Micro = small) Vitamins and Minerals
  26. 26. Water Indispensable Nutrient Fundamental to All Life on EarthWater is clear, colourless, tasteless, odourless, liquid. It gives no calories yet it isfundamental to all life on earth. 26
  27. 27. Water in Body FluidsIntracellular Fluid: Fluid Within Cells Approximately 2/3 of Body Water High in Potassium and PhosphateInterstitial Fluid: Fluid Between Cells Approximately 1/3 of Body Water Large Component of Extra Cellular Fluid Usually High in Sodium and Chloride
  28. 28. Waters Role Shock Absorber Body Temperature Regulation Maintains Blood Volume Lubricant and Cushions JointsThe delicate organs like heart, lungs, brain are covered by double layer which hasfluid in it & protect them from external shocks.Heat is eliminated by means of evaporation of water from the lungs & from thesurface of the skin.Water is an important constituent of blood. It also gives volume to the blood.All lubricants in the joints has water as the major portion. 29
  29. 29. Waters Role Carries Nutrients and Waste Helps form Structure of Molecules Participates in Chemical Reactions Solvent for Small MoleculesWater is the chief solvent of the nutrients.Nutrients are reduced to a liquid state in digestion, in preparation for absorption. Water brings digestive- juices or enzymes into the digestive tract and carries theproduct of digestion from intestine into the blood, which is largely composed ofwater.The blood distributes nutrition to the cells and finally some of the waste productsfrom the cells are removed from the body in the urine which is largely water. 30
  30. 30. Water SourcesBeverage and WaterFoods Contain Water Fruit and Vegetables = Up to 95% Water Meats and Cheese = Up to 50% Water
  31. 31. Water content in foodsDry seeds, such as the grains and legumes were intentionally left of the following list as they should have a commonmoisture content of 10% or less. All pure fats and oils contain no water. The water content of each of the foods below isshown by the number following the food. After these foods have been dehydrated, their weight will be reduced by closeto the following percentage: Almonds 7% Collards Boiled 91% Apples 85% Corn Sweet Fresh 74% Apricots 85% Cucumbers Raw 96% Bananas 76% Eggs Raw Whole 74% Bean Sprouts 92% Egg Plant Raw 92% Bread Whole Wheat 35% Fruit Cocktail 80% Broccoli 91% Pickles Dill 93% Butter 20% Pineapple Raw 85% Cabbage Raw 92% Plums Raw 87% Carrots Raw 88% Potatoes Raw 85% Olives 80% Pumpkin Canned 90% Onions 89% Radish Raw 95% Oranges 86% Spinach Raw 92% Papayas Raw 89% Squash Boiled 96% Parsley Raw 86% Grape Fruit Raw 88% Peaches Raw 90% Grapes 82% Peanuts Shelled Trace Honey 15% Peanut Butter Trace Jams / Preserves 30% Pears Raw 82% Lettuce Head 91% Peas Raw 81% Macaroni/Spaghetti Cooked 72% Pecans 7% Margarine 20% Peppers Green 94% Okra Boiled 91% Cauliflower Raw 91% Straw Berries 90% Celery 94% Sweet Potatoes Boiled in Skin 71% Cherries Raw 80% Tomatoes Raw 93% Chicken Broiled Turkey Roasted 62% Coconut Dried 7%
  32. 32. Water Balance Water Sources Amount (ml) Water Excretion Amount (ml) Liquids 550 to 1500 Kidneys 500 to 1400 Foods 700 to 1000 Skin 450 to 900 Metabolic Water 200 to 300 Lungs 350 Feces 150 1450 to 2800 2450 to 2800Keeping the water balance is more important for staying healthy than food, sleep, oranything else. If you run low on water, salt, or other fluids or have much to much ofany– the body is in serious danger.Intake of water in various forms as shown in leftcolomn is almost 2800 ml per day. But body excretes almost the same amount (shown in right colomn) This means that one needs to take more water to maintain ahealthy body. 33
  33. 33. Water Recommendations Recommendations: Diet Activity Environmental Temperature Humidity Adult Recommendations *Amount of Water = Amount of Energy ExpendedWe consume water along with meals. Our meals are cooked in water medium.Water is consumed according to the activities, like vigorous or moderate activities.Water consumption is also directly proportionate to the temp. around us and so isthe humidity.Among adults men need more water than females. 34
  34. 34. Water Recommendations Person Expending 2,000 Kcal per Day 2 to 3 Liters of Water 7 To 11 Cups Best Sources: Water, Milk, and Juice Not Substitutes: Alcohol, Caffeine- Beverages *Act as DiureticsBody needs water even if you do not feel thirsty.Any beverage can full-fill the requirement but this cannot be compensated withalcohol, tea, coffee as caffeine act as diuretics (diuretics means that make youurinate more frequently). 35
  35. 35. What are Proteins? The name Protein was suggested by Mulder in 1838 to the complex, organic, nitrogeneous substances found in animal and plant tissues.Plants are the original source of all food proteins. Plants make their own proteins bycombining raw materials like nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen & energy for thetask is obtained from the Sun.Animals eat these plants and build their body proteins. 36
