The Components of The System Unit

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The Components of The System Unit

  1. 1. Discovering Computers 2011 Living in a Digital World
  2. 2. Objectives OverviewDifferentiate among various Describe the control unit Identify chips, adapter styles of system units on and arithmetic logic unit cards, and other desktop computers, components of a processor, components of a notebook computers, and and explain the four steps in motherboard mobile devices a machine cycle Identify characteristics ofvarious personal computer Define a bit and describe Explain how program processors on the market how a series of bits instructions transfer in and today, and describe the represents data out of memoryways processors are cooled Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 2 Chapter 2
  3. 3. Objectives Overview Differentiate between a port and Describe the purpose and types a connector, and explain the of expansion slots and adapterDifferentiate among the various differences among a USB port, cards, and differentiate among types of memory FireWire port, Bluetooth port, slots for various removable flash SCSI port, eSATA port, IrDA port, memory devices serial port, and MIDI port Explain the purpose of a power Understand how to clean aDescribe the types of buses in a supply and describe how it keeps system unit on a computer or computer cool mobile device Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 3 Chapter 2
  4. 4. The System Unit• The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 4 Chapter 2
  5. 5. The System Unit• The inside of the system unit on a desktop personal computer includes: Drive bay(s) Power supply Sound card Video card Processor Memory Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 5 Chapter 2
  6. 6. The System Unit• The motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit – A computer chip contains integrated circuits Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 6 Chapter 2
  7. 7. Processor• The processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer – Contain a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU)Multi-core Dual-core Quad-coreprocessor processor processor Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 7 Chapter 2
  8. 8. Processor Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 8 Chapter 2
  9. 9. Processor• The control unit is the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer• The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 9 Chapter 2
  10. 10. Processor• For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four basic operations, which comprise a machine cycle Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 10 Chapter 2
  11. 11. Processor • Most current personal computers support pipelining – Processor begins fetching a second instruction before it completes the machine cycle for the first instruction Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 11 Chapter 2
  12. 12. ProcessorThe processor contains registers, thattemporarily hold data and instructionsThe system clock controls the timingof all computer operations• The pace of the system clock is called the clock speed, and is measured in gigahertz (GHz) Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 12 Chapter 2
  13. 13. Processor • The leading manufacturers of personal computer processor chips are Intel and AMD Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 13 Chapter 2
  14. 14. Processor• Determine how you plan to use a new computer before selecting a processor Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 14 Chapter 2
  15. 15. Processor • A processor chip generates heat that could cause the chip to burn up • Require additional cooling – Heat sinks – Liquid cooling technology Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 15 Chapter 2
  16. 16. Processor• Parallel processing uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a single program or task – Massively parallel processing involves hundreds or thousands of processors Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 16 Chapter 2
  17. 17. Data RepresentationAnalog signals are continuous and vary instrength and qualityDigital signals are in one of two states: onor off• Most computers are digital• The binary system uses two unique digits (0 and 1) • Bits and bytes Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 17 Chapter 2
  18. 18. Data Representation A computer circuit represents Eight bits grouped together as a the 0 or the 1 electronically by unit are called a byte. A byte the presence or absence of an represents a single character in electrical charge the computer Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 18 Chapter 2
  19. 19. Data Representation • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most widely used coding scheme to represent data Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 19 Chapter 2
  20. 20. Data Representation Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 20 Chapter 2
  21. 21. Memory• Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data• Stores three basic categories of items: Data being The operating Application processed and thesystem and other programs resulting system software information Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 21 Chapter 2
  22. 22. Memory• Each location in memory has an address• Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or K), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), or terabytes (TB) Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 22 Chapter 2
  23. 23. Memory• The system unit contains two types of memory: Volatile memory Nonvolatile memory Loses its contents when Does not lose contents power is turned off when power is removed Examples include ROM, Example includes RAM flash memory, and CMOS Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 23 Chapter 2
  24. 24. Memory Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 24 Chapter 2
  25. 25. Memory• Three basic types of RAM chips exist: Dynamic RAM Magnetoresistive Static RAM (SRAM) (DRAM) RAM (MRAM) Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 25 Chapter 2
  26. 26. Memory• RAM chips usually reside on a memory module and are inserted into memory slots Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 26 Chapter 2
