Lighting sources_Raffles Institute_Environmental lighting

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Module: Environmental lighting
Lecturer: Sandra Draskovic
Jun 2013

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Lighting sources_Raffles Institute_Environmental lighting

  1. 1. MODULE: ENVIRONMENTAL LIGHTINGTERM: JUN 2013LECTURER: SANDRA DRASKOVIC
  2. 2.  IlluminanceInverse Square Cosine LawE =(I cosx)/D2Where: I is the Luminous Intensity in CandelasD is the distance between the source and the pointand the angle x between the normal or perpendicular tosurface A and the direction along the distance D LuminanceL = rE/Where: r is the reflectance, and E is the illuminance in lux
  3. 3. 1. Luminaries2. Light lamp3. Light socket4. Light switchAn assembly used to house one or more lightsources. Also called lighting fixture.
  4. 4.  Recessed Ceiling Mounted Track Mounted Wall mounted Suspended Architectural Portable Pole Mounted Bollard Outdoor
  5. 5.  Direct: 90 – 100% downward Semi direct: 60 – 90% downward General diffuse: 40 – 60% both downwardand upward Direct – indirect: little light is emitted in thehorizontal plane Semi – indirect: providing 60 – 90% of itsoutput upward Indirect: providing 90-100% of its luminousoutput upward.
  6. 6. FOCUS ON OBJECT OR AREAGREAT BRIGHTNESS CONTRASTHIGHLIGHT, SPARKLE OR RHYTHM
  7. 7. GIVE DIRECTION, OUTLINE SHAPESEMPHASIZE THE EDGES
  8. 8. SURFACEREPETEAD LINEARDIFFUSED ILLUMINATIONOF AREA
  9. 9. LAMP HOLDERCONNECT TO SUPPLYLIGHT SOURCEDESIGN OF LAMPLIGHT AS VOLUMETRIC ILLUMINATIONEXPANDED THROUGH TREE-DIMENSIONALFORMS OF LAMPS
  10. 10.  General Lighting
  11. 11.  Accent Lighting
  12. 12.  Decorative Lighting
  13. 13.  Task Lighting
  14. 14.  Kinetic Lighting
  15. 15.  Incandescent Lamps Fluorescent Lamps High – Intensity DischargeLamps Mercury Lamps Metal Halide Lamps High Pressure Sodium Lamps Low Pressure Sodium Lamps Electrodeless Lamps Compact arc xenon &MercuryLamps Electroluminescent Lamps Light Emitting Diodes (LED) Carbon arc Lamps Gaslights
  16. 16. WHAT?HOTWIRE – FILAMENT SEALED IN AGLASS JAR (BULB)HOW?ELECTRIC CURRENT PASSTHROUGHTHEWIRE HEATS ITTO INCADESCENCE,ANDTHEWIRE EMITS LIGHT. USESTANDARDVOLTAGE CIRCUIT.
  17. 17. Inside the glass is a gas such as argonand/or nitrogen. At the center of thelamp is a tungsten filament. Electricityheats this filament up to about 2,500degrees Celsius. Just like any hotmetal, the tungsten gets "white hot" atthat heat and emits a great deal ofvisible light in a process calledincandescence
  18. 18. 1. GLASS BULB2. VACUUM OR GAS FILLED3. WIRE/FILAMENT4. 5. LEAD-IN WIRES6. SUPPORT WIRES7. NECK8. 11. ELECTRIC FUSE9. BASE
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES:1. LESS EXPENSIVE2. EASIER TO DIM WITHRHEOSTATS3. WARMER COLOR THANFLUORESCENT ANDTHUNGSTEN-HALOGEN LAMPS4. LIGHT OUTPUT IS RELATIVELYHIGH5. EXCELENT COLOR RENDERING6. CAN BE DIMMEDDISADVANTAGES:1. ENERGY INEFFICIENT2. SHORT LAMP LIFE TIME3. WARM SOURCE
  20. 20. SHAPE OF LAMPS:AROUND 100 COMBINATIONS OF GLASS AND QUARTZBULB SHAPES AND SIZES.SYMBOLS:1ST PART = ONE OR MORE LETTERS INDICATES THESHAPE OF BULB2ND PART = NUMBER, INDICATES DIAMETER OF THEBULB IN EIGHTS OF AN INCHEXAMPLE: A19 = ARBITRARY SHAPED, 19/8 INCHDIAMETER