  36. 36. What are Proteins?Proteins are the foremost & forefront nutrients Important constituents of tissues and cells of the body These are present inside the cell as well as in the plasma They form 16% wet weight of the cell As enzymes and hormones they are concerned with vital metabolic processes As antibodies they help defend against infections
  37. 37. Classification of Proteins Structural proteins Proteins which form part of the body structure • Collagen - gives tensile strength to the body • Elastin - provides elasticity to the skin • Keratin – helps formation of nails & hair They have a slow turnover and therefore a long half lifeStructural proteins include the collagen of connective tissues, the fibrin of a bloodclot and the myosin of muscles.Elastin is found in the protective and supportive tissues of animals such as skin.Keratin contains 11% of the sulphur-containing amino-acid. 38
  38. 38. Classification of Proteins Functional proteins Proteins which regulate the various functions in the body. - Enzymes acts as catalyst for various metabolic functions - Hormones trigger some specific reactions e.g. Insulin which regulates the glucose metabolism in the body, has half life of 0.5 second and if not so will result in hypoglycemia They have a faster turnover and shorter life spanThe tissues of the body are under constant repair. The rate at which they arebroken down and replaced very greatly. It is impossible to give a reliable figure forthe rate of proteins replacement of the entire body. Amino-acids liberated by thebreak down of old proteins can be re-utilized to synthesize new proteins. 39
  39. 39. Classification of Proteins Depending upon the combination in which they exist in the body, Proteins can also be classified as : Muco protein: Protein when combined with carbohydrates .eg saliva mucos. Lipo protein: Protein when combined with lipids eg. cholestrol, triglyceride in emulsion form. Transport protein: Protein when used as carrier eg . Iron is transported in the form of haemoglobin in the body
  40. 40. Structure of Protein Proteins are made up of Amino acids Dietary proteins provide amino acids for the synthesis of body proteins Amino acids are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and sometimes phosphorusAll amino-acids are characterised by the presence of a carboxyl (COOH) group withacidic properties and an amino(NH2) group with basic properties, attached to thesame carbon atom. 41
  41. 41. Amino Acids There are 22 naturally occurring amino acids. Of these 22 amino acids, 9 amino acids are known as essential since they cannot be synthesized in the body Rest are non essential as they can be synthesized in the body by inter conversion of compounds already present in the bodyHistidine is believed to be essential for children which is one of the essential aminoacid. 42
  42. 42. Types of Amino AcidsDepending upon the chemical structure AminoAcids can also be classified as under : Aliphatic : Glycine, Alamine, Threonine, Serine Acidic : Aspartic, Glutamic Branched Chain : Valine, Leucine, isoleucine Aromatic : Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Tryptophan Basic : Lysine, Arginine, Histidine Sulphur containing amino acids : Cystine, Cystaine, Methionine Iminoacid : Proline
  43. 43. Limiting Amino Acids Essential Amino Acid Protein from Plants (Usually Limiting) Corn: Deficient in Tryptophane and Lysine Legumes (Beans): Deficient in Methionine Grains (Wheat): Deficient in LysineThe adult human body can maintain nitrogenous equilibrium on a mixture of 8 pureamino-acids as its sole source of nitrogen. 44
  44. 44. Complete ProteinsEssential Amino AcidsNonessential Amino AcidsAnimal Sources = Essential Amino Acids Meat Cheese Fish Eggs Poultry Milk
  45. 45. Digestion and Absorption of Protein Protein in Food Do Not Become Body Proteins Protein in Food Supply Amino AcidsFood protein is acted upon by number of digestive juices and enzymes thenconverted into amino-acids, the simpler form of it, then is absorbed by the body. 46
  46. 46. Digestion and Absorption of Protein Hydrolysis of Protein Begins in the Stomach Acted upon by Gastric juices HCL ( in the Stomach) Amino Acids Blood StreamProtiens are digested to form Proteoses,Peptones,Polypeptides and Amino Acids.Digestion of Protiens in fried foods is slower because of delayed gastric emptyingand the fat envelope requires digestion in the small intestine before the proteinsplitting enzymes act.In the stomach the enzyme Pepsin breaks down proteins into Proteoses andPeptone in the presence of HCL. This Proteoses and Peptones are further actedupon by the other enzymes and releases small Peptide chains and Amino Acids.These Amino acids are taken up by the blood stream and transported to thedifferent parts of the body.
