SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 29
Lecture No 4 
System Unit 
Central Processing Unit 
RAM
What is the system unit? 
A boxlike case that houses the 
computer’s main hardware components
What are the different types of system units? 
Desktops 
Notebook 
Personal Digital 
Assistant
What’s inside the system unit? 
Motherboard (mainboard)- Large circuit board with 
thousands of electrical circuits 
Power supply- provide electric power of all parts of the 
system unit through main board. 
Cooling fan- Keeps the system unit cool 
Internal Speaker- Used for beeps when error is 
encountered 
Drive bays- Housing for the computer’s hard drive, 
floppy drive and CD-ROM / DVD-ROM drives 
Click N Learn
What’s on the motherboard? 
Microprocessor (CPU)- Central processing unit interprets 
and carries out instructions given by software 
Memory- Enables the computer to retain information 
Chipset- A collection of chips that provide the switching 
circuitry needed to move data 
Input/Output buses- Pathways that allow the 
microprocessor to communicate with input and output 
devices 
Click N Learn
The Motherboard 
Microprocessor 
Keyboard / 
Mouse Ports 
Printer Port 
Video Port 
PCI Slots 
(Peripheral 
Component 
Interconnect) 
Memory Slots 
AGP Slot 
(Accelerated Graphics 
Port) 
Chipset
Central Processing UUnniitt ((CCPPUU)) 
The central processing unit, is the “brain” of computer system. 
Administrative section of computer. 
Supervises the operations of the other computer units. 
CPU is connected to all other parts of computer. 
Receives data and instructions given by user, processes 
accordingly and produces the output. 
This section not only executes the instructions but also controls 
all the permanent or temporary storage of data, I/O activities as 
well as the function of different devices attached with it. 
It is further divided into two parts: 
◦ Control Unit (CU) 
◦ Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
What are the types of CPUs? 
Intel 
Advanced 
Micro Devices 
(AMD) 
Cyrix 
Motorola (Apple) 
Pentium IV 
Pentium MMX 
Pentium III
Basic Operation Performed by CPU 
(Control Unit ) 
Intel 
4 basic operations: 
Fetch – The Control Unit takes the 
instruction that is store in the Main 
Memory. 
Decode - The Control Unit 
translates the instruction into machine 
language or binary code. 
Execute - carry out the command 
Store - write the result to memory
Arithmetic and LLooggiicc UUnniitt ((AALLUU)) 
• Major processing unit of the CPU. 
• All arithmetic and logical (decision making) activities are 
performed in this section. 
• Arithmetic means all sort of addition, subtraction, division and 
multiplication. 
• The logical operations performed in this unit make it possible for 
computer to make decisions by comparing one item with the other.
Arithmetic and Logic Unit 
Comparison (greater 
than, equal to, or 
less than) 
Arithmetic 
(addition, subtraction, 
multiplication, and 
division)
Machine Cycle 
4 operations of the CPU comprise a 
machine cycle. 
Instruction time– time to fetch and decode 
Execution time– time to execute and Store 
e-time 
i-time
Example 
A Step student 
1: The 
control enters a unit 
math 
problem fetches the 
into 
math the memory problem 
of 
from the computer 
memory 
Step 2: 3: 4: The 
ALU 
results of the 
math problem 
are stored in 
memory 
The result in 
memory 
displays on the 
screen of the 
monitor 
executes the 
math problem 
decodes the 
and sends it to 
the ALU
How a CPU works Click to 
Control unit ALU 
Memory 
animate. 
Click one 
time only
What is memory? 
A term for a device that enables the 
computer to retain (store) information.
What are the types of memory? 
Volatile memory (Random Access Memory/RAM; 
Cache Memory; Virtual Memory)- Contents of 
memory are erased when power supply is turned 
off. Also called Temporary storage. 
Nonvolatile memory (Read Only Memory/ROM; 
Flash Memory)- Contents of memory are not erased 
when power is turned off. Also called Permanent 
storage.
What is Random Access Memory / RAM? 
A type of volatile memory that stores 
information temporarily so that it’s available to 
the CPU.
HOW DOES RAM WORK? 
CHIPS CONTAIN MEMORY LOCATIONS 
CALLED MEMORY ADDRESSES 
THE CPU STORES AND RETRIEVES DATA 
BY GOING TO THE MEMORY ADDRESSES 
Intel
WEB 
KEYBOARD 
CPU 
RAM 
MONITOR 
CLICK TO BEGIN 
ANIMATION 
HOW RAM WORKS
What is cache memory? 
Located within the CPU chip, it is the memory the 
microprocessor uses to store frequently used 
instructions and data. 
Faster than RAM
What is virtual memory? 
Part of the hard disk is reserved as RAM 
When RAM modules become full the CPU 
accesses the hard disk to store and retrieve 
data 
Slower than RAM 
FUL 
L
What are input/output (I/O) buses? 
Pathways that enable the CPU to 
communicate with input/output devices 
Typically the buses contain slots 
called expansion slots, in which 
expansion cards are inserted 
Expansion slots 
Expansion card
What’s on the outside of the system unit? 
Power switch- Located on the back; turns power on/off 
to the computer 
Receptacles- Called connectors or ports; Usually 
located on the back; Used to plug in peripheral devices, 
keyboard, mouse and monitor 
Front panel- Contains drive bays, various buttons and 
lights 
BACK FRONT 
Drive bays 
On/off switch 
Reset button 
Indicator lights
Types of ports/connectors

