The purpose of Chapter 6 is to explain how to use varioustools to select the best candidates for thejob. The main topics we’ll cover include selection, testing,background and reference checks, ethicaland legal questions, types of tests,and work samples and simulations.
Careful selection is important for three main reasons: performance, costs, and legal obligations.First, your own performance always depends on your subordinates.Second, it is important because it’s costly to recruit and hire employees. As the opening story in this chapter indicated, Google’s hiring process was streamlined due to the amount of time taken for interviews. Time spent by employees equates to the costs of not being productive in their jobs. Third, it’s important because mismanaging hiring haslegal consequences.Person-job fit refers to identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities (KSAs), and competencies that are centralto performing the job. Then we must match the KSAs to the prospective employee’s knowledge, skills, abilities, and competencies.
A test is basically a sample of a person’s behavior. Using a test (or any selection tool) assumes the tool is both reliable and valid. A reliable test is one that yields consistent scores when a person takes two alternate forms of the test or takes the same test on two or more different occasions.Validity tells you whether the test is measuring what you think it’s supposed to be measuring. Now, let’s discuss three types of validity.Criterion validity involves demonstrating statistically there is a relationship between scores on a selection procedure and the job performance of a sample of workers. It means showing that workers who do well on the job also do well on the test.Content validity shows that the content of aselection procedure is representative of important aspects of performance on the job.Constructs representan underlying human trait or characteristic such as honesty.Construct validity demonstratesthat a selection procedure measures a construct and that the construct is important for successful job performance.
First, analyze the job and write job descriptions and job specifications. Your goal is to specify the human traits andskills (predictors) you believe are required for job performance. Next, decide how to test for the predictors and choose the tests. You usually will base this choice on experience, previous research, and “best guesses.” You likely will choose several tests and combine them intoa test battery. One option is to administer the tests to employees currently on the job. You then comparetheir test scores with their current performance; this is concurrent (at the same time)validation. Its main advantage is that data on performance are readily available. Predictive validation is the second and more dependable way to validate a test. Here you administer the test to applicants before you hire them. Then hire theseapplicants using only existing selection techniques (such as interviews). You would not use the results of the newtests. After they have been on the job for some time, measure their performanceand compare it to their earlier test scores. Next, determine if there is a significant relationship between test scores (the predictor) andperformance (the criterion). The usual way to do this is to use statistical testing.Finally, before using the test, you may want to check it by “cross-validating”—in other words, by again performing steps 3 and 4 on a new sample of employees.
Remember, validating a test is not complicated, but it does take time and careful planning. Analyze the job and write job descriptions and specifications. Then choose how to test for predictors. Let experience, previous research, and “best guesses” guide you. You likely will choose several tests and combine them intoa test battery. To administer the test properly, consider using it with your best performing employees who currently hold positions you seek to fill. Consider administering the test to applicants before you hire them. Then hire theseapplicants using your usual selection techniques (such as interviews) but not the results of the newtests. After they have been on the job for some time, measure their performanceand compare it to their earlier test scores. Next, determine if there is a significant relationship between test scores andperformance. The usual way to do this is to use statistical analysis.Finally, before using the test, you may want to check it by “cross-validating”—in other words, repeat steps 3 and 4 on a new sample of employees.
Use professionals when needed, be aware of potential biased tests, keep cost-effectiveness in mind and properly generalize validity findings when testing. Such actions will make a significant difference in using tests effectively and efficiently.
Remember that all employees and potential employees expect and have the right to privacy and security. Tests at work are designed to help both the employer and employee when it comes to promotions and job changes. Note the trend today is towards more online and computer-based test taking. Such computerized procedures can help with speed and accuracy.
Cognitive tests include testing general reasoning ability or intelligence. In addition, they include tests of specific mental abilities such as memory or inductive reasoning. Intelligence tests are tests of general intellectual abilities. They measure a range of abilities, including memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, and numerical ability.There are also measures of specific cognitiveabilities, such as deductive reasoning, verbal comprehension, memory, and numericalability.You also might need to measure motor abilities, such as finger dexterity, manual dexterity, and (if hiring pilots) reaction time.Personality tests measure basic aspects of an applicant’s personality. You should be a bit cautious about personality tests, however. In some cases, the tests may be somewhat difficult to interpret. Legal challenges also may present difficulties. Finally, some doubt exists as to whether self-reporting on a personality test can predict performance correctly. Interest inventories compare one’s interests with those of people in various occupations. And, achievement tests measure what someone has learned.
