Microprocessor & microcontroller by sanat


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Microprocessor & microcontroller by sanat

  1. 1. Microprocessor and Microcontroller Presented by Nitesh Kumar Singh BME 7th sem
  2. 2. Microprocessor
  3. 3. Introduction The microprocessor also known as the central processing unit, is the brain of all computers and many household and electronic devices. Multiple microprocessors, working together, are the "hearts" of datacenters, super-computers, communications products, and other digital devices.
  4. 4. History Fairchild Semiconductors (founded in 1957) invented the first IC in 1959. In 1968, Robert Noyce, Gordan Moore, Andrew Grove resigned from Fairchild Semiconductors. They founded their own company Intel (Integrated Electronics). The first microprocessor invented was of 4-bit, after that 8bit,16-bit,.32-bit & 64-bit are founded
  5. 5. 4-bit microprocessor • Intel 4004 • Intel 4040  8-bit microprocessor • Intel 8008 • Intel 8080 • Intel 8085  16-bit microprocessor • Intel 8086 • Intel 8088 • Intel 80186 & 80188 History
  6. 6. • Intel 80286  32-bit microprocessor • Intel 80386 • Intel 80486 • Intel pentium • Intel pentium pro • Intel pentium II • Intel pentium II xeon • Intel pentium III • Intel pentium IV • Intel dual core History
  7. 7. History  64-bit microprocessors • Intel core 2 • Intel core i7 • Intel core i5 • Intel core i3
  8. 8. Microprocessor (MPU) MPU (CPU) Read instructions Process binary data 8 330_01
  9. 9. Memory Storage Device Addresses Registers Major Categories Read/Write Memory (R/W) Read-only-Memory (ROM) D7 D0 9 330_01
  10. 10. Input/Output (I/O) Input Devices Switches and Keypads Provide binary information to the MPU Output devices LEDs and LCDs Receive binary information from the MPU 10 330_01
  11. 11. Microprocessor Architecture The MPU communicates with Memory and I/O using the System Bus Address bus  Unidirectional  Memory and I/O Addresses Data bus  Bidirectional  Transfers Binary Data and Instructions Control lines  Read and Write timing signals 11 330_01
  12. 12. Microprocessor – Basic concept ADDRESS BUS 32-bit / 64-bit wide CPU contains CCU ALU data registers and pointer registers CONTROL BUS Timing signals, ready signals, interrupts etc DATA BUS – bidirectional 8-bit / 16-bit / 32-bit / 128-bit Microprocessor, by-itself, completely useless – must have external peripherals to Interact with outside world
  13. 13. Microcontroller
  14. 14. Micro controller A self-contained system in which a processor, support, memory, and input/output (I/O) are all contained in a single package. A small computer system on a single IC 14
  15. 15. History of Microcontroller First used in 1975(Intel 8048) The introduction of EEPROM in 1993, allowed microcontrollers to be electrically erased The same year, Atmel introduced the first microcontroller using Flash memory.
  16. 16. Microcontroller
  17. 17. Types of microcontroller
  18. 18. Basic Features of Microcontroller Processor reset Device clocking Central processor Program and Variable Memory (RAM) I/O pins Instruction cycle timers
  19. 19. More Sophisticated Features Built-in monitor/debugger program Interrupt capability Analog I/O (PWM and variable dc I/O Serial I/O (synchronous, a synchronous) Parallel I/O (including direct interface to a master processor External memory interface
  20. 20. Basic microcontroller architecture (1/3)
  21. 21. Basic microcontroller architecture (2/3) Memory RAM ROM Store data and code CPU Mathematical and logical operation Memory units are called Register
  22. 22. Basic microcontroller architecture (3/3) • BUS – Group of 8,16 or more wires – Three type, address bus, data bus and control bus • Input-output unit – port A, port B, port C … … – Input, output and bidirectional ports • Serial communication • Timer unit • Watchdog – Automatic reset to prevent stall • Analog to Digital Converter (ADC)
  23. 23. Processor Architecture CISC Large amount of instructions each carrying out a different permutation of the same operation Functionality of the instructions is more dependent upon the processor’s designer. RISC Fundamental set of instructions More control for users to design their own operations
  24. 24. Von Neumann Architecture
  25. 25. Processor Architecture Princeton (Van Neumann) architecture Common memory for program and data Simple chip design Execution of an instruction can take multiple cycles
  26. 26. Processor Architecture Princeton architecture example Mov acc, reg Cycle 1 Read instruction Cycle 2 Read data out of Ram and put into Acc
  27. 27. Processor Architecture Harvard architecture Separate memory space program and data Instructions are executed in one cycle Easier timing of loops and delays
  28. 28. Harvard Architecture
  29. 29. Processor Architecture Harvard architecture example Mov acc, reg Cycle 1 Execute previous instruction Read “move acc, reg” Cycle 2 Execute “move acc, reg” instruction
  30. 30. Block diagram of Microcontroller
  31. 31. Memory The memory in a computer system stores the data and instructions of the programs. Adress decoder Adress bus Storage Area Data bus Other signals (Vcc,Gnd, CS, etc.)