More Related Content

What's hot

1 01 Computer Components
1 01 Computer Components1 01 Computer Components
1 01 Computer Componentsjasonmammano
 
Parts of a Computer
Parts of a ComputerParts of a Computer
Parts of a ComputerMatt Shea
 
Computer Basics 101 Slide Show Presentation
Computer Basics 101 Slide Show PresentationComputer Basics 101 Slide Show Presentation
Computer Basics 101 Slide Show Presentationsluget
 
CPU and its components
CPU and its componentsCPU and its components
CPU and its componentssamina khan
 
Introduction to computer Powerpoint Presentation
Introduction to computer Powerpoint PresentationIntroduction to computer Powerpoint Presentation
Introduction to computer Powerpoint PresentationJibin Sr. Plamoottukada
 
Chapter 1 introduction to computers
Chapter 1   introduction to computersChapter 1   introduction to computers
Chapter 1 introduction to computershaider ali
 
Computer fundamentals
Computer fundamentalsComputer fundamentals
Computer fundamentalsAmir Villas
 
Computer Basic Definitions
Computer Basic DefinitionsComputer Basic Definitions
Computer Basic Definitionsnorzaini
 
Computer components
Computer componentsComputer components
Computer componentsAva Meek
 
Introduction to computers new 2010
Introduction to computers new 2010Introduction to computers new 2010
Introduction to computers new 2010Cyrus Kyle
 
Computer components
Computer componentsComputer components
Computer componentshony-1
 
Computer Components
Computer ComponentsComputer Components
Computer ComponentsBeth Sockman
 
Day 3 motherboard of a pc
Day 3 motherboard of a pcDay 3 motherboard of a pc
Day 3 motherboard of a pcSaket Rai
 
Computer Software & It's types.
Computer Software &  It's types.Computer Software &  It's types.
Computer Software & It's types.Mohit Dhankher
 

What's hot (20)

1 01 Computer Components
1 01 Computer Components1 01 Computer Components
1 01 Computer Components
 
Parts of a Computer ppt
Parts of a Computer pptParts of a Computer ppt
Parts of a Computer ppt
 
Parts of a Computer
Parts of a ComputerParts of a Computer
Parts of a Computer
 
Basic of computer
Basic of computerBasic of computer
Basic of computer
 
Computer Basics 101 Slide Show Presentation
Computer Basics 101 Slide Show PresentationComputer Basics 101 Slide Show Presentation
Computer Basics 101 Slide Show Presentation
 
Computer hardware
Computer hardwareComputer hardware
Computer hardware
 
CPU and its components
CPU and its componentsCPU and its components
CPU and its components
 
Introduction to computer Powerpoint Presentation
Introduction to computer Powerpoint PresentationIntroduction to computer Powerpoint Presentation
Introduction to computer Powerpoint Presentation
 
Chapter 1 introduction to computers
Chapter 1   introduction to computersChapter 1   introduction to computers
Chapter 1 introduction to computers
 