  47. 47. Various Sources of proteins Cereals and Millets Pulses, legumes Milk and milk products Egg and Flesh Foods Soya
  48. 48. Functions Of Dietary Proteins Provide AA for the formation of tissues during growth. To provide AA for the growth of fetus in pregnancy and for the production of milk proteins during lactation.
  49. 49. Functions Of Dietary Proteins To replace the daily loss of body protein. To provide AA for the formation of enzymes, blood protein and certain hormones of protein nature.
  50. 50. RDA of Protein ….. contd
  51. 51. Experimental assessment of Protein sources.In this chart we see that Soya bean has the highest amount of Nitrogen whichsignifies that it is the richest source of Protiens among Pulses and Legumes.
  52. 52. Experimental assessment of Protein sources. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score Measures the nitrogen content of undigested protein to indicate the digestibility of protein present in a particular source. Measured on a scale of 0 - 1 - where 0 represents least digestibility and 1 represents maximum digestibility.
  53. 53. Count What You Eat
  54. 54. Count What You Eat Protein Value Of Cooked Preperations Preperation Weight(gm) Proteins ( gm) SNACKS Samosa 65 3 Sandwich 65 3 Sevian 80 3 Idli 115 5 Dosa 85 6 Vada 45 6 Dahi vada 165 11 Upma 130 5 Masala omlettee 100 7 CHUTNEY Coconut 55 2 Coriander 20 1 Mint 18 trace Tomato 50 1 NON - VEG Handi Chicken 125 26 Fish cutlet 80 14 Fried fish 85 18 Liver 140 22 Mutton 145 18 Prawn curry 145 18
  55. 55. Carbohydrates Compounds composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen molecules Carbo = Carbon Hydrate = With Water (H2O)The carbohydrates are a class of chemical compounds composed of C,H,& O. Theycontain 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen. 56
  56. 56. Carbohydrate Family Simple Complex Carbohydrates (Sugars) Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Starch (Polysaccharides)* Glucose (Blood Sugar) Fibers (Nonstarch Fructose (Fruit Sugar) Polysaccharides) Galactose (Milk Sugar) Soluble Disaccharides Insoluble Sucrose (Table Sugar) Lactose Maltose *Glycogen is a Complex Carbohydrate (a Polysaccharide), but not a Dietary Source of CarbohydrateMonosaccharides- contains 3-6 atoms of carbon in each molecule.Disaccharidies- It is derived from 1 mole. Of glucose combined with 1 mole. offructose which can split by hydrolysis in the process of digestion. 57
  57. 57. Starch Glucose Molecules Linked Plants Store Glucose as Starch Humans Eat Plants Body Hydrolysis Starch to Glucose EnergyGlucose (grape sugar)Starch consists of glucose in combined form. 58
  58. 58. Glycogen Animal Polysaccharide Manufactured and Stored in Liver Not Significant Source of Carbohydrate Not Complex Carbohydrate in Foods Food SourcesThis is the animal equivalent of starch and is found in human tissues. The glycogenmole. Is composed of 3000-60,000 glucose units. Like starch this also dissolves inwater and readily broken down by the enzyme to yield glucose. 59
  59. 59. Fiber Structural Part of Plants Vegetables, Fruits, Grains, Legumes Non-Starch Polysaccharides: Cellulose, Hemicellulose, Pectins, Gums, Mucilages Non Polysaccharides: Lignins, Cutins, TanninsFibers are not considered a nutrient but it is still a component of food that promotesgood health. It is a complex mixture of indigestible CHO material. 60
  60. 60. Fiber: Sources, Actions, Structures Soluble Fibers Insoluble Fibers Food Sources Fruits (Apples, Citrus), Wheat Bran, Whole-Grain Oats, Barley, Legumes Breads and Cereals, Vegetables Delay GI Transit Accelerate GI Transit Action in the Delay Glucose Absorption Increase Fecal Weight Body Lower Blood Cholesterol Slow Starch Hydrolysis Delay Glucose Absorption Gums, Pectins, Some Cellulose, Many Type of Fiber Hemicelluloses, Mucilages Hemicelluloses, LigninsThis can be explained and can be used later as an exercise at the end of “Vitamin”chapter as part of revision. There are play cards available for the same or chartpaper can be used by each team,
  61. 61. Video 2: Good Fats Click to Start
  62. 62. Fat DefinitionFats contain C, H, & O. They supply more energy than CHO & Proteins becausethey contain more combustible carbon & hydrogen. Thus they are the concentratedsource of energy. 63