  21. 21. BASE IDENTIFICATION:1. SMALL BASE: BAYONET, BIPIN, CANDELABRA,INTERMEDIATE, MINIATURE, MINI-CANDELABRA,TWIST-AND-LOCK, TWO-PIN2. MEDIUM BASE3. LARGE BASE: MOGUL SCREW, MOGUL BIPOST
  22. 22. LAMP LIFE TIME:1. STANDARD-LIFE LAMP: high temperature for the filament tooperates, emits more light, shorter life time – “burns out”2. LONG-LIFE LAMP: given wattage produces less light, designedfor longer lifeLAMP EFFICIENCY = ______________________________LIGHT OUTPUT: INSERT GAS (ARGON, NITROGEN, KRYPTON)SLOWS BULB BLACKENING CAUSED BY CONDENSATIONON THE BULB WALLLIGHT PRODUCED (LUMENS, lm)ELECTRICITY CONSUMED (WATTS W)
  23. 23. BULBS ARE SOLD BY WATTS – MEASURE OF POWERCONSUMEDLUMENS TELLS HOW MUCH LIGHT LAMP EMITSHOURS OF OPERATION IS PRODUCED LIFE-TIME (750 –1000H, UP TO 2500H FOR EXTENDED SERVICELAMPS)ENERGY SAVING LAMPS – REDUCED WATTAGE,REDUCED LIGHT OUTPUT
  24. 24. LAMP TYPES:1. NON DIRECTIONAL (emits light in all directions - A,C, G, P, PS, S and T shapes, requires additionalexternal elements for brightness, glare anddistribution control)2. SEMI DIRECTIONAL (silver bowl or white bowllamps, coating on inner side of bulb, reduce filamentglare)3. DIRECTIONAL (complete optical systems: source,reflector, lens or filament shield, R, AR, MR, PARbuilt-in beam control)
  25. 25. WHITE BOWLLAMPSILVER BOWLLAMPPAR LAMPAR LAMP
  26. 26. SEMI DIRECTIONAL
  27. 27. Left: R reflector lampwith soft glass bulband ellipsoidreflector withmoderate focusingpower.Right: PAR reflectorlamp with pressedglass bulb andpowerful parabolicreflectorPAR LAMPR LAMPDIRECTIONAL
  28. 28. WHAT?SELECTED GAS OFTHE HALOGENFAMILYHOW?HALOGEN GAS COMBINES WITHTUNGSTEN MOLECULESTHAT SPUTTEROFTHE FILAMENT DEPOSITSTUNGSTENBACK ONTHE FILAMENT ANDEMITSCONSTANT LEVEL OF LIGHT
  29. 29. A halogen bulb has a filament made ofTungsten, which glows when electricityis applied, same as a regularincandescent bulb.The halogen gas removes the carbondeposits on the inside of the bulb,caused by the burning of the tungstenfilament, and redeposits it back on tothe filament, resulting in a light bulbwhich can be burned at a higher
  30. 30. HIGHOPERATINGTEMPERATURE(500C), HIGHCOLORTEMPERATUREQUARTZINSTEAD OFGLASSEQUIPED WITHOUTER BULB,GLASS COVER,MESH SCREEN
  31. 31. ADVANTAGES:1. HIGH COLOR TEMPERATURE MAKE THEM“WHITER” THAN STANDARD INCADESCENTLAMPS2. LONGER LIFE TIME3. GREAT EFFICIENCY4. COMPACT IN SHAPE AND SIZEThey come in many shapes and sizes, somedirectional others not, some quite small others the sizeof regular bulbs, some fit into normal sockets otherrequire special sockets and voltages to work.
  32. 32. There are many different types of (single ended) TH lamp,the most common ones are the G9 capsule lamp, GU10spot lamp and linear halogen lamps which are alldomestic mains voltage, and G4 capsule lamp,(integralreflector) MR16, MR11 spot lamps which are low voltagelamps.
  33. 33. There are many different types of (single ended) TH lamp,the most common ones are the G9 capsule lamp, GU10spot lamp and linear halogen lamps which are alldomestic mains voltage, and G4 capsule lamp,(integralreflector) MR16, MR11 spot lamps which are low voltagelamps.