Computer Hardware
Computer HardwareComputer Hardware
Computer Hardware
 
Computer fundamentals
Computer fundamentalsComputer fundamentals
Computer fundamentals
 
Computer Basic Definitions
Computer Basic DefinitionsComputer Basic Definitions
Computer Basic Definitions
 
Basics of computer
Basics of computerBasics of computer
Basics of computer
 
Computer components
Computer componentsComputer components
Computer components
 
Introduction to computers new 2010
Introduction to computers new 2010Introduction to computers new 2010
Introduction to computers new 2010
 
Computer components
Computer componentsComputer components
Computer components
 
Introduction to Computers
Introduction to ComputersIntroduction to Computers
Introduction to Computers
 
Computer Components
Computer ComponentsComputer Components
Computer Components
 
Day 3 motherboard of a pc
Day 3 motherboard of a pcDay 3 motherboard of a pc
Day 3 motherboard of a pc
 
Computer Software & It's types.
Computer Software &  It's types.Computer Software &  It's types.
Computer Software & It's types.
 

Viewers also liked

Viewers also liked (20)

System unit components
System unit componentsSystem unit components
System unit components
 
System unit
System unitSystem unit
System unit
 
The Components of The System Unit
The Components of The System UnitThe Components of The System Unit
The Components of The System Unit
 
Parts of system unit
Parts of system unitParts of system unit
Parts of system unit
 
Introduction to computer hardware
Introduction to computer hardwareIntroduction to computer hardware
Introduction to computer hardware
 
System unit components
System unit componentsSystem unit components
System unit components
 
COMPONENTS OF SYSTEM UNIT
COMPONENTS OF SYSTEM UNITCOMPONENTS OF SYSTEM UNIT
COMPONENTS OF SYSTEM UNIT
 
Parts of the system unit
Parts of the system unitParts of the system unit
Parts of the system unit
 
Types of computer
Types of computerTypes of computer
Types of computer
 
Types of computers
Types of computersTypes of computers
Types of computers
 
Classification of computer
Classification of computerClassification of computer
Classification of computer
 
Com hardware
Com hardwareCom hardware
Com hardware
 
Secondary storage
Secondary storageSecondary storage
Secondary storage
 
Motherboard
MotherboardMotherboard
Motherboard
 
System unit
System unitSystem unit
System unit
 
motherboard
motherboardmotherboard
motherboard
 
Microprocessors
MicroprocessorsMicroprocessors
Microprocessors
 
Parts of System Unit
Parts of System UnitParts of System Unit
Parts of System Unit
 
Application of Computer
Application of ComputerApplication of Computer
Application of Computer
 
Classification of computer
Classification of computerClassification of computer
Classification of computer
 

Similar to System Unit

computer System UNit Every thing
computer System UNit Every thingcomputer System UNit Every thing
computer System UNit Every thingAbdul Rehman
 
Components of the computer
Components of the computerComponents of the computer
Components of the computerRainishDhiman
 
Computer Hardware Complete Guide Easy
Computer Hardware Complete Guide EasyComputer Hardware Complete Guide Easy
Computer Hardware Complete Guide Easykhang950262
 
Lecture 3 - Processors, Memory and I/O devices
Lecture 3 - Processors, Memory and I/O devicesLecture 3 - Processors, Memory and I/O devices
Lecture 3 - Processors, Memory and I/O devicesMd. Imran Hossain Showrov
 
Intro to Computing Lec 1.pptx
Intro to Computing Lec 1.pptxIntro to Computing Lec 1.pptx
Intro to Computing Lec 1.pptxFalakNiaz15
 
Introduction to computing
Introduction to computingIntroduction to computing
Introduction to computingAmir_Mukhtar
 
Basic computer operations1.pptx
Basic computer operations1.pptxBasic computer operations1.pptx
Basic computer operations1.pptxColleenVender2
 
Lecture 2 - Computer Hardware & Operating Systems
Lecture 2 - Computer Hardware & Operating SystemsLecture 2 - Computer Hardware & Operating Systems
Lecture 2 - Computer Hardware & Operating SystemsJack Hyman
 
The Computer System2007
The Computer System2007The Computer System2007
The Computer System2007Sue Cooksey
 
