Recruitment, Selection, Process, Methods And Steps


Published on


Recruitment, Selection, Process, Methods And Steps

  2. 2. Recruitment:- Organizational activities that provide a pool of applicants for the purpose of filling job openings. It is a process of searching for prospective employees . Stimulating & Encouraging them to apply for jobs in the org.
  3. 3. Factors Governing Recruitment Internal Factors  Recruitment Policy of the Org  Size of the org & the Number of Employees Employed  Cost Involved in Recruitment  Growth & Expansion Plans of the Org. External Factors  Supply & Demand of Specific Skills in the Market  Political & Legal considerations such as Reservations of jobs for reserved Catagories  Company’s Image Perception by the Job Seekers.
  4. 4. Sources Of Recruitment: Present Employees Unsolicited Applicants Educational and Professional Instituitions Public Employment Offices Private employment Agencies Employee Referrals Help wanted Advertising Walk-Ins
  5. 5. Selection: Is the process of discovering the qualifications & characteristics of the job applicant in order to establish their likely suitability for the job position. A good selection requires a methodical approach to the problem of finding the best matched person for the job
  6. 6. Selection Process 1. Preliminary Interview 2. Selection Tests 3. Employment Interview 4. Reference and Background Analysis 5. Physical Examination 6. Job Offer 7. Employment Contract
  7. 7. Use of psychological test inselection
  8. 8. Why choose testing Objectivity – good psychological tests are standardized on a large sample and provide normative data across a wide range of demographics and age cohorts. Well selected tests will allow you to demonstrate talents that may otherwise not be evident. Validity – psychometric tests are a more valid method of assessment than interviews, academic achievement & reference checks, and when utilized in combination (for example in an assessment Centre) are highly predictive of future job performance. Cost – the cost of selection errors is large for both the employer and the employee. Psychometric tests help to minimize costs while maximizing potential fit between the candidate and the job.
  9. 9. Brief history of tests Comparisons of human attributes and differences have a very long history. Hippocrates – (400BC) attempted to theoretically define four basic temperament types: sanguine (optimistic), melancholic (depressed), choleric (irritable) and phlegmatic (listless and sluggish). Galton - (19th century) measured human individual differences in terms of ability to discriminate between stimuli. Binet - devised tests to measure differenced in specific human abilities. Now numerous tests measure specific abilities, strengths and competencies.
  10. 10.  Army Alpha and Beta tests (WW1) – developed out of an urgent need to select personnel with specific aptitudes for training in specialist and strategic roles. Today – Psychological tests widely used in selection practices.
  11. 11. Psychological tests (definition anddimensions) A selection procedure measure the personality characteristics of applicants that are related to future job performance. Personality tests typically measure one or more of five personality dimensions: Extroversion, Emotional stability, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and Openness to experience.
  12. 12. Types Of Psychological Tests Psychological tests fall into several categories: Aptitude tests: It refers to potentiality that a person has to profit from certain kind of training. Achievement tests: It helps to measure the proficiency that a person has been able to achieve. Intelligence tests: It attempts to measure the intelligence—that is, basic ability to understand the world around you, assimilate its functioning, and apply this knowledge to enhance the quality of your life. Or, as Alfred Whitehead said about intelligence, “it enables the individual to profit by error without being slaughtered by it.”[1] Intelligence, therefore, is a measure of a potential, not a measure of what you’ve learned (as in an achievement test), and so it is supposed to be independent of culture. IQ=Mental Age/Actual Age*100 For example, a six year old child with a mental age of 6 would have an IQ of 100 (the “average” IQ score); a six year old child with a mental age of 9 would have an IQ of 150. Today, intelligence is measured according to individual deviation from standardized norms, with 100 being the average.
  13. 13. Cont… Neuropsychological tests: It attempts to measure deficits in cognitive functioning (i.e., your ability to think, speak, reason, etc.) that may result from some sort of brain damage, such as a stroke or a brain injury. Occupational tests : It attempts to match your interests with the interests of persons in known careers. The logic here is that if the things that interest you in life match up with, say, the things that interest most school teachers, then you might make a good school teacher yourself. Personality tests : It attempts to measure your basic personality style and are most used in research or forensic settings to help with clinical diagnoses. Two of the most well- known personality tests are 1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), or the revised MMPI-2, composed of several hundred “yes or no” questions, and 2. Rorschach (the “inkblot test”), composed of several cards of inkblots—you simply give a description of the images and feelings you experience in looking at the blots. Specific clinical tests :It attempts to measure specific clinical matters, such as your current level of anxiety or depression.