  27. 27. Memory• The amount of RAM necessary in a computer often depends on the types of software you plan to use Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 27 Chapter 2
  28. 28. Memory• Memory cache speeds the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used instructions and data Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 28 Chapter 2
  29. 29. MemoryRead-only memory (ROM) refers to memory chipsstoring permanent data and instructions• FirmwareA PROM (programmable read-only memory) chip is ablank ROM chip that can be written to permanently• EEPROM can be erased Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 29 Chapter 2
  30. 30. Memory• Flash memory can be erased electronically and rewritten – CMOS technology provides high speeds and consumes little power Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 30 Chapter 2
  31. 31. Memory• Access time is the amount of time it takes the processor to read from memory – Measured in nanoseconds Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 31 Chapter 2
  32. 32. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards • An expansion slot is a socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card • An adapter card enhances functions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals – Sound card and video card Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 32 Chapter 2
  33. 33. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards• With Plug and Play, the computer automatically can configure adapter cards and other peripherals as you install them Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 33 Chapter 2
  34. 34. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards• Removable flash memory includes: – Memory cards, USB flash drives, and PC Cards/ExpressCard modules Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 34 Chapter 2
  35. 35. Ports and ConnectorsA port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to orcommunicates with a system unit (sometimes referredto as a jack)A connector joins a cable to a port Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 35 Chapter 2
  36. 36. Ports and Connectors Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 36 Chapter 2
  37. 37. Ports and Connectors• On a notebook computer, the ports are on the back, front, and/or sides Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 37 Chapter 2
  38. 38. Ports and Connectors Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 38 Chapter 2
  39. 39. Ports and Connectors• A USB port can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector – You can attach multiple peripherals using a single USB port with a USB hub Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 39 Chapter 2
  40. 40. Ports and Connectors• Other types of ports include: Firewire Bluetooth SCSI port port port eSATA IrDA port Serial port port MIDI port Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 40 Chapter 2
  41. 41. Ports and Connectors A Bluetooth wireless port A smart phone might adapter converts a USB port into communicate with a notebook a Bluetooth port computer using an IrDA port Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 41 Chapter 2
  42. 42. Ports and Connectors • A port replicator is an external device that provides connections to peripherals through ports built into the device • A docking station is an external device that attaches to a mobile computer or device Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 42 Chapter 2
  43. 43. Buses • A bus allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other – Data bus – Address bus • Word size is the number of bits the processor can interpret and execute at a given time Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 43 Chapter 2
  44. 44. Buses• Expansion slots connect to expansion buses• Common types of expansion buses include: PCI Express Accelerated PCI bus bus Graphics Port USB and PC Card bus FireWire bus Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 44 Chapter 2
  45. 45. Bays • A bay is an opening inside the system unit in which you can install additional equipment – A drive bay typically holds disk drives Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 45 Chapter 2
  46. 46. Power SupplyThe power supply converts the walloutlet AC power into DC powerSome external peripherals have an ACadapter, which is an external powersupply Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 46 Chapter 2
  47. 47. Putting It All Together Home Small Office/ Mobile Intel Core 2 Quad or Home Office Intel Core i7 Extreme or Intel Core 2 Duo or Intel Core i7 or AMD Turion X2 AMD Sempron Intel Core i7 Extreme or AMD Athlon X2 or AMD Athlon II X2 Dual-Code Minimum RAM: 2 GB Minimum RAM: 2 GB Minimum RAM: 4 GB Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 47 Chapter 2
  48. 48. Putting It All Together Power Enterprise Intel Itanium 2 or AMD Intel Core i7 or Intel 6-Core Opteron or Intel Core i7 Extreme or AMD Quad Core Xeon Athlon X2 or AMD Minimum RAM: 8 GB Athlon II X2 Dual-Core Minimum RAM: 4 GB Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 48 Chapter 2
  49. 49. Keeping Your Computeror Mobile Device CleanClean your computer or mobile device once or twice a yearTurn off and unplug your computer or mobile device beforecleaning itUse compressed air to blow away dustUse an antistatic wipe to clean the exterior of the case and acleaning solution and soft cloth to clean the screen Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 49 Chapter 2
  50. 50. Video: The Leopard with a Time Machine CLICK TO START Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 50 Chapter 2
  51. 51. Summary Sequence of operations How memory storesComponents of the that occur when a data, instructions, and system unit computer executes an information instruction Comparison of various How to clean the personal computer exterior and interior of processors on the a system unit market today Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a Digital World 51 Chapter 2
  52. 52. Discovering Computers 2011 Living in a Digital World Chapter 2 Complete

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