The computer system2007
The computer system2007The computer system2007
The computer system2007Sue Cooksey
 
FUNDAMENTAL UNITS OF COMPUTER.pptx
FUNDAMENTAL UNITS OF COMPUTER.pptxFUNDAMENTAL UNITS OF COMPUTER.pptx
FUNDAMENTAL UNITS OF COMPUTER.pptxShubhamGupta345141
 
Computer Architecture and Organization.pptx
Computer Architecture and Organization.pptxComputer Architecture and Organization.pptx
Computer Architecture and Organization.pptxLearnersCoach
 
CSS L04 - Integral Parts of the Computer System
CSS L04 - Integral Parts of the Computer SystemCSS L04 - Integral Parts of the Computer System
CSS L04 - Integral Parts of the Computer SystemMarvin Bronoso
 
Computer organization-and-architecture-questions-and-answers
Computer organization-and-architecture-questions-and-answersComputer organization-and-architecture-questions-and-answers
Computer organization-and-architecture-questions-and-answersappasami
 

Similar to System Unit (20)

Cpu
CpuCpu
Cpu
 
Comp App Lect 2.pptx
Comp App Lect 2.pptxComp App Lect 2.pptx
Comp App Lect 2.pptx
 
computer System UNit Every thing
computer System UNit Every thingcomputer System UNit Every thing
computer System UNit Every thing
 
Components of the computer
Components of the computerComponents of the computer
Components of the computer
 
Processing
ProcessingProcessing
Processing
 
Computer Hardware Complete Guide Easy
Computer Hardware Complete Guide EasyComputer Hardware Complete Guide Easy
Computer Hardware Complete Guide Easy
 
Lecture 3 - Processors, Memory and I/O devices
Lecture 3 - Processors, Memory and I/O devicesLecture 3 - Processors, Memory and I/O devices
Lecture 3 - Processors, Memory and I/O devices
 
Intro to Computing Lec 1.pptx
Intro to Computing Lec 1.pptxIntro to Computing Lec 1.pptx
Intro to Computing Lec 1.pptx
 
Introduction to computing
Introduction to computingIntroduction to computing
Introduction to computing
 
Basic computer operations1.pptx
Basic computer operations1.pptxBasic computer operations1.pptx
Basic computer operations1.pptx
 
Lecture 2 - Computer Hardware & Operating Systems
Lecture 2 - Computer Hardware & Operating SystemsLecture 2 - Computer Hardware & Operating Systems
Lecture 2 - Computer Hardware & Operating Systems
 
Cpu
CpuCpu
Cpu
 
The Computer System2007
The Computer System2007The Computer System2007
The Computer System2007
 
The computer system2007
The computer system2007The computer system2007
The computer system2007
 
Fundamentals
FundamentalsFundamentals
Fundamentals
 
FUNDAMENTAL UNITS OF COMPUTER.pptx
FUNDAMENTAL UNITS OF COMPUTER.pptxFUNDAMENTAL UNITS OF COMPUTER.pptx
FUNDAMENTAL UNITS OF COMPUTER.pptx
 
Computer Architecture and Organization.pptx
Computer Architecture and Organization.pptxComputer Architecture and Organization.pptx
Computer Architecture and Organization.pptx
 
CSS L04 - Integral Parts of the Computer System
CSS L04 - Integral Parts of the Computer SystemCSS L04 - Integral Parts of the Computer System
CSS L04 - Integral Parts of the Computer System
 
Computer organization-and-architecture-questions-and-answers
Computer organization-and-architecture-questions-and-answersComputer organization-and-architecture-questions-and-answers
Computer organization-and-architecture-questions-and-answers
 
Components of a computer
Components of a computerComponents of a computer
Components of a computer
 

More from Waqar Ahmad

Rural Area development
Rural Area development Rural Area development
Rural Area development Waqar Ahmad
 
Mobile operater presentatioon
Mobile operater presentatioonMobile operater presentatioon
Mobile operater presentatioonWaqar Ahmad
 
Social pathology ppt0
Social pathology ppt0Social pathology ppt0
Social pathology ppt0Waqar Ahmad
 