  14. 14. USES OF TESTS Evaluation of right candidate Proper selection of candidate Identifying the candidates personality
  15. 15. Places Where PsychologicalTesting Is Used Colleges or Educational Institutes Army, Navy etc. Bank Airlines Companies Schools So, now a days in most of the places candidates are evaluated on the basis of the psychological test.
  16. 16. Advantages can result in lower turnover due if applicants are selected for traits that are highly correlated with employees who have high longevity within the organization can reveal more information about applicants abilities and interests can identify interpersonal traits that may be needed for certain jobs
  17. 17. Disadvantages difficult to measure personality traits that may not be well defined applicants training and experience may have greater impact on job performance than applicants personality responses by applicant may may be altered by applicants desire to respond in a way they feel would result in their selection lack of diversity if all selected applicants have same personality traits cost may be prohibitive for both the test and interpretation of results lack of evidence to support validity of use of personality tests
  18. 18. Tips Select traits carefully : An employer that selects applicants with high degree of assertiveness, independence, and self-confidence may end up excluding females significantly more than males which would result in adverse impact. Select tests carefully: Any tests should have been analyzed for (high) reliability and (low) adverse impact. Not used exclusively: Personality tests should not be the sole instrument used for selecting applicants. Rather, they should be used in conjunction with other procedures as one element of the selection process. Applicants should not be selected on the basis of personality tests alone.
  19. 19. Types of Interviews  Structured  Unstructured  Mixed  Behavioral  Stressful
  20. 20. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVESELECTION  Perception  Fairness  Validity  Reliability  Pressure
  21. 21. Stages In Selection Process:• Stage 1: Screening Of Application Forms.• Stage 2: Tests--Intelligence, Aptitude, Technical, Psychometric, Ability, Interest.• Stage 3: Selection Interview.• Stage 4: Selection Decision
  23. 23. Steps Of Recruitment Process Decision is made as to whether recruitment is necessary Job description is prepared Specification is prepared Plans are made on how and when to advertise Applicants are short-listed References are requested Candidates are invited for interviews and selection tests The successful candidate is offered the job and signs the contract of employment
  27. 27. Difficulties in Recruitment process Talent Acquistion. Expensive. Time Constraint. Retention of employees. Managing low attrition rate. Budget.
  28. 28. Challenges in Recruitent &Selection: Talent Shortage Attrition Rate Reservations and other Gov. Policies Remoteness of Job Scrutinity of employee’s credentials
  29. 29. Basic Diff. Between Recruitmentand Selection: Recruitment- searching for and attracting applicants qualified to fill vacant positions Selection- Analyzing the qualifications of applicants and deciding upon those who show the most potential
  30. 30. Role of recruitment consultants
  31. 31. What is Consultant A consultant (from the Latin consultare means "to discuss" ) is a professional who provides advice in a particular area of expertise such as accountancy, the environment, technology, law, human resources, marketing, medicine, finance, public affairs, communication, engineering, graphic design, or waste management. A consultant is self-employed or works for a consultancy firm, usually with multiple and changing clients.
  32. 32. Types of Consultant Environmental consultants. Technology Consultant. Human Resource Consultant Marketing Consultant Law Consultant Medicine Consultant Finance Consultant and many more….
  33. 33. What Is Recruitment Consultant "Recruitment consultants work with companies to help them find the right people for their positions. They also work for candidates to find a role that is suitable for them. The key skill of a recruitment consultant is to meet the needs of both the client and the candidate to ensure the best mutual fit; this is not simply a case of skills matching but of truly understanding the business and its culture, as well as the aspirations of the candidate."
  34. 34. Recruitment Consultant Activities A recruitment consultant is responsible for helping employer clients to recruit staff for job vacancies. These vacancies can be permanent or temporary roles. Recruitment consultants develop an understanding of their clients requirements, then identify potential staff (candidates) through existing contacts or by advertising roles/headhunting (executive search). They assess candidates skills through interviews, tests and background checks, then make recommendations to their client. Consultants also provide advice to both clients and candidates on salary levels, training requirements and career opportunities. Developing solid relationships with clients is integral to the role..