  32. 32. Microcontrollers Memory Types Variable Area (RAM) Control Store (ROM) Program Counter Stack I/O Space (Hardware interface Registers)
  33. 33. I/O Space - Memory Mapped I/O Versus Programmed I/O Programmed I/O Special instructions such as IN and OUT are used to transfer data between a CPU register and an external device. Memory Mapped I/O Standard instructions are used to transfer data between a CPU register and an external device. I/O ports appear as memory addresses.
  34. 34. Interrupts  Instruction support for interrupts  Internal CPU handling of interrupts  Interruptible instructions 36
  35. 35. Instruction support for interrupts Processors provide two instructions, enable priority interrupt (EPI) and for disable priority interrupt (DPI). These are atomic instructions that are used for many purposes, such as buffering, within interrupt handlers, and for parameter passing.
  36. 36. Internal CPU handling of interrupts Single interrupt support Step 1: finish the currently executing macroinstruction. Step 2: save the contents of the program counter to the interrupt return location. Step 3: load the address held in the interrupt handler location into the program counter. Resume the fetch and execute sequence. 38
  37. 37. Internal CPU handling of interrupts Multiple interrupt support Step 1: complete the currently executing instruction. Step 2: save the contents of PC to interrupt return location i. Step 3: load the address held in interrupt handler location i into the PC. Resume the fetch-execute cycle.
  38. 38. Interruptible instructions  In rare instances individuation macroinstruction may need to be interruptible.  This might be the case where the instruction takes a great deal of time to complete. E.g. a memory to memory instruction that moves large amounts of data.  In most cases, such an instruction should be interruptible between blocks to reduce interrupt latency. However, interrupting this particular instruction could cause data integrity problems.
  39. 39. Advantages of Microcontroller over Microprocessor Pin count down Design time down, Board layout size down Upgrade path easier – matching between peripherals for speed Cost down – bulk purchases Reliability up Common software / hardware design environment available from manufacturer
  40. 40. Issues when using microcontroller  Two types of memory – speed issues when using  On-chip – fast, easy to access, “almost like a register”, limited amount of on-chip memory available  Off-chip – slower  Use on-chip memory in a “cache” mode (copy off-chip data to on-chip when processing data, then copy back)  External components still there  E.g. Video CODECs – need to use DMA – Direct Memory Access – so that the controller can get on with the “processing” and let something else worry about moving data in and out of the chip  Real time environment  Event driven – can’t WAIT for a device to become ready, can’t POLL to see if device is ready, interrupt handling is key  All these resources are “power hungry” and compete for resources (data busses etc) – special features
  41. 41. Difference between microprocessor & microcontroller Microprocessor Microcontroller Contains ALU, general purpose register, stack pointer, programme counter, clock timing & interrupt circuit Contains the circuitary of microprocessor & in addition it has built in ROM, I/O devices, timer & counter It has too many instructions to move the data between CPU & memory It has one or two instruction to move the data between CPU & memory It has one or two bit handling instruction It has many bit handling instruction Access time for memory & I/O devices is more Less access time for built in memory & I/O devices Microprocessor based system requires more hardware Microcontroller based system requires less hardware, reducing PCB size & increasing the reliability More flexible in design point of view Less flexible in design point of view It has single memory map for data & code It has separate memory map for data & code Less number of pins are malfunctioned More number of pins are malfunctioned
  42. 42. Thank you