  63. 63. Lipid Family Triglycerides (Fats and Oils) Glycerol (1 per Triglyceride) Fatty Acids (3 per Triglyceride) Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Omega-6 Omega-3 Phospholipids (Such as Lecithin) Sterols (Such as Cholesterol)TG is the form in which fats chiefly occur in food stuffs and in the fat depots of mostanimals. TG are the esters of glycerol and FA.FA- over 40 different FA are found in nature. The natural fats are or TG are formedfrom 1 mole. of glycerol and 3 mole. of FA.These are 3 naturally occurring types of fats.After TG the next largest lipid component of the body are the Phospholipids. Theyform the important part of the structure of the cell-membrane.Sterols are the important biological substance. 64
  64. 64. Saturated Fats Hydrogenated Fatty Acids Chemical Process: Hydrogen Atoms + Mono or Polyunsaturated Fats Fats More Stable Prolongs Shelf Life Protects Against Oxidation Sources: Margarine, Shortening, Baked GoodsVegetable oils can be hardened and turned into solid fats by the action of hydrogenin the presence of a catalyst. This hydrogenation converts most of the unsaturatedFA into saturated FA. 65
  65. 65. Effects on HealthSaturated Fats Elevate Blood Cholesterol Heart DiseaseHydrogenated Fats Trans Fatty Acid Heart DiseaseUnsaturated Fats Lower Blood Cholesterol Heart Disease
  66. 66. Role of Triglycerides and Fatty Acids Provide Energy Enhance Palatability Influence Texture of Foods Enable Absorption of Fat Soluble Vitamins Insulate the Body Protect Organs Against Shock Help Body Use Carbohydrates and Proteins
  67. 67. Essential Fatty Acids Body Can Make All But "2" Fatty Acids Linoleic Acid Linolenic Acid Indispensable to Body Function Supplied by DietEFA are necessary for growth. Like AA they cannot be synthesized by the body andhave to be supplied in the diet. Linoleic & Linolenic acid are of vegetable origin.(linoleic-omega 6 FA, linolenic-omega 3 FA). 68
  68. 68. Comparison of Dietary Fats 69
  69. 69. Linoleic Acid: Omega 6 Arachidonic Acid Structure and Function of Cell Membranes and Inflammation ReactionsArachidonic Acid is a Essential Fatty Acids( EFA) with 4 double bonds. ThisEFA is synthesized from linolenic acid in fish and animals. 70
  70. 70. Linolenic Acid: Omega 3 Body Can Produce EPA - Eicosapentaenoic Acid DHA - Docosahexanenoic Acid Development and Maintenance: Brain and Retina of Eye Integrity of Skin, Kidney, Liver, Reproductive OrgansLinoleic and Linolenic Acids are of vegetable origin and are present in Cotton seed,groundnuts and Linseed oils, while Arachidonic acid is synthesized from Linolenic inFish and animals. Oils from Fatty fish are rich in the long chain n-3 PUFAs and EPAand DHA. The n-3 PUFA Linolenic acid can act as a precussor for EPA and DHA.Linseed oil is particularly rich in this nutrient.
  71. 71. Linolenic Acid: Omega 3 Essential for Normal Growth and Development Regulates: Blood Clotting Blood Pressure Lipid Concentrations Inflammation Responses
  72. 72. Linolenic Acid: Omega 3 Important Role in Prevention and Treatment of: Heart Disease Hypertension Arthritis Cancer
  73. 73. Sources of Omega Fatty Acids Omega-6 Linoleic Acid Leafy Vegetables, Seeds, Nuts, Grains, Vegetable Oils (Corn, Safflower, Soybean, Cottonseed, Sesame, Sunflower) Meats (or can be Made from Linoleic Acid) Arachidonic Acid Omega-3 Fats and Oils (Canola, Soybean, Walnut, Wheat Germ, Linolenic Acid Margarine, and Shortening Made from Canola and Soybean oil) Nuts and Seeds (Butternuts, Walnuts, Soybean Kernels) Vegetables (Soybeans) Human Milk EPA and DHA Shellfish and Fish* (Mackerel, Tuna, Salmon, Bluefish, Mullet, Sturgeon, Menhaden, Anchovy, Herring, Trout, Sardines) (or can be Made from Linolenic Acid)
  74. 74. Phospholipids Similar to Triglyceride Choline and Phosphate Group Lecithin - Used as an Emulsifier Emulsifier: Promotes the Mixture of Two Substances such as Oil and Water, that are not Mutually SolubleThey form part of the structure of cell membranes and are concerned in thetransport of fat about the body. Phosphatidyl choline is the predominant substanceof lecithin. Lecithin is also the predominant phospholipid in plasma. 75
  75. 75. Role of Phospholipids Constituents of Cell Membranes Lipid Transportation Fat Soluble Substances: Vitamins and Hormones Emulsifiers
  76. 76. Sterols Liquid Compounds Multiple Ring Structure CholesterolSterols are impt. & widely distributed class of biological substance, all of them havethe same basic ring structure. Ex. Cholesterol, Bile salts, Ergosterol. 77
  77. 77. Cholesterol Animal Foods Meats Eggs Fish Shellfish Poultry Dairy Products Organ Meats (Liver, Kidneys)These are the rich sources of cholesterol. 78