  35. 35. » Typical work activities A recruitment consultants role is demanding and diverse. using marketing and business knowledge to extend company contacts. identifying and evaluating employers recruitment needs. negotiating terms of employment. interviewing potential candidates clarifying and negotiating salary and benefits relating to the role. headhunting - identifying and approaching suitable candidates. monitoring candidates once placed. collecting feedback from employers on the performance of candidates who have previously been placed with them. maintaining current records and personal statistics for review against performance targets. documenting clients details and vacancy requirements in a brief.
  36. 36. What makes a Good Recruitment Consultant To be successful in the recruitment industry you must: be ambitious and confident be goal orientated have good interpersonal and communications skills be a good team player be able to handle multiple priorities be tenacious be a problem solver be able to work to deadlines and targets enjoy responsibility and working in a high-pressure environment have a good sense of humour
  37. 37. Opportunity as a Recruitment Consultant A chance to work with a large successful organization. An opportunity to develop within the Recruitment Industry with one of the most supportive and resourceful organizations. A role that could provide you with a solid future within Recruitment. A competitive annual salary and excellent commission packages Fantastic training and mentoring opportunities
  38. 38. Challenges Faced By Recruitment Consultant Develop expertise in those strategic areas, where the consultants have not developed expertise when firm is focused and the consultant is a generalist. Reinforce and update knowledge and skills in the areas of focus of the firm when the firm is focused and the consultant is an expert. Provide the consultants exposure to areas where they do not have expertise in a non focused firm with expert consultant. Here, the long-term objectives of the consulting firm is to operate in a wide range of sections/functions. Expose the consultants to all upcoming sectors/functions in a non-focused firm with generalist consultant . Three key areas which every consultant should be well conversant 1)knowledge and skills related to Man-management. 2)Business development, and Quality assurance. 3) evaluation technique.
  39. 39.  To maintain Effectiveness and Efficiency. Innovation and Quality Assurance are two key elements in the success of any consulting firm. Maintain the customer relationship.
  40. 40. Advantages  Fast Response  Broad customer base in private and public sectors  Improved attraction and recruitment strategies  Identifies and prepares potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates.  Higher succession rate of the selection process by reducing the number of visibility under-qualified or overqualified job applicants.
  41. 41. Disadvantages  Non -ethical strategies.  It wont always work.  Cost.
  42. 42. What are Advertisements….. 42
  43. 43. ADVERTISEMENT What is advertisement? Advertising is a one-way communication whosepurpose is to inform potential customers about productsand services and how to obtain themFor Recruitment –To provide information that will attract a significant pool of qualified candidates and discourage unqualified ones from applying. 43
  44. 44. Various kinds of AdvertisementMedia (E.g. billboards, printed flyers , radio, web banners, web popups, human directorial, magazines, newspapers, posters, Social Networking Sites)1. Above the line Media: Press, TV, Outdoor, posters, and radio ( recognized ad agencies get commission from these media)2. Below-the-line Media: Direct mail, Sale Promotion, merchandizing, exhibitions 44
  45. 45. Various kinds of Advertisement Price Advertisement Covert Advertisement Local Service advertisement Business to Business Advertisement Direct Response Advertisement 45
  46. 46. Medium for RecruitmentAdvertising Television (e.g. News pop-ups, Commercial ads like Accenture & many more) Radio (e.g. Radio … ) Magazines (e.g. Business Today, Winning Edge, Human capital…) Newspapers (e.g. Arabnews, Business accents, Times classified etc..) Internet (e.g. Web portal like,,,,…) Direct Mail 46
  47. 47. Success Factors Customer realization of Product. Quality of a Product is determined. Exposes company’s Culture Ramp Up Awareness of Brand among masses and hence increase Demand 47
  48. 48. Use of Advertisements inRecruitment Process. Creating awareness of Job Opportunities in the specified field of Interest. Finding Desirable Candidates Keeping an competitive edge over competitors as more advertisements attracts best of the job seekers. Advertisement is the fastest way to spread recruitment hiring information. 48
  49. 49. Evaluation and Effects Newspapers  Advantages – Short lead time, flexible, reach large audience, community prestige, intense coverage, reader control of exposure, coordination with national advertising, merchandising service, segment consumer by geography.  Disadvantages -- short life span, may be expensive relative to other media, hasty reading, poor reproduction, lack of creativity. 49