Personality tests measure basic aspects of an applicant’s personality, such as introversion, stability, and motivation. Some of these tests are projective. The psychologist presents an ambiguous stimulus (like an inkblot or clouded picture) to the person. The person then reacts to it. Other personality tests are self-reported: applicants complete them themselves.Industrial psychologists often focus on the “Big Five” personality dimensions: extraversion, emotional stability/neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. Personality traits can be predictive since they do often correlate with job performance. Other traits correlate with occupational success. For example, extraversion correlates with success in sales and management jobs. However, there are three caveats. First, projective tests are hard to interpret. An expert must analyze the test taker’s interpretations and make conclusions about his or her personality. Second, personality tests can trigger legal challenges. Third, some dispute that self-reported personality tests predict performance at all.Be aware of what you expect from a personality test and the caveats associated with it. Nonetheless, personality tests can be a valuable source of information.
With work samples, you present candidates with situations representative of the job for which they’re applying, and evaluate their responses. Let’s discuss.
One of the easiest ways to avoid hiring mistakes is to check the candidate’s background thoroughly. Doing so is cheap and (if done right) useful. There are two main reasons to check backgrounds—to verify the applicant’s information and to uncover damaging information.In terms of effectiveness, however, most managers don’t view references as very useful. This makes sense, given that few employers will talk freely about former employees for legal or ethical reasons. That is just the tip of the iceberg, however. Being sued for defamation is the real danger. First-line supervisors and managers, not just employers, are potentially at risk. As a rule, only authorized managers should provide information. Most employers at least try to verify an applicant’s position and salary with his or her current or former employer by phone. Others call the applicant’s current and previous supervisors for information.
Test of cognitive abilitiesIntelligence tests (IQ)tests of general intellectual abilities. Theymeasure a range of abilities, includingmemory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, andnumerical abilityIQ often measured with individualadministered tests like Stanford- binet test
Test of cognitive abilitiesSpecific cognitive abilitiesalso measures of specific cognitiveabilities, such as deductivereasoning, verbalcomprehension, memory, and numericalability.Psychologists often call aptitude tests, since they purport measure aptitude forthe job in question
Tests of motor and physical abilities•You also might need to measure motorabilities, such as finger dexterity, manualdexterity, and (if hiring pilots) reaction time.•Tests of physical abilities required ,includestatic strength (such as lifting weights)Dynamic strength (like pull- ups)Body coordination(as in jumping rope)Stamina
Measuring personality and interests•Personality tests measure basic aspects ofan applicant’s personality, such asintroversion, stability, and motivation.Some of these tests are projective. Thepsychologist presents an ambiguousstimulus (like an inkblot or clouded picture)to the person. The person then reacts to it.Other personality tests are self-reported:applicants complete them themselves
The „„Big Fine‟‟Extraversion: tendency to besociable, assertive, active, and to experiencepositive effect, such as energy and zealNeuroticism: tendency to exhibit pooradjustment and experience negative effect, suchas anxiety, insecurity, and hostility.Openness to experience: the disposition to beimagination, nonconforming, unconventional, and autonomous.Agreeableness : tendency to betrusting, compliant, caring, and gentle.Conscientiousness: comprised of two relatedfacts: achievement and dependability
Predicting performancePersonality traits can be predictivesince they do often correlate with jobperformance.Other traits correlate with occupationalsuccess. For example, extraversion correlateswith success in sales and managementjobs.
Caveatsthere are three caveats:First, projective tests are hard to interpret.An expert must analyze the test taker’sinterpretations and make conclusionsabout his or her personality. Second, personality tests can trigger legalchallenges. Third, some dispute that self-reportedpersonality tests predict performance at all.
