CPU1STMICROPROCESSORDIFFERENTMICROPROCESSORSPARTS OFCPUPARTS OFSYSTEM UNITPARTS OFCPU INDETAILDESCRIPTIONWITHDIAGRAMWE AREGOING TOTALK ABOUT
On large machines, the CPU requires one or more printed circuitboards. On personal and small workstations, the CPU is housed in asingle chip called a microprocessor. Since the 1970s the microprocessorclass of CPUs has almost completely overtaken all other CPUimplementations.The CPU itself is an internal component of the computer. Modern CPUsare small and square and contain multiple metallic connectors or pinson the underside. The CPU is inserted directly into a CPU socket, pin sidedown, on the motherboard.Each motherboard will support only a specific type (or range) of CPU,so you must check the motherboard manufacturers specificationsbefore attempting to replace or upgrade a CPU in your computer.Modern CPUs also have an attached heat sink and small fan that godirectly on top of the CPU to help dissipate heat.CPU
Four decades ago from today — November 15, 1971 — Intel placed anadvertisement for the first single-chip CPU, the Intel 4004, in electronicnews. Designed by the fantastically-forenamed Federico Faggin, TedHoff, and Stanley Mazor, the 4004 was a 4-bit, 16-pin microprocessorthat operated at a mighty 740khz — and at roughly eight clock cyclesper instruction cycle (fetch, decode, execute), that means the chipwas capable of executing up to 92,600 instructions per second. Wecan’t find the original list price, but one source indicates that it costsaround $5 to manufacture, or $26 in todays costTHE FIRST MICROPROCESSOR
Intel Pentium Dual Core ProcessorsThe Intel Pentium processors with Intel dual-core technology deliver greatdesktop performance, low power enhancements, and multitasking foreveryday computing.Intel Dual Core i3 ProcessorsIntel Core i3 dual core processors provide 4-way multitasking capability withbuilt-in performance headroom for software upgrades.Intel Dual Core i5 ProcessorsIntel Core i5 processors deliver the next level of productivity. With Intel TurboBoost Technology this quad-core processor with 4-way multitasking capabilitydelivers extra speed whenever we need.Intel Dual Core i7 ProcessorsThe Intel Core i7 processors deliver best-in-class performance for the mostdemanding applications. This quad-core processor features 8-waymultitasking capability and additional L3 cache.
Two typical components of a CPU are the following:1.The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logicaloperations.2.The Control Unit (CU), which extracts instructions from memory anddecodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary.PARTS OF CPU (A BREIF DESCRIPTION)
PARTS OF SYSTEM UNIT AND THEIRFUNCTIONS• Motherboard – The motherboard is the main circuit board of a microcomputer. It isalso known as the mainboard or system board.• CPU – The CPU is the central electronic chip that determines the processing powerof the computer.• Memory – Memory is the part of the computer that temporarily stores applications,documents, and stem operating information.• Bus – A bus is an electronic line that allows 1s and 0s to move from one place toanother.• Expansion Slots – Expansions slots appear on the motherboard. They are sockets intowhich adapters are connected.
• Ports and Connectors – A port is a connector located on the motherboardor on a separate adapter.• Bays – A bay is a space inside the computer case where a hard drive, floppydrive or CD-ROM drive sits• Power Supply – A power supply changes normal household electricity intoelectricity that a computer can use.• Sound Components – A sound card lets a computer play and record highquality sound.
CONTROL UNIT ( CU )• The control unit coordinates the components of a computer system. It fetches thecode of all of the instructions in the program. It directs the operation of the other unitsby providing timing and control signals. All computer resources are managed by theCU. It directs the flow of data between the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and theother devices.• The control unit was historically defined as one distinct part of the 1946 referencemodel of Von Neumann architecture. In modern computer designs, the control unit istypically an internal part of the CPU with its overall role and operation unchanged.• The control unit is the circuitry that controls the flow of data through the processor,and coordinates the activities of the other units within it. In a way, it is the "brain withinthe brain", as it controls what happens inside the processor, which in turn controls therest of the computer. The examples of devices that require a control unit are CPUs andgraphics processing units (GPUs). The control unit receives external instructions orcommands which it converts into a sequence of control signals that the control unitapplies to the data path to implement a sequence of register-transferlevel operations.
ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT• In computing, an arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit thatperforms integer arithmetic and logical operations. The ALU is a fundamentalbuilding block of the central processing unit of a computer, and even thesimplest microprocessors contain one for purposes such as maintainingtimers. The processors found inside modern CPUs and graphics processingunits (GPUs) accommodate very powerful and very complex ALUs; a singlecomponent may contain a number of ALUs.• Mathematician John von Neumann proposed the ALU concept in 1945,when he wrote a report on the foundations for a new computer calledtheEDVAC. Research into ALUs remains as an important part of computerscience, falling under Arithmetic and logic structures in the ACM ComputingClassification System.