Natural disaster
Natural disasterNatural disaster
Natural disasterWaqar Ahmad
 
Natural disaster
Natural disasterNatural disaster
Natural disasterWaqar Ahmad
 

More from Waqar Ahmad (8)

Rural Area development
Rural Area development Rural Area development
Rural Area development
 
Islamic law
Islamic lawIslamic law
Islamic law
 
Waqf
WaqfWaqf
Waqf
 
Mobile operater presentatioon
Mobile operater presentatioonMobile operater presentatioon
Mobile operater presentatioon
 
Social pathology ppt0
Social pathology ppt0Social pathology ppt0
Social pathology ppt0
 
Natural disaster
Natural disasterNatural disaster
Natural disaster
 
Natural disaster
Natural disasterNatural disaster
Natural disaster
 
Illiteracy
IlliteracyIlliteracy
Illiteracy
 

Recently uploaded

AIMA_ch3_L2-complement.ppt kjekfkjekjfkjefkjefkjek
AIMA_ch3_L2-complement.ppt kjekfkjekjfkjefkjefkjekAIMA_ch3_L2-complement.ppt kjekfkjekjfkjefkjefkjek
AIMA_ch3_L2-complement.ppt kjekfkjekjfkjefkjefkjekpavan402055
 
Dubai Call Girls O525547819 Spring Break Fast Call Girls Dubai
Dubai Call Girls O525547819 Spring Break Fast Call Girls DubaiDubai Call Girls O525547819 Spring Break Fast Call Girls Dubai
Dubai Call Girls O525547819 Spring Break Fast Call Girls Dubaikojalkojal131
 
RBS学位证,鹿特丹商学院毕业证书1:1制作
RBS学位证,鹿特丹商学院毕业证书1:1制作RBS学位证,鹿特丹商学院毕业证书1:1制作
RBS学位证,鹿特丹商学院毕业证书1:1制作f3774p8b
 
澳洲Deakin学位证,迪肯大学毕业证书1:1制作
澳洲Deakin学位证,迪肯大学毕业证书1:1制作澳洲Deakin学位证,迪肯大学毕业证书1:1制作
澳洲Deakin学位证,迪肯大学毕业证书1:1制作rpb5qxou
 
Kwin - Trang Tải App Game Kwin68 Club Chính Thức
Kwin - Trang Tải App Game Kwin68 Club Chính ThứcKwin - Trang Tải App Game Kwin68 Club Chính Thức
Kwin - Trang Tải App Game Kwin68 Club Chính ThứcKwin68 Club
 
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uk England Northern ...
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uk England Northern ...NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uk England Northern ...
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uk England Northern ...Amil Baba Dawood bangali
 
Computer Organization and Architecture 10th - William Stallings, Ch01.pdf
Computer Organization and Architecture 10th - William Stallings, Ch01.pdfComputer Organization and Architecture 10th - William Stallings, Ch01.pdf
Computer Organization and Architecture 10th - William Stallings, Ch01.pdfShahdAbdElsamea2
 
美国IUB学位证,印第安纳大学伯明顿分校毕业证书1:1制作
美国IUB学位证,印第安纳大学伯明顿分校毕业证书1:1制作美国IUB学位证,印第安纳大学伯明顿分校毕业证书1:1制作
美国IUB学位证,印第安纳大学伯明顿分校毕业证书1:1制作ss846v0c
 
Uae-NO1 Amil Baba In Karachi Kala Jadu In Karachi Amil baba In Karachi Addres...
Uae-NO1 Amil Baba In Karachi Kala Jadu In Karachi Amil baba In Karachi Addres...Uae-NO1 Amil Baba In Karachi Kala Jadu In Karachi Amil baba In Karachi Addres...
Uae-NO1 Amil Baba In Karachi Kala Jadu In Karachi Amil baba In Karachi Addres...Amil baba
 

Recently uploaded (9)

AIMA_ch3_L2-complement.ppt kjekfkjekjfkjefkjefkjek
AIMA_ch3_L2-complement.ppt kjekfkjekjfkjefkjefkjekAIMA_ch3_L2-complement.ppt kjekfkjekjfkjefkjefkjek
AIMA_ch3_L2-complement.ppt kjekfkjekjfkjefkjefkjek
 