Interest inventoriesInterest inventories compare one’sinterests with those of people in variousoccupationsInterest inventories have many uses ,theyare irreplaceable in career planning, sinceperson will likely do better in job thatinvolve activates in which he or sheinterested
Achievement testsachievement tests measure whatsomeone has learned.They measure your (jobknowledge) in areas likeeconomics, marketing .They are popular at work
Work samples and simulationswork samples : examinees are presented withsituations representative of the job for whichthey’re applying, and are evaluated on theirresponses.Work sample technique: predict jobperformance by requiring job candidates toperform one or more sample job tasksAdvantage:1. Measure actual job tasks2. Content3. Dose not delveinto the applicant personality4. Designed properly
Work samples and simulations•Basic procedureselect a sample of several tasks crucial toperforming the job, and then testapplicants on them•Situational judgment testspersonnel tests “…designed to assess anapplicant’s judgment regarding a situationencountered in the workplace.” they areeffective and widely used.
Work samples and simulations•Management assessment centersis a 2- to 3-day simulation in which 10 to 12candidates perform realistic managementtasks such as making presentations.Typical simulated tasks include:1. The in-basket2. Leaderless group discussion3. Management game4. Individual presentation5. Objective tests6. The interview
Work samples and simulations•Situational testingrequire examinees to respond tosituations representative of the job.•video-based testingPresent the candidate with severalonline or pc- based video situation eachfollowed by one or more multiple –choice question
Work samples and simulations•Computerized multimedia assessmentEmployers increasingly use computerizedmultimedia candidate assessment tools.allows speed and flexibility in the testingprocess•Miniature job training and evaluationTraining candidates to perform several ofjob tasks , then evaluating candidatesperformance prior to hire
Work samples and simulations•Realistic job previewspresent the candidate with detailed and highly realisticinformation about the job and the environment.•Testing techniques for managersYou may find that, even in large companies, when itcomes to screening employees, you’re on your own.The human resource department may work with youto design and administer screening tests.However, HR may be able to do little more than therecruiting, prescreening, background checks, andarrange for drug and physical exams.
Background InvestigationsAims to: 1) Verify applicant‟s Info. 2) Uncovered damaging Info.. 3) avoid hiring mistakes 4) cost effectiveKind of info.: Date of prior employment. country criminal record education . Credit record ……How deep should be: Depend on position to fill &periodically credit check.How useful : Its not so useful most manger view
Why backgroundInvestigation is not useful •To give employee anther chance1 •To get rid off employee2 Defamation •Legal concerns Privacy3
Defamation Vs Privacy Defamation Privacy• False Info. • True Info.• Harm the reputation • Embarrassing• Preventing others • Embarrass to deal from dealing with with others
How to Avoid legal Dangers• Only authorized manager provide info.• Do not volunteer info.• Avoid vague statement• Do not answer trap questions• Establish policies for providing info. Not disclosing relevant info. Can be dangerous
How to Make Background Check More Valuable• Explicit authorization background check statement.• Rely on telephone references.• Persistence and attentiveness to red flags improves results.• Compare the application to resume• Ask open ended question(info. Going to use, arrest info is highly suspect, specific, job related, confidential) .• Use reference to reach other references
Pre-employment Information service Use with CautionComplying with EEO law State & federal law How to avoid that • Disclosure and authorization • Certification • Providing copies of reports • Notice after action.
The Polygraph Government Private• National defense • Security person• Nuclear power • Person access to• Access to highly drugs classified info. • Economic loss• FBI investigation ( standers)
Economic loss investigation ( standers) • Show that suffered an economic loss • Show that the employ had access to property • Have reasonable suspicion • Give employee details of investigation before test
Honesty Testing• Ask blunt question• Listen rather than talk• Do a credit check• Check all employment and personal reference• Use paper and pencil test• Test of drugs• Establish search policy Invasion of privacy
Substance Abuse Screening• Test before hire• Test after hire What to do if an employee test positive ?•Do not hire and tell why•Law with employer in sensitive jobs
Complying With Immigration Law• Show a document that prove the personal ID and employment eligibility• Show a document that prove the personal , along with a second document showing the person’s employment eligibility, such as work permit
How to protect yourself from immigration lows• Use E-Verify• Systematic background checks• Pre employment screening( drug, criminal, references)• Verify social security number• Verify all applicant documents not only suspicious