  34. 34. •LOW-VOLTAGE LAMPS – incandescent and tungsten-halogen lamps that operate between 6V and 75 V.•Standard building current of 115 V-125V must bestepped down by the use of transformer.•Low-voltage luminaries with integrated transformers arelarger in size and bulkier.•Practical system is line-voltage equipment.
  35. 35. LOW VOLTAGE PAR56(halogen lamp)LOW VOLTAGE MULTIFACETEDMIRROR REFLECTOR(halogen lamp)
  36. 36. Colored ceramic enamel
  37. 37. HUE(quality in red or green),SATURATION (strength or depth of color)BRIGHTNESS (quantity of light)
  38. 38. Thin transparent colored plastic sheet in vide variety ofcolors, as well as multicolored and diffused sheets.Short service life – color fades rapidly.
  39. 39. One or more layers of ultrathin film coating on clear glassthat reflects rather than absorb unwanted wavelength.They transmit one color, and reflect the complementarycolor.
  40. 40. What?Gas, phosphor, catode, dischargeHow?Light is produced by passage ofan electric current through avapor or gas, rather thanthrough a tungsten wire as inincandescent lamp.
  41. 41. The classic fluorescent lamp design, which has fallenmostly by the wayside, used a special starter switchmechanism to light up the tube.The conventional starter switch is a small dischargebulb, containing neon or some other gas. The bulb hastwo electrodes positioned right next to each other.When electricity is initially passed through the bypasscircuit, an electrical arc jumps between theseelectrodes to make a connection. This arc lights thebulb in the same way a larger arc lights a fluorescentbulb.
  42. 42. ADVANTAGES:• Heat is relatively low• Energy efficient• Range from low grade to highgrade• Long lamp life• Usually Cool source• Control gearsDISADVANTAGE:• Color temperature• Require ballast: preheat, instant-start, rapid-start• Requires controlling elements forglare control
  43. 43. TYPES:1. COLD CATHODE2. HOT CATHODESHAPE:1. U-BENT SHAPE2. CIRCULINE SHAPE3. COMPACT FLUO-LAMPS
  44. 44. MagneticBallast(Traditional)ElectronicBallastIntegratedBallast (CFL)• Equipment required to control the starting andoperating voltages of electrical gas discharge lights.
  45. 45. • Type of electrical gas-discharge lamp whichproduces light by means of an electric arc betweentungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent ortransparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube.• This tube is filled with both gas and metal salts. Thegas facilitates the arcs initial strike. Once the arc isstarted, it heats and evaporates the metal saltsforming a plasma, which greatly increases theintensity of light produced by the arc and reduces itspower consumption. High-intensity discharge lampsare a type of arc lamp.
  46. 46. When energy efficiency and/orlight intensity are desired.These areas includegymnasiums, large public areas,warehouses, movie theaters,football stadiums, outdooractivity areas, roadways,parking lots, and pathways.Ultra-High Performance (UHP)HID lamps are used in LCD orDLP projection TV sets orprojection displays as well.
  47. 47. Red and Infrared LEDs are made with gallium arsenideBright Blue is made with GaN -gallium nitrideWhite LEDs are made with yttrium aluminum garnetThere are also orange, green, blue, violet, purple, ultraviolet LEDs.
  48. 48.  Benefits Of LED lighting
  49. 49. LEDs are just tiny light bulbsthat fit easily into an electricalcircuit. But unlike ordinaryincandescent bulbs, they donthave a filament that will burnout, and they dont getespecially hot. They areilluminated solely by themovement of electrons in asemiconductor material, andthey last just as long as astandard transistor. Thelifespan of an LED surpassesthe short life of anincandescent bulb bythousands of hours.
  50. 50. HalogenMR16GU5.3Incandescent StandardE27
  51. 51. HalogenQR111G53HalogenPARE27
  52. 52. PLCCompact fluorescent lampsCFLCompact Fluorescent LampsE27
  53. 53. FluorescentCFL SpiralE27FluoresenMegaman LiliputE27
  54. 54. FluoresenTL (Tubular Lamp)T5FluoresenTL (Tubular Lamp)T8
  55. 55. LEDMR16GU5.3LEDTubular Lamp
  56. 56. LEDLED StripLED Strip
  57. 57. LED/PijarFlexi LightLEDLED Strip (Plat)
  58. 58. LEDLinestraLEDLEDTape
  59. 59.  FiberOptics
  60. 60.  Cold Cathode
  61. 61. Any Question?

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