Dubai Call Girls O525547819 Spring Break Fast Call Girls Dubai
Dubai Call Girls O525547819 Spring Break Fast Call Girls DubaiDubai Call Girls O525547819 Spring Break Fast Call Girls Dubai
Dubai Call Girls O525547819 Spring Break Fast Call Girls Dubai
 
RBS学位证,鹿特丹商学院毕业证书1:1制作
RBS学位证,鹿特丹商学院毕业证书1:1制作RBS学位证,鹿特丹商学院毕业证书1:1制作
RBS学位证,鹿特丹商学院毕业证书1:1制作
 
澳洲Deakin学位证,迪肯大学毕业证书1:1制作
澳洲Deakin学位证,迪肯大学毕业证书1:1制作澳洲Deakin学位证,迪肯大学毕业证书1:1制作
澳洲Deakin学位证,迪肯大学毕业证书1:1制作
 
Kwin - Trang Tải App Game Kwin68 Club Chính Thức
Kwin - Trang Tải App Game Kwin68 Club Chính ThứcKwin - Trang Tải App Game Kwin68 Club Chính Thức
Kwin - Trang Tải App Game Kwin68 Club Chính Thức
 
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uk England Northern ...
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uk England Northern ...NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uk England Northern ...
NO1 Certified Black Magic Specialist Expert Amil baba in Uk England Northern ...
 
Computer Organization and Architecture 10th - William Stallings, Ch01.pdf
Computer Organization and Architecture 10th - William Stallings, Ch01.pdfComputer Organization and Architecture 10th - William Stallings, Ch01.pdf
Computer Organization and Architecture 10th - William Stallings, Ch01.pdf
 
美国IUB学位证,印第安纳大学伯明顿分校毕业证书1:1制作
美国IUB学位证,印第安纳大学伯明顿分校毕业证书1:1制作美国IUB学位证,印第安纳大学伯明顿分校毕业证书1:1制作
美国IUB学位证,印第安纳大学伯明顿分校毕业证书1:1制作
 
Uae-NO1 Amil Baba In Karachi Kala Jadu In Karachi Amil baba In Karachi Addres...
Uae-NO1 Amil Baba In Karachi Kala Jadu In Karachi Amil baba In Karachi Addres...Uae-NO1 Amil Baba In Karachi Kala Jadu In Karachi Amil baba In Karachi Addres...
Uae-NO1 Amil Baba In Karachi Kala Jadu In Karachi Amil baba In Karachi Addres...
 