  50. 50.  Radio  Advantages – audio capacity, short lead time, low cost relative to other media, reach demographic and geographic segmented audience, reach large audience.  Disadvantages – don’t have visual capacity, fragmented and inflexible, temporary nature of message. Magazines and Journals  Advantages -- selectivity for demographic and geographic segments, high in quality reproduction, lasts as long as magazine is kept, prestigious advertisement is credibility of magazine is high, extra services, issue may be read by more than one person.  Disadvantages – long lead time, lack of flexibility in gaining attention, often limited control over location of advertisement. 50
  51. 51.  Television  Advantages -- impact mass coverage, repetition, flexibility in getting attention of consumer, prestige, visual and audio capabilities, short lead time.  Disadvantages -- temporary nature of message, high cost relative to other media, high mortality rate for commercials, evidence of public distrust, lack of selectivity, hard to target customer, requires production specialists 51
  52. 52.  Outdoor Advertising  Advantages – inexpensive relative to other media, quick communication of simple ideas, repetition of exposure to customers, ability to promote products available for sale nearby  Disadvantages -- brevity of the message, short exposure time, cannot target customer, public concern over aesthetics. 52
  53. 53.  Internet & Direct Mail  Advantages – flexibility in reaching target audience, short lead time, intense coverage, flexibility of format, complete information, easy to personalize  Disadvantages -- high cost per person, dependency on quality of mailing list, consumer resistance, may be considered as junk mail, may be difficult and expensive to access mailing lists 53
  54. 54. What is induction? Induction is process meant to help the new employee to settle down quickly into the job by becoming familiar with the people, the surroundings, the job, the firm and the industry. Induction is the process of acquainting the new employees with the existing culture and practices of the new organization. 54
  55. 55. What is induction for? To sort out all anxiety of recruited person. To ensure the effective integration of staff. History and introduction of founders. Understand the standards and rules (written and unwritten) of the organization. Introduction to the company/department and its personnel structure. 55
  56. 56. Contd..... Relevant personnel policies, such as training, promotion and health and safety. To clear doubtful situation between new employee and existing one. 56
  57. 57. Who needs special attention? Institute leavers. People returning to work after a break. Disabled employees. Management trainees. Employees with language difficulties. 57
  58. 58. Induction ProgrammeBefore designing induction programme firm need todecide four strategic choice. Formal Informal Individual Collective Serial Disjunctive Investiture Divestiture 58
  59. 59. Who is responsible for theinduction process? HR manager Health and safety advisor Training officer Department or line manager Supervisor Employee representative 59
  60. 60. Organisational HR Issues Representative Employee Benefits Introduction Special Anxiety Reduction To Placement Seminars Specific Job Location and Supervisor DutiesFormal Induction Programme 60
  61. 61. Points while implementingInduction Identify the business objectives and desired benefits. Secure early commitment Agree roles and responsibilities of different players in the process Think of induction as a journey 61
  62. 62. Contd..... Engage staff prior to joining Have clear learning objectives for training sessions Respect the induction needs of different audiences Keep induction material up to date 62
  63. 63. Evaluation Feedback from whom who completed induction Retention rates Exit interviews Monitoring queries 63
  64. 64. Trends in Induction Chalk and talk session Questionnaire From practicalities to discussion about culture Using technologies like e-learning Team building exercise 64
  65. 65. Problem in induction To keep it simple Supervisor is not trained enough Employee get so much of information in short span of time Large no. of forms Employee is thrown into action too soon Wrong perception develop in short span 65
  66. 66. Advantages of Good Induction  Employee retention.  Create good impression  It creates good adhesion  It take less time to familiarise  Less turnover ratio  Increase productivity  No chaos  Cost reduction 66
  67. 67. In absence of Induction Uneasiness of new employee in the environment of the org. Poor integration in team Low morale Loss of productivity Failure to work with their highest potential Company image goes down 67
  68. 68. Contd..... Leads to Early leaving. It leads many problems like:- a) High employee turnover b) Lowering the morale of remaining staff c) Additional cost for re-recruiting d) Damage the company reputation e) Affect new recruitment f) Leaver’s record is affected 68
  69. 69. Mohsin Azad