System Unit

  • 1. Lecture No 4 System Unit Central Processing Unit RAM
  • 2. What is the system unit? A boxlike case that houses the computer’s main hardware components
  • 3. What are the different types of system units? Desktops Notebook Personal Digital Assistant
  • 4.
  • 5. What’s inside the system unit? Motherboard (mainboard)- Large circuit board with thousands of electrical circuits Power supply- provide electric power of all parts of the system unit through main board. Cooling fan- Keeps the system unit cool Internal Speaker- Used for beeps when error is encountered Drive bays- Housing for the computer’s hard drive, floppy drive and CD-ROM / DVD-ROM drives Click N Learn
  • 6. What’s on the motherboard? Microprocessor (CPU)- Central processing unit interprets and carries out instructions given by software Memory- Enables the computer to retain information Chipset- A collection of chips that provide the switching circuitry needed to move data Input/Output buses- Pathways that allow the microprocessor to communicate with input and output devices Click N Learn
  • 7. The Motherboard Microprocessor Keyboard / Mouse Ports Printer Port Video Port PCI Slots (Peripheral Component Interconnect) Memory Slots AGP Slot (Accelerated Graphics Port) Chipset
  • 8.
  • 9. Central Processing UUnniitt ((CCPPUU)) The central processing unit, is the “brain” of computer system. Administrative section of computer. Supervises the operations of the other computer units. CPU is connected to all other parts of computer. Receives data and instructions given by user, processes accordingly and produces the output. This section not only executes the instructions but also controls all the permanent or temporary storage of data, I/O activities as well as the function of different devices attached with it. It is further divided into two parts: ◦ Control Unit (CU) ◦ Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
  • 10. What are the types of CPUs? Intel Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Cyrix Motorola (Apple) Pentium IV Pentium MMX Pentium III
  • 11. Basic Operation Performed by CPU (Control Unit ) Intel 4 basic operations: Fetch – The Control Unit takes the instruction that is store in the Main Memory. Decode - The Control Unit translates the instruction into machine language or binary code. Execute - carry out the command Store - write the result to memory
  • 12. Arithmetic and LLooggiicc UUnniitt ((AALLUU)) • Major processing unit of the CPU. • All arithmetic and logical (decision making) activities are performed in this section. • Arithmetic means all sort of addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. • The logical operations performed in this unit make it possible for computer to make decisions by comparing one item with the other.
  • 13. Arithmetic and Logic Unit Comparison (greater than, equal to, or less than) Arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division)
  • 14. Machine Cycle 4 operations of the CPU comprise a machine cycle. Instruction time– time to fetch and decode Execution time– time to execute and Store e-time i-time
  • 15. Example A Step student 1: The control enters a unit math problem fetches the into math the memory problem of from the computer memory Step 2: 3: 4: The ALU results of the math problem are stored in memory The result in memory displays on the screen of the monitor executes the math problem decodes the and sends it to the ALU
  • 16. How a CPU works Click to Control unit ALU Memory animate. Click one time only
  • 17.
  • 18. What is memory? A term for a device that enables the computer to retain (store) information.
  • 19. What are the types of memory? Volatile memory (Random Access Memory/RAM; Cache Memory; Virtual Memory)- Contents of memory are erased when power supply is turned off. Also called Temporary storage. Nonvolatile memory (Read Only Memory/ROM; Flash Memory)- Contents of memory are not erased when power is turned off. Also called Permanent storage.
  • 20. What is Random Access Memory / RAM? A type of volatile memory that stores information temporarily so that it’s available to the CPU.
  • 21. HOW DOES RAM WORK? CHIPS CONTAIN MEMORY LOCATIONS CALLED MEMORY ADDRESSES THE CPU STORES AND RETRIEVES DATA BY GOING TO THE MEMORY ADDRESSES Intel
  • 22. WEB KEYBOARD CPU RAM MONITOR CLICK TO BEGIN ANIMATION HOW RAM WORKS
  • 23. What is cache memory? Located within the CPU chip, it is the memory the microprocessor uses to store frequently used instructions and data. Faster than RAM
  • 24. What is virtual memory? Part of the hard disk is reserved as RAM When RAM modules become full the CPU accesses the hard disk to store and retrieve data Slower than RAM FUL L
  • 25.
  • 26. What are input/output (I/O) buses? Pathways that enable the CPU to communicate with input/output devices Typically the buses contain slots called expansion slots, in which expansion cards are inserted Expansion slots Expansion card
  • 27.
  • 28. What’s on the outside of the system unit? Power switch- Located on the back; turns power on/off to the computer Receptacles- Called connectors or ports; Usually located on the back; Used to plug in peripheral devices, keyboard, mouse and monitor Front panel- Contains drive bays, various buttons and lights BACK FRONT Drive bays On/off switch Reset button Indicator lights

Editor's Notes

  1. In computing, an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit that performs arithmetic and logical operations. The ALU is a fundamental building block of the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, and even the simplest microprocessors contain one for purposes such as maintaining timers. The processors found inside modern CPUs and graphics processing units (GPUs) have inside them very powerful and very complex ALUs; a single component may contain a number of ALUs.
  2. The shortest interval in which an elementary operation can take place within the processor. It is made up of some number of clock cycles. The computer can only do one thing at a time. Each action must be broken down into the most basic steps. One round of steps from getting an instruction back to getting the next instruction is called the Machine Cycle. An instruction cycle (also called fetch-and-execute cycle, fetch-decode-execute cycle, and FDX) is the time period during which a computer reads and processes a machine language instruction from its memory or the sequence of actions that the central processing unit (CPU) performs to execute each machine code instruction in a program. The name fetch-and-execute cycle is commonly used. The instruction must be fetched from main memory, and then executed by the CPU. This is fundamentally how a computer operates, with its CPU reading and executing a series of instructions written in its machine language. From this arise all functions of a computer familiar from the user's end.